CONFINED AREA CONSIDERATIONS: Determine a suitable axis and path for a go-around. For multiaircraft operations, determine the number of aircraft that the area can safely accommodate at one time.
SNOW/SAND/DUST CONSIDERATIONS: Be prepared for possible whiteout/brownout upon entry into the LZ/PZ/HA. Evaluate surface conditions for the likelihood of the using unit encountering a whiteout/brownout and IMC recovery. Determine a suitable path for a go-around.
MOUNTAIN/PINNACLE/RIDGELINE CONSIDERATIONS: When practical, position the aircraft on the windward side of the area. Evaluate suitability of the area, paying particular attention to density altitude and winds. Determine a suitable path for a go-around. Operations at high altitudes are more likely to expose the crews to visual detection and radar and heat seeking weapons.
STANDARDS: Appropriate common standards plus the following:
Select a landing area (analyze suitability, barriers, wind, approach path, touchdown point and takeoff direction).
Maintain a constant approach angle clear of obstacles to desired point of termination (hover or touchdown).
Maintain rate of closure appropriate for the conditions.
Maintain ground track alignment with the landing direction 10 degrees.
Align aircraft with landing direction below 50 feet or as appropriate for obstacle avoidance.
Perform a smooth and controlled termination to a hover or to the ground.
Select departure path for go-around during approach.
Crew actions. The P* will remain focused outside the aircraft. He is responsible for clearing the aircraft and obstacle avoidance. He will announce when he begins the approach, whether the approach will terminate to a hover or to the ground, the intended point of landing, and any deviation to the approach.
The P will confirm the suitability of the area, assist in clearing the aircraft, and provide adequate warning of traffic or obstacles. He will acknowledge any intent to deviate from the approach. He will announce when his attention is focused inside the cockpit.
Procedures. Evaluate winds. Select an approach angle that allows obstacle clearance while descending to the desired point of termination. Once the termination point is sighted and the approach angle is intercepted (on base or final), adjust the collective as necessary to establish and maintain a constant angle. Maintain entry airspeed until the rate of closure appears to be increasing. Above 50-feet AGL, maintain ground track alignment and the aircraft in trim. Below 50-feet AGL, align the aircraft with the landing direction. Progressively decrease the rate of descent and rate of closure until reaching the termination point (hover, touchdown), or until a decision is made to perform a go-around.
To a hover. The approach to a hover may terminate with a full stop over the planned termination point, or continue movement to transition to hovering flight. Progressively decrease the rate of descent and rate of closure until an appropriate hover is established over the intended termination point.
To the surface.To the surface. Proceed as for an approach to a hover, except determine an approach angle that allows obstacle clearance while descending to the desired point of touchdown. (The decision to terminate to the surface with zero speed or with forward movement will depend on the aircraft's loading or environmental conditions.) Touchdown with minimum lateral movement. After surface contact, ensure that the aircraft remains stable until all movement stops. Smoothly lower the collective to the full down position and neutralize the pedals and cyclic.
Go-around. Perform a go-around if a successful landing is doubtful or if visual reference with the intended termination point is lost. Once climb is established, reassess the situation and develop a new course of action.
Airspeed indications are unreliable below 20 knots.
Steep approaches can place the aircraft in potential settling-with-power conditions. The crew must be familiar with diagnosing and correcting these situations.
The crew should make the decision to go around if visual contact with the touchdown point is lost or if it becomes apparent that it will be lost. Hover OGE power may be required in certain situations. Evaluate power required versus power available.
If a VAPI system is used during a VMC approach the crew must determine the type of system used and follow the instructions described in the flight information handbook (FIH) for course and altitude indications.
MUD/MUSKEG/TUNDRA CONSIDERATIONS: Select a suitable area and terminate the approach to a 10-foot hover over the intended touchdown point. Begin a vertical descent until the aircraft touches down. Check aircraft stability while lowering the collective. If the area is suitable, lower the collective to the full down position and neutralize the cyclic and pedals.
NIGHT OR NVG CONSIDERATIONS:
Altitude, apparent ground speed, and rate of closure are difficult to estimate at night. The rate of descent during the final 100 feet should be slightly less than during the day to avoid abrupt attitude changes at low altitudes. After establishing the descent, reduce airspeed to approximately 40 to 45 knots until apparent ground speed and rate of closure appear to be increasing. Progressively decrease the rate of descent and forward speed until termination.
Surrounding terrain or vegetation may decrease contrast and degrade depth perception during the approach. Before descending below obstacles, determine the need for artificial lighting.
Use proper scanning techniques to avoid spatial disorientation.
Hazards, especially wires are more difficult to detect at night. Thorough premission planning and constant vigilance is required.