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1.The number of chromosomes in human ovum is

a.21 b.22 c.23 d.24

2. An example of homologous organs is

a.our arm and a dog’s foreleg b./our seethe and an elephant’s tusk

c.potato and runners of glans. D. all of these.

3. The hereditary units are:

a. Segments of RNA b. Genes. c. Chromosomes f. Chromatin

4. The science dealing with biotechnology is called.

a.Heredity and variation b. paleontology c. genetics

1.If a trait exists in 10% of a population of an asexually reproducing species and a trait B in 60% of

the same population which trait is likely to have arisen earlier?

2.Which of the following is not the example of artificial selection ?

A)Colours of rose b.Flavours of mangoes 3.colours of beetle 4.Starch quality of wheat.

3. Explain how advantages variations like long neck help an organism like Giraffe to survive


4. Which of the following is the clearly acquiered trait in human beings?

a.Intelligence b.Height C.Swimming d. Skin colour.

5. Why are human beings, who look different from each other size and colour belongs to the same species?

6. Acquiered characters are not inherited .Give reasons.

7. All the human races like Africans, Asians ,European and others might have from common ancestors

provide few evidence in support of the view.

8. How is genetic drift different from natural selection? From the diagram given below which case

shows natural selection?

Refer to diagram 9.7 ,page 147 of textbook.

9.Observe the diagram properly, mention the ration of round, yellow seeds and wrinkled,green seeds.

Refer to diagram 9.5,page 145 of text book.

10.From the figures given below ,make a pair of homologous and analogous organs.Also justify the answer.

Refer to page 132, diagram 9.8.



  1. Decomposers are also called __________

  2. Producers prepare their _____________

  3. Ozone layer is destroyed by ___________

  4. Ecology is the study of the interaction of_________ with each other and their surroundings.


  1. Mendel’s work

  2. Sex determination in organisms

  3. Role play

  4. Student in act as Aristotle ,Darwin,Lemark and Mendel and present the work done by these great people.


If Mendel had met!

Projects: 1. Save Tiger….. Children collect information about the Tigers from various national Parks and Wild life sanctuaries. Perform the stage shows to develop the awareness about the forests and wild life.

  1. To collect information on artificial selection carried out in some crops and animals . Visit to Vetenary college.

  2. Visit to an agricultural research Institute to understand the various techniques involved in Hybridisation.

  3. 1.Conducting a survey on

A. Evolution of wisdom teeth in parents.

B. Free and attached earlobes.

C. Rolling of tongue.

D. Finger prints.

Debate: Use of Biotechnology in Human Welfare .

Activity; To study vestigial organs in Human beings . Students define vestigial organs and discuss the use of every part of the body.Then come to the conclusion.


Key concepts and terms:

1) Light: light is a form of energy. It brings the sensation of sight. It is a form of electromagnetic radiation. It also provides us means of communication (fiber-optics).

2) Light wave: light wave travels with a speed of 3 x 108 ms-1 in free space. Its speed depends on the medium.

3) Ray and beam: the straight line indicating the path of the light (arrow- direction is called a ray. A bundle of rays originating from the same source of light in a particular direction is called a beam of light.

4) Reflection: when light falls on a surface and gets back the same medium, it is called reflection.

5) Image: the point of convergence or the point form where the light appears to diverge after reflection or refraction is called image.

6) Angle of incidence: the angle between the incident ray and the normal at the point of incidence is called angle of incidence.

7) Angle of reflection: the angle between the reflected ray and the normal at the point of reflection is called angle of reflection.

8) Laws of reflection: 1) the incidence ray the reflected ray and the normal at the point of incidence, all lie in the same plane.

2) The angle of reflection and the angle of incidence are equal.

9) Aperture: the width of the reflecting surface is called aperture.

10) Focus: the point on the principle axis where all parallel rays meet after reflection is called principle focus.

11) focal length: the length or separation between the pole and the focus is called focal length (PF = f)

12) In order to draw ray diagram, two rules are used:

1) The rays of light passing parallel to the principle axis will coverage at the focus after reflection.

2) The rays of light passing through the focus will emerge parallel to the principle axis after reflection.

3) The rays of light passing through the center of curvature will all retrace their both after reflection.(as it is normal at the point of incidence)

4) The rays of light falling at the pole get reflected at the same angle on the other side of principle axis.(Laws of reflection)

13) Relation between radius of curvature and focal length It is two times the focal length i.e. R=2f.

14) Mirror formula: 1/f= 1/v +1/u where f, v and u are the focal length, image distance and object distance.

15) Lens formula: if u, v and f are the object distance, image distance and focal length respectively then 1/f=1/v-1/u

16) Magnification of a lens: M= size of image (h1)/ size of object (h0) also m= (h1)/ (h0) = v/u.



(Pen Paper Test)

  1. If the speed of light in a medium id 2 x 108 m/s, then its refractive index is:

a) 1 b) 10 cm c) 1.5 d) 0.5

  1. The power of sunglasses is

a) 0 b) 10cm c) 25cm d) zero

  1. The refractive index of diamond is 2.42. What is the meaning of this statement in relation to the speed of light?

  2. Draw a ray diagram and show the image formed by a concave mirror when the object is kept at focus.

  3. An object is placed at a distance of 10cm in front of convex mirror of focal length 15cm. find the nature and position of image.

  4. 1) Two thin lenses of power +3.5D and -2.5 D are placed in contact. Find the power & focal length of lens combination?

  1. Define 1) Snell’s law of refraction of light. 2) Pole of a concave mirror.

  1. An object of size 4cm is kept at a distance of 20cm from the optical center of a converging lens of a focal length 10cm. calculate the distance of image from the lens and the size of the image.

8) a) Define magnification. Write the sign convention used for expressing it.

b) Using lens formulae, find the position of image, its nature and magnification formed by a

concave lens of focal length 20cm and the object is at 15cm.


  1. QUIZ:

  1. Name the place where image is formed in the eye?

  2. Name the muscular diaphragm that controls the size of the pupil?

  3. What is the cause of dispersion of light?

  4. Which color has got more wave length?

  5. How many colors evolve when white light disperses?

  6. What is the reason for the different deviation?

  7. Who discovered that white light consists of seven colors?

  8. What makes bees respond the ultraviolet light?

Oral questions:

  1. What is a ray?

  2. A Lemmon placed in water appears larger in size due to _______________

  3. What does the negative sign of magnification of a mirror indicate?

  4. What is the relation between focal length and radius of curvature of a spherical mirror?

  5. What is the range of vision of normal human eye?

  6. What do you mean by lateral displacement?

  7. Magnification produced by convex mirror for object of size 5cm is ½ what is the size of image?

  8. What is the real image?

  9. A ray of light strikes at 45 degree on a mirror. what is a angle of incidence and reflection?

  10. What is power of accommodation?

Home assignment:

1.What do you mean by Power of the lens?

2.What is the lens formula? Write the sign convention for various mirror and lens.

3.Name the lens/ mirror in the following situations;

i) Rear View mirror ii) magnifying Glass iii) Mirror with Dentist iv) Correction of Myopia .

4. The power of the lens is -2D .What is the focal length and nature of the lens?

Project Work ;

1.To find the focal length of the given concave mirror using candle light.

2.Study the phenomena of refraction of light in different medium( Glass slab, Plastic, etc)


REFRACTION; Deviation in the path of light when light travels from one medium to the other.

Refraction occurs as the speed of light is different in different medium.

Snell’s law of refraction.

n= sin i/ sin r


i-Angle of incidence

r-Angle of refraction

Lesser the refractive index ;the medium is optically rarer

Greater the refractive index :the medium is denser.

Ref.index= speed of light in Vacuum/ speed of light in medium. n= c/v

Optical density is the ability of a medium to refract light

Convex lens forms real and virtual image . The real image is diminished, same size and enlarged depending on the distance u.( u>2f; u=2f; u<2f)

The virtual image is formed when u< f.

Concave lens always forms Virtual image.

Len’s Formula: 1/v-1/u=1/f

Power of a lens=1/f where f is in metre.

Unit of Power=Dioptre.

Refraction by spherical Lenses

1. Convex and Concave lens



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