Table a list of dog remains depicted in Figure Boarded boxes in each geographic region (listed in bold above each section) represent all the dogs included in specific pie charts present in each region. Pie Location



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Table S3. A list of dog remains depicted in Figure 2. Boarded boxes in each geographic region (listed in bold above each section) represent all the dogs included in specific pie charts present in each region.

Pie Location

Country

Site

Dates (cal BP)

Element(s)

Dog Reference

Dating Reference

Notes

























EUROPE

 

 

 

 







 

United Kingdom

United Kingdom

Star Carr

11,658-10,633

skull fragment, single tooth, femur, tibia

(1)

(1)

Bones identified as both dog and wolf are found at this site.

United Kingdom

United Kingdom

Seamer Carr

11,866-11,246

6 vertebrae

(1)

(1)

 

Central Europe

Germany

Bonn-Oberkassel

14,708 - 13,874

maxillary fragments, vertebrae frag, ulna frag, humorous frag

(2)

(3)

 

Central Europe

Germany

Oelknitz

15,770 - 13,957

phalanges, metapodia and part of distal humerus and tibia

(4)

(3)

Musil (4) states that when considered together, the finds at the contemporaneous sites Oelknitz, Kniegrotte and Teufelsbruecke are likely to be derived from domestic dogs.

Central Europe

Germany

Kniegortte

16,700 - 13,800

partial maxillary fragment with teeth

(4)

(3)

Musil (4) states that when considered together, the finds at the contemporaneous sites Oelknitz, Kniegrotte and Teufelsbruecke are likely to be derived from domestic dogs.

Central Europe

Germany

Teufelsbrucke

15,770 - 13,957

proximal metapodial fragment and first phalanx

(4)

(3)

Musil (4) states that when considered together, the finds at the contemporaneous sites Oelknitz, Kniegrotte and Teufelsbruecke are likely to be derived from domestic dogs.

Central Europe

Switzerland

Kesslerloch Cave

14,600 - 14,100

partial skull frag with some maxilla / zygo / palatine and a few teeth

(5)

(5)

A morphometric analysis suggests these remains are equivalent to domestic dogs.

Central Europe

Switzerland

Hauterive-Champréveyres

15,200 - 13,900

metatarsal and two teeth, second phalanx

(6, 7)

(3, 7)

 

Central Europe

France

Saint-Thibaud-de-Couz

12,027 - 11,311

skull, right mandible, atlas, axis, some teeth, left humerous

(8)

(3)

 

Central Europe

France

Pont d'Ambon

12,952 - 12,451

39 skull, limb, mandible,vertebal, and tooth fragments

(3, 9, 10)

(11)

 

Central Europe

France

Montespan

15,500 - 13,500

1 atlas, 1 femur, 1 baculum

(3)

(3)

 

Central Europe

France

Le Closeau

14,999 - 14,055

7 fragments including mandible, meta carpal, metapodial and phalanxes

(3)

(3)

 

Central Europe

France

Noyen-sur-Seine

10,200

2 complete skulls, several post-cranial bones

(12)

(13)

These skulls are as big as wolf skulls, but they possess domestic characteristics. According to Vigne (12), these remains are likely derived from a local population of wolves.

Western France - Spain

Spain

Erralla

19,000 or 12,500

1 humerus

(14-16)

(14, 15)

According to Vigne (15), the bone belonged to a small dog.

Western France - Spain

France

Pont d'Ambon

12,952 - 12,451

39 skull, limb, mandible,vertebal, and tooth fragments

(3, 9)

(11)

 

Portugal

Portugal

Moita do Sebastiao

8,023 - 7,849

complete skeleton

(17)

(17)

 

Western Russia

Russia

Eliseevichi I

16,945 - 16,190

two skulls

(18)

(3)

 

ANATOLIA, LEVANT, CENTRAL ASIA

 







 

Iraq

Iraq

Palegawra

13,000

Mandible

(19)

(19)

Zeder (20) states that this specimen shows clear evidence of tooth size reduction and crowding in a smaller jaw.

Iraq

Iraq

Jarmo

9,000 - 8,500

53 cranial and mandibular fragments, 18 of which positively identifiable as dog

(21)

(21)

The dog bones were compared with remains from the local wolf, Canis lups pallipes.

Anatolia

Turkey

Çayönü

9,200 - 9,100

complete skeleton

(22)

(22)

 

Anatolia

Turkey

Cafer Höyük

9,500-8,300

complete skull, 14 other elements

(23)

(24)

Digested bones and gnawing marks indicate that dogs were living in the village.

Levant, Syria, Cyprus

Cyprus

Shillourokambos

12,400-12,300

multiple elements

(25, 26)

(26, 27)

The dog bones are associated with the earliest layers of the site (early phase A) and are clearly represent very small dogs.

Levant, Syria, Cyprus

Cyprus

Klimonas

11,120-10,615

one phalanx

(26, 28)

(26)

This phalanx is consistent with a very young dog. Gnaw marks on the ungulate bones at the site confirms that these dogs lived together with humans.

Levant, Syria, Cyprus

Syria

Aswad-Damascus

10,200-9,400

a few tens of elements

(29)

(30)

 

Levant, Syria, Cyprus

Syria

Tell Mureybet

11,500 - 11,300

skull and left and right mandibles

(31)

(32)

Morphological features and metrical comparison with Canis lupus pallipes confirms the domestic status of this specimen.

Levant, Syria, Cyprus

Israel

Ain Mallaha

11,500

co-burials with humans, one skeleton juvenile and one adult, and one partial mandible

(33, 34)

(34)

One complete specimen is a puppy buried with a woman whose hand is resting on the dog. The second complete individual is an adult positioned underneath a human burial.

Levant, Syria, Cyprus

Israel

Hayonim Cave and Terrace

12,000 - 11,000

complete skeleton

(34)

(34)

 

Turk-menistan

Turkmenistan

Jeitun

8,200 - 7,700

multiple elements

(35)

(35)

 

Kazakhstan

Kazakhstan

Botai

5,650

complete skeleton

(36)

(36)

 

Kazakhstan

Kazakhstan

Botai

5,550-5,050

several bones

(37)

(37)

 

EAST ASIA

 

 

 







 

Kamchatka

Russia

Ushki I

12,900 - 12,600

complete skeleton

(38)

(38)

 

Siberia

Russia (Cis-Baikal region)

Shamanka

7450 - 7280

complete skeleton

(39)

(39)

Canid remains (both dog and wolf) are also found in several nearby sites.

North Siberian Islands

Russia

Zhokhov

8480 - 8175

2 mandibles, maxilla, canine, radius, ribia

(40)

(40)

 

Peninsular Southeast Asia

Thailand

Ban Chiang

3,200 - 2,600

crania in human coburial, several mandibles, and long bones

(41)

(42)

 

Peninsular Southeast Asia

Thailand

Ban Non Wat

3,700

~20 fragments

(43)

(44)

Recovered from Neolithic layers.

Peninsular Southeast Asia

Thailand

Khok Phanom Di

3,800 - 3,700

numerous fragments

(45)

(46, 47)

 

Peninsular Southeast Asia

Vietnam

An Son

4,200 - 3,500

109 fragments including 8 mandibles, 4 maxillae from at least 5 individuals

(48)

(49)

These dogs appear to have been butchered and eaten. Separated from C. aureus and C. lupus based on the morphology of the maxillary and mandibular M1s



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