Supplemental Data A—Specimens Analyzed



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Supplemental Data A—Specimens Analyzed


Crocuta crocuta NMNH 15202, 182032, 182082, 182084, 182085, 182091, 182095, 182101, 182103, 182105, 182110,182114,182117; AMNH 52059, 52060, 52063, 52064, 52065, 80621, 81833, 83592, 83593, 187769, 187771, 187773, 187775, 187777

Panthera leo NMNH 12250, 20859, 20860, 61753, 63362, 105401, 125344, 153525, 155439, 155442, 155443, 161913, 161914, 161915, 161916, 161917, 161919, 161920, 161921, 161923, 162913, 162914, 162915, 162916, 162917, 162918, 162919, 163108, 163109, 163328, 163329, 163330, 172677, 174639, 174742, 174743, 174744, 176201, 181569, 181571, 181572, 181573, 181574, 181575, 181576, 181577, 181578, 181579, 181580, 181581, 181582, 181583, 181584, 181585, 181586, 181587, 181588, 181589, 181590, 181592, 181930, 182044, 182107, 182143, 182293, 182294, 182295, 182296, 182297, 182308, 182309, 182311, 182313, 182315, 182324, 182325, 182326, 182332, 182333, 182339, 182420, 182421, 182423, 184816, 197137, 197944, 199524, 199707, 216601, 216602, 216603, 216604, 236920, 254455, 256196, 268924, 271321, 282303, 367397, 537000, 539997, 539998, 539999, 565762, 589605, A12319, A22705, A8548, AMNH 30242, 30247, 52072, 52073, 52074, 52075, 52076, 52077, 54995, 54996, 81837, 81843, 81844, 83617, 83618, 169463

Panthera tigris NMNH 14984, 15525, 16099, 16100, 49740, 61329, 61330, 61331, 61332, 62074, 62075, 111982, 123444, 141898, 143191, 152192, 152193, 152194, 174981, 182313, 182315, 182324, 182325, 182326, 182332, 182333, 182339, 182420, 182421, 182423, 184816, 188638, 197137, 197944, 199524, 199707, 216601, 216602, 216603, 216604, 218321, 220265, 221016, 236920, 239445, 239450, 251789, 253285, 253286, 253287, 253288, 253289, 253290, 253291, 253292, 253293, 253294, 253295, 253296, 253297, 254455, 254713, 254977, 256196, 258210, 268924, 269320, 270988, 270989, 271321, 271556, 278470, 282303, 304513, 361847, 367397, 395727, 395855, 396137, 396272, 396654, 399096, 399298, 399556, 536099, 536895, 537000, 539997, 539998, 539999, 565762, 582442, 583694, 583778, 588759, 589605, A12319, A16144, A16145, A22705, A3804, A49728, A49773, A49797, A49798, A49799, A8548, A8549, AMNH 22334, 54458, 54459, 54460, 87348, 90016, 100024, 113743, 113744, 119680

Panthera onca NMNH 9390, 12176, 61192, 67403, 88044, 100122, 100123, 100541, 105930, 122602, 123527, 125349, 125353, 125453, 127542, 130362, 131498, 131499, 131998, 132519, 132755, 134500, 134501, 137039, 140949, 141897, 147362, 155603, 155615, 167894, 179170, 179171, 181231, 225613, 231961, 236368, 238669, 239343, 244507, 244858, 247337, 249821, 249822, 249823, 249824, 249825, 249826, 251118, 251119, 256376, 256377, 256385, 256386, 256387, 256388, 256389, 259038, 268871, 269786, 270363, 281420, 281421, 287497, 287498, 287499, 289015, 294541, 336224, 338356, 338357, 338358, 339678, 361043, 362249, 362250, 374849, 388248, 395084, 395085, 443722, 456774, 464972, 557719, 583256, 589080, A13845, A12296, A13846, A14177, A25097, A36283, A4128, A4361, A4362, A49393, A6480, A8003, A9703, A9704, AMNH 11083, 11084, 11085, 12145, 12149, 12151, 12155, 12156, 12158, 12159, 12160, 12161, 12164, 25011, 36229, 98682, 98841, 146987, 147510, 147513, UF 12143

Panthera pardus NMNH 13047, 13067, 13357, 14312, 14337, 15230, 21654, 102583, 144977, 145261, 155403, 155613, 156284, 161911, 162144, 162145, 162146, 162147, 162926, 162927, 163093, 163094, 163095, 164544, 164545, 164555, 164557, 164763, 164764, 171879, 172662, 173328, 173329, 173330, 173331, 175743, 181595, 181600, 182178, 182318, 182323, 182328, 182329, 182331, 182338, 184818, 184819, 199061, 201568, 216606, 216607, 236921, 236969, 239610, 239866, 240485, 241556, 252904, 253298, 254445, 254536, 254537, 254637, 256099, 256125, 256130, 256668, 257396, 258177, 258660, 258857, 259410, 261367, 270126, 270896, 271289, 276996, 282239, 290875, 292310, 296141, 296142, 303320, 318981, 329352, 329353, 344212, 364963, 396007, 396948, 522719, 543375, 557720, 589634, A14401, A16143, A21350, A22643, A34866, AMNH 34111, 34745, 52008, 52010, 52023, 52042, 52044, 57008, 80174, 87236, 88627, 88628, 89010, 161733, 170290, 170291, 170296, 170307, 170310, 186944, 189390, 189391

Neofelis nebulosa NMNH 172673, 172674, 198705, 282124, 319205, 396639, 399290, 399291, 545387, 575150, 580716, 581891, 589133, A49974

Uncia uncia NMNH 84091, 176048, 241212, 252543, 307383, 307649, 321948, 337500, 557721, 589696, AMNH 42822

Panthera atrox LACMHC 2900-6, 2901-6, 6992, 6984, 6994, 17489, 6988, 6991, 6993, 587, 2900-15 , 2901-15, 6990, 585, 2901-26, 2900-16 , 286/586, 2901-5, 2900-15, A3431, 2900-10, 2900-12, 17527, 2900-17, 2900-18, 2900-19, 2900-8, 2900-20, 2900-7 , 2901-7, 2900-5 , 2901-5, A3431, 10164, 17149, 17524, 17526, 6974, 2900-14, 6972, 17518, 17519, 6970, 6971, 2900-1, A3429, A3432, A3430, A3428, 6977, 6967, 6969, 17521, 6978, 6968, 17502, 60187, A3407, 60189, 2900-3 , 52033, 21078, 15678, 15404, 2900-9; UF 9076; AMNH 9076, 30460, 30754, 69028, 69031, 69026, 30751, 30752, 14310, 69048, 69047, 30759, 69013, 30760, 11069, 69002, 69473, 69016, 30757

Metailurus spp. AMNH IVPP 45- L399 (cast), 95294, 131854; PMU M3835 (images), M3841 (images)

Proailurus lemanensis AMNH 101931 (cast)

Pseudaelurus validus AMNH 61827, 61828, 61834

Supplemental Data B-- Measurement ANOVA




ABA

Par-Mast

POA

Hypo

Hypo-Jug

FM

Par

Rsquare

0.356318

0.977851

0.789497

0.996782

0.335246

0.620487

0.434355

Fratio

6.4582

494.468

40.2329

3283.785

2.925

18.8308

7.8496

Prob>F

<0.0001

<0.0001

<0.0001

<0.0001

0.0049

<0.0001

<0.0001

ABA, angle of auditory bulla (#41); Par-Mast, ratio of the distance between the mastoid process and paroccipital process to skull length (#42); POA, angle between postorbital process and posterior maxilla (#43); Hypo ratio of the diameter of the hypoglossal foramen to skull length (#44); Hypo-Jug angle between the hypoglossal and jugular foramina (#45); FM, ratio of the distance from the postorbital process to the frontal maxillary suture divided by skull length (#46); Par, ratio of the distance from the postorbital process to the frontal parietal suture divided by skull length (#47).

Supplemental Data C—Character Descriptions

Dental terminology from Hershkovitz (1971) and Salles (1992); Characters 11 and 47 from Merriam and Stock (1932); Characters 12, 13, and 32 from Salles (1992); Characters 43 and 46 modified from Christiansen and Harris (2009); Character 8 modified from Christiansen (2008).



  1. Presence of P1 (0) or absence (1).

  2. Presence of p2 (0) or absence (1).

  3. P4 protocone is wider than anterior parastyle (0) or is equal or thinner in width (1).

  4. Occipital bone is flat (0) or has depressions (1).

  5. Superior orbital fissure is not visible in ventral view (0) or is visible (1).

  6. Foramen ovale is connected to the pterygoid process of the basisphenoid (0) or the pterygoid process of the basisphenoid extends posterior to the foramen ovale (1) (Figure S1).

  7. Infraorbital foramen not visible in lateral view (0) or visible (1).

  8. Lacrimal process absent (0) or present (1).

  9. Mastoid process is reduced (0) or well developed (1).

  10. Auditory bullae do not intersect with the posterior-most point of the post glenoid process (0) or do intersect (1) when a line is drawn across the skull connecting the right and left post glenoid processes (Figure S2).

  11. Posterior palatine foramen is anterior to the anterior-most point of the P4 (0), is anterior to the carnassial notch but posterior to the anterior-most point of the P4 (1), or is posterior to the carnassial notch (2).

  12. Parastyle on P3 is absent (0), reduced (1), or well developed (2).

  13. Metastyle reduced in P3 (0), developed (1), or has additional posterior accessory cusp (2).

  14. Paraconid of p3 is absent (0) or present (1).

  15. First and second posterior accessory cusps present on p3 (0) or just first posterior accessory cusp present (1).

  16. Paroccipital process extends ventrally past the lowest point of the bullae (0) or does not extend below bullae (1).

  17. Intersection of the lateral portion of the mastoid process and lambdoidal crest forms an indentation (0) or no indentation and a smooth edge (1).

  18. Presence of alisphenoid canal (0) or absence (1).

  19. Upper canine lacks a dorso-ventral ridge (0) or has a dorso-ventral ridge (1).

  20. Process between entotympanic and ectotympanic (above vidian nerve canal) does not (0) or does protrude ventrally (1).

  21. Suture between occipital and auditory bulla not visible ventrally (suture is within indentation between bones) (0) or visible ventrally (1).

  22. Tympanohyal pit and stylomastoid foramen share a single opening (0) or are separate (1).

  23. Foramen rotundum visible in lateral view (0) or not visible (1).

  24. Occipital basisphenoid suture has ridges that run vertically (0), horizontally (1), or are absent (2).

  25. Paroccipital process curves anteriorly over the auditory bulla (0) or does not curve anteriorly (1).

  26. p4 has multiple posterior cusps (one may be smaller than the other) (0) or has a single cusp (1).

  27. Postorbital process is highly reduced (0) or well developed (1).

  28. Presence of m2 and large metaconid on m1 (0), presence of m2 and reduced metaconid on m1 (1), or absence of m2 and reduced metaconid on m1 (2), or absence of m2 and absence of metaconid on m1 (3).

  29. p1 present (0) or absent (1).

  30. p4 paraconid smaller than metaconid (0) or similar in size (1).

  31. Foramina on lateral palatine spaced at medium distance (0), spaced very far apart (1), or nearly overlap or have completely merged (2).

  32. External auditory meatus consists of a complete cylinder (0), a projection superior to the canal (1), or is entirely absent (2).

  33. M1 is absent (0) or present (1)

  34. Lamboidal crest reduced (0) or well developed (1).

  35. Frontal nasal suture is anterior to maxillary frontal suture (0), is level with the maxillary frontal suture (1), or is posterior to the maxillary frontal suture (2).

  36. Foramen rotundum is not visible in lateral view (0) or is visible (1).

  37. Foramina are medial to the Vidian nerve canal (0) or absent (1).

  38. Foramina are present along the auditory bulla occipital suture (0) or absent (1).

  39. I3 has multiple cusps (0) or has a single cusp (1).

  40. m1 carnassial notch lingually shallow (0) or deep (1).

  41. The mean angle of the auditory bullae (when a line is extended from the center of the bulla and intersects with a line from the midpoint of the occipital condyles) is below 35˚ (0) or above 35˚ (1) (Figure S3).

  42. Mean distance between the ventral-most point of the paroccipital process and the ventral-most point of the mastoid process is above 0.2 (0) or below 0.2 (1) when scaled to the length of the skull.

  43. Mean angle between a line extended from the postorbital process to the posterior-most point of the maxilla and a line drawn across the intersection of the maxilla and P4, P3, and P2 is below 93˚ (0) or above 93˚ (1) (Figure S4).

  44. Mean diameter of the hypoglossal foramen is below 0.025(0) or above 0.025 (1) when scaled to skull length.

  45. Mean angle between the hypoglossal foramen and jugular foramen when a line is extended antero-posteriorly across the center of the hypoglossal foramen and a line drawn across the intersection of the jugular foramen and auditory bulla is below 36˚ (0) or above 36˚ (1) (Figure S5).

  46. Mean distance between the postorbital process and the frontal maxilla suture (when a line is extended across the suture creating a 90 degree angle with a line extended from the lateral-most point of the postorbital process) is below 0.175 (0) or above 0.175 (1) when scaled to the length of the skull (Figure S6).

  47. Mean distance between the postorbital process and the frontal parietal suture (when a line is extended across the suture creating a 90 degree angle with a line extended from the lateral-most point of the postorbital process) is below 0.28 (0) or above 0.28 (1) when scaled to the length of the skull (Figure S7).

Supplemental Data C Figure Captions

Figure S1. Foramen ovale is connected to the pterygoid process of the basisphenoid (0) or the pterygoid process of the basisphenoid extends posterior to the foramen ovale (1).

Figure S2. Auditory bullae do not intersect with the posterior-most point of the post glenoid process (0) or do intersect (1) when a line is drawn across the skull connecting the right and left post glenoid processes.

Figure S3. The mean angle of the auditory bullae (when a line is extended from the center of the bulla and intersects with a line from the midpoint of the occipital condyles) is below 35˚ (0) or above 35˚ (1).

Figure S4. Mean angle between a line extended from the postorbital process to the posterior-most point of the maxilla and a line drawn across the intersection of the maxilla and P4, P3, and P2 is below 93˚ (0) or above 93˚ (1).

Figure S5. Mean angle between the hypoglossal foramen and jugular foramen when a line is extended antero-posteriorly across the center of the hypoglossal foramen and a line drawn across the intersection of the jugular foramen and auditory bulla is below 36˚ (0) or above 36˚ (1).

Figure S6. Mean distance between the postorbital process and the frontal maxilla suture (when a line is extended across the suture creating a 90 degree angle with a line extended from the lateral-most point of the postorbital process) is below 0.175 (0) or above 0.175 (1) when scaled to the length of the skull.

Figure S7. Mean distance between the postorbital process and the frontal parietal suture (when a line is extended across the suture creating a 90 degree angle with a line extended from the lateral-most point of the postorbital process) is below 0.28 (0) or above 0.28 (1) when scaled to the length of the skull.



Supplemental Data D—Character Score Matrix




1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

31

32

Proailurus

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

1

x

x

x

x

Pseudaelurus

x

x

0

x

x

0

x

0

0

0

0

x

2

x

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

x

x

x

x

x

Metailurus

x

0

0

0

x

0

0

0

x

1

0

1

2

0

x

0

0

x

0

0

0

x

1

0

x

1

x

0

0

0

0

x

C. crocuta

x

0

0

1

1

1

1

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

x

0

0

x

0

0

1

x

x

0

x

1

x

x

x

0

0

0

P. leo

1

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

1

1

2

2

1

1

1

0

1

1

0

1

1

1

0

2

0

1

1

2

1

1

2

1

P. tigris

1

1

0

1

0

1

1

1

1

0

2

2

0

1

1

1

0

1

0

0

1

1

0

2

0

1

1

3

1

1

2

1

P. onca

1

1

0

1

0

0

1

1

1

0

2

2

0

1

1

1

1

1

0

1

0

0

0

1

0

0

1

3

1

1

0

1

P. pardus

1

1

1

1

0

0

1

1

1

0

1

1

0

1

1

1

1

1

0

1

1

0

1

2

0

1

1

3

1

1

0

1

N. nebulosa

1

1

0

1

0

0

0

1

1

0

1

1

0

1

1

1

1

1

0

0

1

0

0

1

1

0

1

2

1

1

1

1

U. uncia

1

1

0

1

1

0

0

1

1

0

1

0

1

1

1

0

0

1

0

0

1

1

0

1

0

0

1

2

1

1

0

1

P. atrox

1

1

x

0

0

1

1

1

1

0

2

2

0

1

1

0

1

1

1

0

1

1

0

2

1

1

1

3

1

1

2

2






33

34

35

36

37

38

39

40

41

42

43

44

45

46

47

Proailurus

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

0

1

0

0

x

x

x

Pseudaelurus

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Metailurus

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

0

0

0

1

0,1

1

0

C. crocuta

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

1

P. leo

1

1

0

1

1

1

1

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

P. tigris

1

1

2

1

1

1

1

1

1

0

0

0

1

0,1

0,1

P. onca

1

1

2

1

1

1

1

1

1

0

1

0

0

1

1

P. pardus

1

1

1

0

1

1

1

1

0

0

1

0

0

1

0

N. nebulosa

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

0

1

0

1

0

0

U. uncia

1

1

1

1

1

0

1

1

1

0

0

0

0

1

0

P. atrox

1

1

0

1

1

1

1

1

1

0

0

0

1

1

1


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