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(Second Term)

Contents:

Nos:


  1. Carbon and its compounds

  2. Periodic classification of elements

  3. How do organisms Reproduction

  4. Heredity and evolution

  5. Light-Reflection and refraction

  6. The human eye and the colourful world

  7. Management of natural resources

  8. Our Environment

******

Topic 1:Carbon and its compounds
Important terms and conditions

Versatility of carbon :Carbon is known metal and occurs in free as well combined state in nature.

Free state: Diamond ,graphite and coal.

Combined state :1.Solid state: All animals and plants products.

2.Liquid state: Petroleum and vegetable oil .

3.Gaseous state: In air has CO 3 .

Carbon has 4 valance electrons carbon can form an anion c-4 by gain of electons.It can also form of cations C+4 by loss of electron.IT can share its balanced electrons with other carbon atoms or atoms of non metal and forms covalent bonding.

Compounds of carbon: Simplest compounds of carbon are hydro carbon and simplest hydro carbon is methane.

Classification of hydro carbon:

Saturated hydro carbon: Unsaturated hydro carbon:

(CnH2n+2)

Compounds having single bond compounds having double and triple bonds.

ALKANES ALKENES AND ALKYNES.

e.g


ethane (C2H6)

alkenes(CnH2n) alkynes. (CnH2n+2)

Ehene C2H4 Ethyne C2H2


Sr no

Hydro carbons

Definitions

Examples

1

Straight chain

All carbons are in form of straight chain

Butane

2

Branched Chain

One or more carbon atoms are attached to main straight line

Isobutane.

3
a

b


Ring or cycle hydro carbon
Saturated

Unsaturated



Carbon atoms are in form of ring and bonded by single covalent bond.

Carbon atoms are bonded by one or more doubled covalent bond.


Cyclohexane.
Benzene.













Isomerism:The phenomenon of existence of compounds in two or more forms with same molecular formula but different structure.

Functional group: An atom or groups of atoms which makes a carbon compounds reactive and decide its properties.


Sr.no.

Hetro atoms

Functional groups

Formula of functional group

example

1.

Cl/Br

Halo-chloro/bromo

-Cl,-Br

Chloromethane(CH3Cl)

2.

oxygen

1.Alochol
2.Aldehyde
3.Ketone
4.Carboxylic acid

-OH
-CHO
>C=O
-COOH

Ethanol

C2H5OH

Methanal

HCHO


Propanone

CH3COCH3

Ethanoic acid CH3COOH

HOMOLOGOUS SERIES:A series of compounds in which the same functional group substitude for hydrogen in a carbon chain,such that successive compounds differ by CH2 groups e.g CH4 ,C2H6,C3H8 etc.


NOMENCLATURE OF CARBON COMPOUNDS:

Prefix word root+suffix+Functiuonal group.

CARBON COMPOUNDS:

ETHANOL –C2H5OH common name ethyl alcohol

ETHANOIC ACID- CH3COOH.common name acetic acid.

ESTERIFICATION REACTION:The reaction between carboxylic acid and an alcohol in the presence of con. Suphuric acid to form a sweet smelling substance ester. .e.g


Conc H2SO4

CH3COOH+C2H5OH CH3COOC2H5+H2O


Saponfication reaction : Alkaline hydrolysis of ester produces soaps.

Heat


CH3COOC2H5+NaOH CH3COONa+C2H5OH
Reaction with carbonates and hydrogen carbonates: reaction of ethanoic acid with carbonates or bi carbonate evolves carbon di oxide gas.
2CH3COOH+Na2CO3 2CH3COONa+CO2+H2O
SOAP AND DETERGENT: Soap is sodium and potassium salt of long chain of carboxylic acid .They foam lather with soft water only.
Detergent are ammonium or sulphonate salts of long chain carboxylic acid .they even remain effective in hard water and foam lather.

MIND MAP

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