Supplemental Data 1 Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences



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Supplemental Data 1
Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences
The first substantive evidence of Utatsusaurus (Ichthyopterygia) from the Sulphur Mountain Formation (Lower–Middle Triassic) of British Columbia, Canada: a skull roof description with comparison to other early taxa
Robin S. Cuthbertson, Anthony P. Russell, and Jason S. Anderson

R.S. Cuthbertson1 and A.P. Russell. Department of Biological Sciences, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive, Calgary, Alberta, T2N 1N4, Canada.
J.S. Anderson. Department of Comparative Biology and Experimental Medicine, University of Calgary, 3330 Hospital Drive, Calgary, Alberta, T2N 4N1, Canada.
1Corresponding author (email: rscuthbe@ucalgary.ca).
Supplemental data 1. Description of characters used in phylogenetic analysis (modified from Motani 1999a; Thorne et al. 2011; Cuthbertson et al. 2013a).
(1) Premaxilla posterior end: (0) concave and the dorsal process is longer than the ventral; (1) pointed, scarcely entering the external naris; (2) concave and the ventral process is longer than the dorsal.

(2) Maxilla dorsal lamina: (0) absent; (1) present.

(3) Maxilla/external naris contact: (0) present; (1) absent.

(4) External naris orientation: (0) dorsolateral; (1) lateral, scarcely visible in dorsal view.

(5) Nasal-external naris contact: (0) present; (1) absent.

(6) Wide contact between nasal-postfrontal: (0) absent; (1) present.

(7) Nasal-parietal contact lateral to frontal: (0) absent; (1) present.

(8) Prefrontal-postfrontal contact: (0) absent, the dorsal margin of the orbit being formed by the frontal; (1) present, eliminating the frontal from the dorsal margin of the orbit.

(9) Postfrontal posterolateral process: (0) absent; (1) present.

(10) Postfrontal participation in supratemporal fenestra: (0) absent; (1) present.

(11) Postorbital shape: (0) triradiate; (1) lunate, without posterior process.

(12) Postorbital participation in supratemporal fenestra: (0) present; (1) absent.

(13) Squamosal participation in supratemporal fenestra: (0) present; (1) absent; (2) squamosal absent.

(14) Anterior terrace of supratemporal fenestra: (0) absent; (1) present, but small, reaching the posterior part of the frontal anteriorly; (2) present, and large, reaching the nasal anteriorly.

(15) Frontal widest position: (0) located posteriorly; (1) at nasal suture.

(16) Sagittal eminence: (0) absent; (1) present but small, involving only the parietal; (2) present and large, involving the parietal, frontal, and nasal.

(17) Parietal ridge: (0) absent; (1) present.

(18) Parietal supratemporal process: (0) short; (1) long; (2) parietal and supratemporal separated by an additional skull bone.

(19) Right and left parietal’s anterior processes: (0) contacting each other anteriorly, eliminating frontal from pineal foramen; (1) narrowly separated anteriorly, forming parietal fork, and frontal dorsally visible along the pineal foramen; (2) widely open, resulting in absence of clear fork.

(20) Supratemporal posterior slope: (0) absent; (1) present.

(21) Supratemporal posterior ridge: (0) absent; (1) present.

(22) Supratemporal ventral process: (0) absent; (1) present.

(23) Jugal-quadratojugal dorsal contact: (0) absent; (1) present.

(24) Jugal shape: (0) triradiate; (1) lunate or ‘J’-shaped.

(25) Cheek orientation: (0) mostly lateral; (1) largely posterior.

(26) Pterygoid transverse flange: (0) anterolateral; (1) posterolateral; (2) not well-defined.

(27) Interpterygoidal vacuity: (0) present; (1) absent, or extremely reduced.

(28) Ectopterygoid: (0) present; (1) absent.

(29) Basioccipital peg: (0) clearly present; (1) absent or extremely reduced.

(30) Basioccipital extracondylar area: (0) wide; (1) reduced to a narrow band of concavity.

(31) Basioccipital condyle: (0) flat or slightly concave; (1) hemispherical.

(32) Angular lateral exposure: (0) extensive, at least as high and anteriorly as surangular exposure; (1) much smaller than surangular exposure.

(33) Overbite: (0) absent or slight; (1) clearly present.

(34) Snout extremely slender: (0) no; (1) yes.

(35) Replacement teeth: (0) appear outside the pulp cavity of the predecessor; (1) inside.

(36) Plicidentine: (0) absent; (1) present.

(37) Tooth horizontal section: (0) circular; (1) distomedially compressed; (2) laterally compressed.

(38) Posterior tooth crown: (0) conical; (1) rounded; (2) flat.

(39) Tooth size relative to the skull width: (0) normal (over 0.1); (1) small (below 0.05).

(40) Maxillary tooth row: (0) single; (1) multiple.

(41) Upper dental groove: (0) present throughout jaw margin; (1) only present anteriorly; (2) absent.

(42) Lower dental groove: (0) present throughout jaw margin; (1) only present anteriorly; (2) absent.

(43) Bony fixation of teeth: (0) present; (1) absent.

(44) Pterygoid teeth: (0) present; (1) absent.

(45) Interclavicle shape: (0) cruciform; (1) triangular; (2) ‘T’-shaped.

(46) Scapula anterodorsal margin: (0) fan-shaped; (1) emarginated; (2) straight.

(47) Scapula blade shaft: (0) absent; (1) present at least proximally.

(48) Scapular axis and glenoid facet orientations: (0) nearly parallel; (1) at 60º or more.

(49) Coracoid facet on scapula: (0) scapula and coracoid fused; (1) absent; (2) equal or smaller than glenoid facet of scapula; (3) twice as large as glenoid facet.

(50) Ossified sternum: (0) absent; (1) present.

(51) Ossified cleithrum: (0) present; (1) present.

(52) Humerus distal articular facets: (0) not terminal; (1) terminal, radial facet being larger than ulnar facet; (2) terminal, two facets being nearly equal.

(53) Humerus anterior flange: (0) absent; (1) present and complete; (2) present but reduced proximally.

(54) Humerus relative width exclusive of anterior flange: (0) much longer than wide; (1) nearly square.

(55) Humerus, distal and proximal ends, exclusive of anterior flange: (0) nearly equal; (1) distal end wider than proximal end.

(56) Ridge on humerus plate-like: (0) no; (1) yes.

(57) Humerus anterodistal facet for sesamoid: (0) absent: (1) present.

(58) Propodial + epipodial versus manus length: (0) propodials + epipodial longer; (1) manus longer.

(59) Radius peripheral ‘shaft’: (0) complete or nearly complete: (1) notch or largely reduced; (2) absent.

(60) Radius contiguous ‘shaft’: (0) complete or nearly complete: (1) notch or largely reduced; (2) absent.

(61) Radius length/width ratio: (0) longer than wide; (1) wider than long.

(62) Ulna peripheral ‘shaft’: (0) complete or nearly complete; (1) notch or largely reduced; (2) absent.

(63) Ulna contiguous ‘shaft’: (0) complete or nearly complete; (1) notch or largely reduced; (2) absent.

(64) Radius/ulna relative size: (0) nearly equal; (1) radius much larger than ulna.

(65) Radiale, anterior notch: (0) absent; (1) preaxially present.

(66) Ulnare/intermedium relative size: (0) ulnare larger than intermedium; (1) intermedium larger than ulnare; (2) intermedium lost.

(67) Manual pisiform: (0) present; (1) absent.

(68) Metacarpal I peripheral ‘shaft’: (0) complete or nearly complete; (1) notch or largely reduced; (2) absent; (3) metacarpal I not ossified.

(69) Metacarpal III ‘shaft’: (0) present; (1) absent.

(70) Metacarpal V peripheral ‘shaft’: (0) complete or nearly complete; (1) absent; (2) metacarpal V not ossified.

(71) Manual digit 2 distal elements peripheral ‘shaft’: (0) complete; (1) largely reduced or notch; (2) absent.

(72) Manual accessory digit VI: (0) absent; (1) present.

(73) Manual supernumerary digit (occurring between digits 4 and 5): (0) absent; (1) present.

(74) Manual centralia: (0) present; (1) absent.

(75) Manual preaxial accessory element (sesamoid) and the digit distal to it: (0) absent; (1) present.

(76) More than one extra anterior digit: (0) absent; (1) present.

(77) Maximum phalangeal count: (0) five or less; (1) seven or more.

(78) Interdigital separation: (0) present; (1) absent.

(79) Forelimb/hind limb ratio: (0) nearly equal or hind longer; (1) forelimb longer but less than twice as hind limb; (2) forelimb longer twice as much as hind limb.

(80) Iliac blade shape: (0) with thick shaft; (1) plate-like; (2) narrow and styloidal.

(81) Iliac anteromedial prominence: (0) present; (1) absent.

(82) Thyroid fenestra: (0) absent; (1) one median opening; (2) two openings, being medially separated.

(83) Ischium-pubis fusion in adults: (0) complete; (1) absent; (2) present only medially; (3) present medially and laterally.

(84) Pubis, obturator foramen: (0) completely enclosed in pubis; (1) mostly in pubis but open on one side; (2) part of obturator fossa; (3) no foramen between the ischium and pubis.

(85) Pubis, styloidal or plate-like: (0) plate-like; (1) styloidal.

(86) Pubis/ischium relative length: (0) nearly equal or ischium slightly larger than pubis. (1) pubis twice as large as ischium.

(87) Ischium, styloidal or plate-like: (0) plate-like; (1) styloidal.

(88) Tibia and fibula: (0) in contact or closely placed with each other; (1) widely separated from each other.

(89) Pes digit 1: (0) present; (1) absent.

(90) Tibia length/width ratio: (0) longer than wide; (1) wider than long.

(91) Tibia contiguous ‘shaft’: (0) complete or nearly complete: (1) absent.

(92) Tibia peripheral ‘shaft’: (0) complete or nearly complete: (1) notch or largely reduced; (2) absent.

(93) Fibula posterior extent: (0) not fixed, fibula being mobile relative to femur; (1) much posterior to femur; (2) about the same level as femur.

(94) Atlantal pleurocentrum: (0) separate from axis; (1) fused with axis.

(95) Presacral count: (0) 30 or less; (1) between 40 and 50; (2) 55 or more.

(96) Caudal peak: (0) absent; (1) present.

(97) Posterior dorsal centra shape: (0) cylindrical; (1) discoidal.

(98) Mid-caudal centra height change: (0) gradual decrease; (1) increase; (2) sudden decrease.

(99) Cervical bicipital rib facet: (0) absent; (1) present.

(100) Posterodorsal bicipital rib facet: (0) absent; (1) present, at least near pelvic girdle.

(101) Anterodorsal rib facets: (0) confluent with anterior facet in at least some centra; (1) not confluent in any of the centra.

(102) Anterodorsal neural spine: (0) normal; (1) narrow, high, and straight.

(103) Neural spine anticlination in tail: (0) absent; (1) present.

(104) Sacral ribs: (0) two, distinguishable; (1) not distinguishable.

(105) Posterior gastralia: (0) present; (1) absent.

References

Cuthbertson, R., Russell, A., and Anderson, J. 2013. Cranial morphology and relationships of a new grippidian (Ichthyopterygia) from the Vega-Phroso Siltstone Member (Lower Triassic) of British Columbia, Canada. The Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 33: 831–847.

Motani, R. 1999a. Phylogeny of the Ichthyopterygia. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 19: 473496.

Thorne, P.M., Ruta, M., and Benton, M.J. 2011. Resetting the evolution of marine reptiles at the Triassic-Jurassic boundary. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 108: 8339–8344.







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