Table a list of dog remains depicted in Figure Boarded boxes in each geographic region (listed in bold above each section) represent all the dogs included in specific pie charts present in each region. Pie Location



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Japan

Japan

Natsushima Shell (Kanagawa Prefecture)

9,300

complete skeleton

(50)

(50)

Shigehara and Hongo (51) report that dog remains have been found in 282 sites (including Torihama and Shigehara), 22 of which date to the earliest Jomon phase.

Japan

Japan

Kamikuroiwa (Ehime)

8,500 - 8,000

complete skeleton

(50)

(50)

 

Pakistan

Pakistan

Harappa

4,600

complete skeleton

(52)

(52)

 

Central China

China

Jiahu

9,000 - 7,800

complete skeleton co-burial with humans

(53)

(53)

 

Northern China

China

Nanzhuangtou

12,790 – 10,747

>31 fragments including a complete mandible

(54, 55)

(56)

 

ISLAND SOUTHEAST ASIA, AUSTRALIA

 

 







 

Australia

Australia

Madura Cave

3,545 - 3,355

unspecified remains

(57)

(57)

 

Australia

Australia

Fromm's Landing

3,091 - 2,909

complete skeleton

(58)

(58)

 

Philippines

Philippines, Northern Luzon

Nagasabaran, Luzon

2,500

Complete skeleton – burial

(59)

(60)

 

Philippines

Philippines, Batanes Islands

Savidug, Sabtang Island

2,500 - 2,300

3 fragments: a basioccipital, right scapula and right mandibular condyle

(61)

(62)

Transverse cut marks on the neck of the mandibular condyle suggests butchery, possibly for consumption.

Taiwan

Taiwan

Nanguanli

4,800

Complete skeletons from burials

(63)

(63)

 

Lesser Sundas

Indonesia, Timor

Matja Kuru 2

3,375 - 3,076

complete skeleton

(64)

(64)

 

Mollucas Islands

Indonesia, N. Moluccas

Uattamdi site, Kayoa Island

3,500

1 lower molar

(65)

(66)

Bellwood (67) states that dog remains are found in the region beginning about 3500-3000 cal BP, always in association with evidence of rice agriculture. This site in particular has evidence of human occupation before dogs are introduced.

Micronesia

Federated States of Micronesia

Fais Island

1,780 - 600

45 tooth and bone fragments

(68)

(68)

Intoh (68)states that similarly aged dog remains are found on several other Micronesian sites including Nukuoro Atoll and Fefan Island in Chuuk.

New Guinea

Papua New Guinea

Taurama

2,500 - 2,000

complete skeleton

(69)

(69)

Bulmer (69) reports that contemporaneous dog remains have been found at several sites from this time period including Oposisi, and Mailu 01.

AFRICA

 

 

 

 







 

Northern Egypt

Egypt

Merimde Beni-Salame (Nile Delta)

6,800 - 6,520

20 dog bones

(70)

(70)

This multi-layered site (Layers I to V) produced 514 dog bones and a few remains from jackals. Layer I, the oldest layer dating to the first half of the 7th millennium cal BP produced 20 bones, Layer II is particularly rich in finds (n = 162).

Southern Egypt

Egypt

Nabta Playa and Bir Kaseiba

6,500 - 6,000

17 dog remains

(71)

(72)

According to Gautier (71) dogs may have been present at Nabta Playa during the Middle Neolithic (c. 7,000-6,500 BP), when livestock husbandry was also practised. Given this possibility, four postcranial remains have been tentatively attributed to dogs.

Central Sudan

Sudan

Esh Shaheinab

5,600 - 5,000

1 upper jaw and 7 lower jaws

(73)

(73)

Gautier (74) states that there are no claims for dogs in Early Neolithic sites, but that several sites in the Middle Neolithic possess dog remains that were likely brought into North Africa alongside domestic sheep and goats.

Central Sudan

Sudan

El Kadero

5,280 - 5,030

coprolites

(75)

(75)

The presence of cows and goats and the evidence of a pastoralist community at this site suggest that the carnivore coprolites are more likely to be derived from dogs than jackals.

Central Sudan

Sudan

El Kadada

5,645 - 5,491 & 5,466 - 5,170

Several complete skeletons in burials

(76)

(76)

Dog remains are found in many different contexts at the site.

Niger

Niger

Chin Tafidet

4,619 - 4,141

3 complete skeletons

(77)

(77)

 

Nigeria

Nigeria

Gajiganna A

3,200 - 3,000

2 scapula, 2 femur, 1 calcaneus, 1 phalanx

(78)

(78)

Numerous additional dog remains have been excavated from early layers at this site.

Nigeria

Nigeria

Gajiganna B1

3,500 - 3,000

1 ulna, 1 femur, 1 tibia

(78)

(78)

Numerous additional dog remains have been excavated from early layers at this site.

West North Africa

Burkina Faso

Oursi

2,000 - 1,500

1 maxilla

(78)

(78)

These two sites are the earliest of several sites in Burkina Faso. All of the later sites possess numerous dog remains.

West North Africa

Burkina Faso

Oursi village

2,000 - 1,500

1 metatarsal

(78)

(78)

These two sites are the earliest of several sites in Burkina Faso. All of the later sites possess numerous dog remains.

West North Africa

Mali

Jenne-Jeno

2,250 - 1,600

1 M2, 3 distal radius

(79)

(79)

 

Central Africa

Uganda

Ntusi

1,218 - 845

complete skeleton

(80)

(80)

 

North S Africa

Zambia

Isamu Pati Mound

1,050 - 1,000

7 dog remains, skulls and limb bones

(81)

(81)

 

North S Africa

Botswana

Commando Kop

1,100 - 900

1 fragment

(82)

(83)

Three publications (82, 84, 85). state that domestic cattle, sheep and goat are common in the first few centuries AD in sites across this region. This evidence suggests that the lack of early dog remains is not exclusively taphonomic, though Voigt (86) suggests that the acidic soil may explain the dearth of sites before 600 AD.

North S Africa

Botswana

Taukome

1,200 - 1,000

2 fragments

(85)

(85)

 

South S Africa

South Africa, Natal

Ntshekane

1,200 (no earlier than)

Left mandible, maxilla and skull fragments

(82)

(82)

 

South S Africa

South Africa, Natal

Wosi

1,400-1,350

1 fragment

(86)

(87)

 

South S Africa

South Africa, Natal

Wosi

1,250-1,150

11 fragments

(86)

(87)

Voigt and Peters (86) noted domestic dogs of two sizes in this assemblage (p. 108).

South S Africa

South Africa, Natal

Magogo

1,400 - 1,200

3 fragments

(85)

(85)

 

South S Africa

South Africa, Transvaal

Mapungubwe

1,000 - 940

Skull, right mandible fragment, M3

(82)

(83)

 

South S Africa

South Africa, Transvaal

Schroda

1,300 - 1,200

anterior portion of skull with both mandibles

(82)

(83)

 

South S Africa

South Africa, Transvaal

Pont Drift

1,200 - 900

3 fragments

(85)

(85)

 

South S Africa

South Africa, Transvaal

K2

1,200 - 1000

3 fragments

(85)

(85)

 

Southern South Africa

South Africa, S Coast

Cape St. Francis

1,222-1,020

complete skeleton

(88)

(82)

A juvenile dog buried in the lap of a person.

NORTH AND CENTRAL AMERICA

 

 







 

Western USA

Utah

Danger Cave

10,000 - 9,000

1 skull fragment, 2 mandibles (18 wolf specimens)

(89, 90)

(89, 90)

 

Eastern USA

Illinois, USA

Koster

9,700 - 9 130

complete skeleton

(91)

(91)

 

Eastern USA

Illinois, USA

Modoc Rock Shelter

8,000 - 7,650

complete skeleton

(92)

(92)

 

Eastern USA

Tennessee, USA

Anderson

7,200 - 6,700

complete skeleton

(93)

(93)

 

Eastern Canada

Newfoundland, Canada

Port au Choix

4,869 - 4,042

complete skeleton

(94)

(94)

 

Caribbean

Puerto Rica, Vieques Island

Socre

2,000 - 1,500

567 bones from at least 22 individuals

(95)

(95)

Wing (96) comments that dog remains have been found on 16 Caribbean Islands and are often found associated with human burials.

Central America

Mexico

Coxcatlan Cave

5,200

teeth and mandibles

(97)

(97, 98)

Flannery (97) suggests because dogs are not present in earlier layers at this site, despite significant numbers of human bone remains, that dogs were therefore not kept in the Tehuacan Valley until considerable agricultural efficiency had been reached. The dogs appear to be characteristic of early village farming, but not any earlier stage.

Central America

Mexico

Purron Cave

4,500

teeth and mandibles

(97)

(97, 98)

Flannery (97) suggests because dogs are not present in earlier layers at this site, despite significant numbers of human bone remains, that dogs were therefore not kept in the Tehuacan Valley until considerable agricultural efficiency had been reached. The dogs appear to be characteristic of early village farming, but not any earlier stage.



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