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SNOW/SAND/DUST CONSIDERATIONS:


  1. Termination to an OGE hover. Terminate to a stationary OGE hover over the touchdown area. This approach requires OGE power and may be used for most snow landings and some sand/dust landings. Slowly lower the collective and allow the aircraft to descend. The descent may be vertical or with forward movement. The rate of descent will be determined by the rate in which the snow/sand/dust is blown from the intended landing point. During the descent, remain above the snow/sand/dust cloud until it dissipates and the touchdown point can be seen. Both crewmembers should be focused outside the cockpit. Be prepared to execute a take off.

  2. Termination to the surface with forward speed. This termination may be made to an improved landing surface or suitable area with minimal ground references. Once the appropriate approach angle is intercepted, adjust the collective as necessary to establish and maintain the angle. As the apparent rate of closure appears to increase, progressively reduce the rate of descent and closure to arrive at the touchdown area slightly above effective translational lift. Maintain the minimum rate of closure that ensures that the snow/sand/dust cloud remains behind the pilot's station. When the skids contact the snow/ground, lower the collective and allow the aircraft to settle. Apply slight aft cyclic at touch down to prevent snagging the skid toes. The P should keep the P* informed of the location of the snow/sand/dust cloud. Be prepared to execute a go round.

  3. Termination to the surface with little or no forward speed. This termination should be made to landing areas where slopes, obstacles, or unfamiliar terrain preclude a landing with forward speed. It is not recommended when new or powder snow or fine dust is present because whiteout/brownout conditions may occur. The termination is made directly to a reference point on the ground with no forward speed. The P should keep the P* informed of the location of the snow/sand/dust cloud. Be prepared to execute a go round.

  1. When landing in deep snow, the aircraft skids may settle at different rates and the aircraft will normally terminate in a tail low attitude.

  2. Hovering OGE reduces available ground references and may increase the possibility of spatial disorientation. Be prepared to transition to instruments and execute an instrument takeoff if ground reference is lost.

  3. At night, use of the search light may cause spatial disorientation while in blowing snow/sand/dust.
  1. CONFINED AREA CONSIDERATIONS: An approach to the forward one-third of the area will reduce the approach angle and minimize power requirements. During the approach, continue to determine the suitability of the area. If required execute a go-around prior to descending below barriers or into shadows. Both crewmembers should be focused outside the aircraft.

  2. MOUNTAIN/PINNACLE/RIDGELINE CONSIDERATIONS: Select an approach angle, based on the wind, density altitude, gross weight, and obstacles. During the approach, continue to determine the suitability of the intended landing point. Reduce airspeed to slightly above effective translational lift until the rate of closure can be determined. Before reaching the near edge of the landing area, the descent should be stopped and the rate of closure slowed. At this point, decide whether to continue the approach or make a go-around.

  3. TRAINING AND EVALUATION REQUIREMENTS:


    1. Training. Training will be conducted in the aircraft. 60 knots is recommended for entry airspeed.

    2. Evaluation. Evaluation will be conducted in the aircraft. 60 knots is recommended for entry airspeed.
  4. REFERENCES: Appropriate common references.


  1. 1062

    1. PERFORM SLOPE OPERATIONS
  1. CONDITIONS: In an OH-58D helicopter.

  2. STANDARDS: Appropriate common standards plus the following:


    1. Select a suitable landing area.

    2. Do not exceed aircraft slope limits.

    3. Maintain heading 5 degrees.

    4. Maintain drift within ±1 foot.

    5. Perform a smooth, controlled descent and touchdown.

    6. Perform a smooth, controlled ascent.
  3. DESCRIPTION:


    1. Crew actions.

          1. The P* will remained focused outside the aircraft. He is responsible for clearing the aircraft and obstacle avoidance. The P* will announce his intent to perform a slope operation. He should be aware of the common tendency to over control the aircraft during slope landings.

          2. The P will assist in clearing the aircraft. He will provide adequate warning of obstacles, drift, or altitude changes. He will assist in confirming the suitability of the intended landing area. The P will announce when his attention is focused inside the cockpit.

    2. Procedures.

          1. Landing. Select a suitable area for slope operations that appears to not exceed slope limitations. The degree of the slope should not be so great as to create a need for large cyclic inputs. If possible, orient the aircraft into the wind. Select a reference to determine the roll angle during the execution of the maneuver. Announce the initiation of the slope landing. Smoothly lower the collective until the upslope skid contacts the ground. Adjust the cyclic to maintain the aircraft in a level attitude while maintaining heading with the pedals. Coordinate the collective and cyclic to control the rate of attitude change to lower the downslope skid to the ground. With the entire weight of the aircraft on the ground, simultaneously lower the collective and neutralize the cyclic. If cyclic or aircraft slope limits are reached before the aircraft is firmly on the ground, return the aircraft to a hover. Select a new area where the slope is less steep and attempt another slope landing.

          2. Takeoff. Before takeoff, announce initiation of an ascent. Smoothly raise the collective and apply the cyclic into the slope to maintain the position of the upslope skid. Continue to raise the collective, maintain heading with the pedals, and simultaneously adjust the cyclic to level the aircraft laterally. As the aircraft leaves the ground, adjust the cyclic to accomplish a vertical ascent to a hover with minimum drift.

  1. Before conducting slope operations, the crew must understand dynamic rollover characteristics.
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