Submission by Norway to the adp norway’s Intended Nationally Determined Contribution Introduction



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Submission by Norway to the ADP

Norway’s Intended Nationally Determined Contribution

  1. Introduction

Norway is fully committed to the UNFCCC negotiation process towards adopting at COP21 a protocol, another legal instrument or an agreed outcome with legal force under the Convention, applicable to all Parties, in line with keeping global warming below 2°C.

Norway hereby communicates its intended nationally determined contribution and the accompanying information to facilitate clarity, transparency and understanding, with reference to decisions 1/CP.19 and 1/CP.20.

Regarding the invitation to consider communicating undertakings in adaptation planning, Norway refers to the information contained in its recent Sixth National Communication.


  1. Norway’s Intended Nationally Determined Contribution

Norway is committed to a target of an at least 40% reduction of greenhouse gas emissions by 2030 compared to 1990 levels. The emission reduction target will be developed into an emissions budget covering the period 2021-2030.

Norway intends to fulfil this commitment through a collective delivery with the EU and its Member States.

In the event that there is no agreement on a collective delivery with the EU, Norway will fulfil the commitment individually. The ambition level will remain the same in this event.


    1. Information to facilitate clarity, transparency and understanding

      1. Quantification of the INDC

Type of commitment

Absolute emission reduction from base year emissions

Coverage

Economy wide; 100% of emissions covered

Base year

1990

Base year emissions

About 52.0 Mt CO2-equivalents.1 The base year emissions estimated in line with decision 24/CP.19 will be reported in Norway’s next national GHG inventory submission.

Time frame

2021-2030

Reduction level

At least 40% reduction in 2030 compared to 1990. To be developed into an emissions budget for the period 2021 to 2030.

Scope: inclusion of gases

All greenhouse gases not controlled by the Montreal Protocol

CO2 - Carbon dioxide


CH4 - Methane
N2O - Nitrous oxide
PFCs - Perfluorocarbons
HFCs - Hydrofluorocarbons
SF6 - Sulphur hexafluoride
NF3 Nitrogen trifluoride

Scope: Sector/source categories

Energy; industrial processes and product use; agriculture; land-use, land-use change and forestry; waste.

Metric (GWP values)

Global Warming Potential on a 100 year timescale in accordance with the IPCCs 4th Assessment Report.

Assumptions and methodological approaches:

Inventory methodology

IPCC 2006 guidelines

Accounting for the land sector (scope, accounting basis)

  • In the case of a collective delivery with the EU and its member states, the final approach to accounting for emissions and removals in the land sector will be decided upon later, based on the dialogue with the EU.

  • Norway will work towards a common framework for land sector accounting, for all Parties. Norway does not currently have a final position on the content and structure of such a framework.

  • In the event that Norway will implement the commitment individually, the final approach to accounting in the land sector will be decided upon later, based on the principles described below and the progress made internationally towards a common framework for land sector accounting:

    • Norway’s commitment will include emissions and removals in the land sector, ensuring incentives to implement new measures in the sector as well as sustaining existing measures.

    • The final choice of land sector accounting shall not affect the ambition level for 2030 compared to when the land sector is not included. The commitment to reduce emissions by at least 40% by 2030 compared to 1990 includes additional measures in the land sector. 2

    • Norway will apply a comprehensive land-based approach to accounting for emissions and removals in the land sector.

    • Methodological changes in calculating emissions and removals from the land sector shall not affect Norway’s ambition.

    • Norway will consider the possibility of applying the Kyoto Protocol rules for natural disturbances and carbon stock changes in harvested wood products.

Expected use of international market based mechanisms, including how double counting will be avoided

  • Norwegian emissions are covered by the EU ETS, and Norway will through our participation in the ETS contribute to the necessary emission reductions. The EU ETS ensures that no double counting occurs.

  • In meeting the emission reduction target in the non-ETS sectors, Norway assumes access to flexibility in implementation in line with what EU member states have. This includes flexibility among EU member states. Regarding the non-ETS sectors, Norway’s assumption is that an agreement between Norway and the EU on collective delivery will ensure that no double counting occurs.

  • In this situation, there will be no use of international market credits towards the target. Norway does, however, support inclusion of market based mechanisms in the 2015 agreement, and the opportunity to continue using units accruing from the CDM and JI.

  • In the case of an individual commitment

  • If the commitment should be implemented by Norway individually, the ambition level of at least 40% emission reduction by 2030 compared to 1990 still stands.

  • In this situation, Norway assumes that we will have access to flexible mechanisms as in the case with collective delivery with the EU. Norway will continue to use market based mechanisms under the UNFCCC. Strict criteria will be applied to ensure that such credits represent real and verifiable emission reductions and that double counting is avoided.

  • Norway will seek an agreement of accounting for Norway’s participation in the EU ETS.






      1. Planning processes and national circumstances

The government presented a White Paper to the Parliament in February, with the proposed emission reduction target and implementation through collective delivery with the EU. Final decisions in the Norwegian parliament were made on 24 March 2015.

Norway will enter into a dialogue with the EU to develop the terms for a collective delivery of the commitment of at least 40% emission reduction by 2030 compared to 1990. The intention is to provide more information on this solution before the UN Climate Conference in Paris.

According to the broad political agreement in 2012 on climate change, the aim is that Norway will be carbon-neutral in 2050. As part of an ambitious global climate agreement where other developed nations also undertake ambitious commitments, Norway will adopt a binding goal of carbon neutrality no later than in 2030. This means that Norway will commit to achieving emission reductions abroad equivalent to Norwegian emissions in 2030.
Norway’s long term goal is to become a low emission society by 2050. Towards 2030, Norwegian domestic emissions will be reduced as part of the effort to meet our 2030 commitment.

Norway’s emissions profile, emissions development and current policies and measures are described in our sixth National Communication, submitted in 2014. Norway will continue to implement ambitious national climate policies. These policies will be under continuous development. With reference to the White Paper, the priority areas for enhanced national climate policy efforts are:



  • Reduced emissions in the transport sector

  • Low emissions technology in industry

  • CO2 capture and storage

  • Renewable energy

  • Environmentally friendly shipping



      1. Fairness and ambition of the INDC of Norway

Norway’s approach to considering fairness and ambition is to assess how our INDC contributes to meeting the ultimate objective of the Convention, of achieving stabilisation of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system.

The scientific basis for such assessment is the most recent assessment report by the IPCC. The 5th Assessment Report shows that scenarios that are likely to limit global warming below 2°C require that global emissions must be reduced by 40 to 70% by 2050 compared to 2010 levels. Norway’s commitment to reduce greenhouse gas emissions of at least 40% by 2030 compared to 1990 is well in line with the emissions pathways towards 2050 that correspond to keeping global warming below 2°C. Thus, Norway is doing its fair share for the global goal of keeping global warming below 2°C compared to pre-industrial levels. This is consistent with industrialised countries taking the lead.

An emission reduction target of 40% by 2030 compared to 1990 is at the high end of emission reductions that should be implemented by OECD-countries, given a global cost-effective, regional distribution of emission reduction targets (IPCC WGIII, table 6.4).

Under the second commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol, Norway is committed to an emission reduction corresponding to average annual emissions over the period 2013-2020 at 84 per cent of the 1990 emission level. The commitment under KP 2 is consistent with the Norwegian target of 30 per cent reduction of emissions by 2020, compared to 1990.

Norway’s INDC represents a significant progression beyond current undertaking. Given a successful outcome where the commitment is implemented through a collective delivery with the EU, the overall emission reduction will take place within Europe.


    1. General observations and assumptions

If the agreement or related COP decisions are amended before their entry into force in such a way that they include rules or provisions that in effect alters the assumptions under which this INDC has been developed, Norway reserves the right to revisit the INDC.

If it can contribute to a global and ambitious climate agreement in Paris, Norway will consider taking a commitment beyond an emission reduction of 40% compared to 1990 levels, through the use of flexible mechanisms under the UN framework convention beyond a collective delivery with the EU.



  1. Follow up

Norway requests that this submission is published on the UNFCCC webpage and that our INDC is included in the synthesis report to be prepared by the secretariat. Norway encourages other countries to submit their INDC well before Paris and is prepared to provide further information towards Paris.



1 The land sector (land-use, land-use change and forestry) is not included in this figure. If the sector was included the 1990 figure would be about 41.8 Mt CO2-equivalents.

2 Before further guidance on land sector accounting is established and the accounting basis for Norway’s commitment is finalised, net removals in the land sector compared to 1990 as the base year will be accounted for. In the base year, net removals in the sector was 10.1 Mt CO2-equivalents, while the projected net removals in 2030 constitute 21.2 Mt CO2-equivalents. Removals beyond the level in the base year and the projected level will count towards the 40% commitment. This will constitute additional action in the land sector. When the difference of 11.1 Mt between the base year level and the projected level is included, the commitment would need to be recalculated to ensure that the ambition level stays unchanged. Net removals in the base year and the projection may be adjusted as a consequence of improved emission inventory data in future national GHG inventory submissions.



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