The word ‘shampoo’ is derived from the Hindustani word ‘Champo’ which means to press or rub. Shampooing and conditioning are both very important processes in hairdressing because, not only does it affect how the hair looks, but also affects other hairdressing services.
Shampooing is the method by which the hair and scalp are cleaned. Most people shampoo their hair at home at least once a week exactly how often depends on the person’s hair and scalp type e.g. greasy hair will require more frequent shampooing than dry hair and scalp.
So hair should be shampooed as often as necessary. The conditions of the hair depends to a large extent on the choice of shampoo. It must be suitable for the hair and scalp e.g. a very de-greasing shampoo used persistently on dry hair will make it brittle, and in extreme cases cause breakage. Likewise a cream shampoo used on greasy hair can cause the opposite effect.
It is important to consider the well being of the client throughout the shampooing procedure. A good shampooing technique should be physically and physiologically soothing, relaxing and enjoyable. A poor shampoo technique may irritate your client, and lead to a dissatisfied client.
Prior to shampooing the following points should be considered:
Always consult with the client to determine what treatments are to be carried out before shampooing.
Disentangle the hair to remove tangles and debris, working from the points of the hair.
Whilst disentangling you need to assess the hair and scalp’s condition, and check for any contra-indications, also assess the natural fall of the hair.
Use protective clothing usually a gown, towel and plastic cape.
Select the appropriate shampoo and (if needed) conditioner. It is important to remember to follow manufacturer’s instructions concerning safe and efficient use of products and equipment. Sometimes it might be necessary to use steamers or accelerators to aid a conditioning treatment, always check electrical equipment prior to use to ensure there are no breaks in the cable which could cause harm or injury to someone.
TYPES OF SHAMPOOS
There is a wide range of shampoos available on the market today. You will need to assess the client’s hair and scalp type to know which type of shampoo to use.
Below is a list of the different types of shampoo available:
Before chemical services
After chemical services
Dry hair is caused from either insufficient sebum being produced by the scalp or too much sebum being removed during chemical processes like bleaching and perming.
These shampoos contain additives like lanolin, and plan oils, which add moisture properties back into the hair.
Greasy hair is caused by over-production of sebum and shampoo designed for this type of hair contain a higher proportion of detergent to remove surplus oil.
Either physical or chemical abuse can cause damage hair. Physical damage can be caused by simply over brushing, blow-drying, tonging and straightening etc. Whereas chemical damages is caused by over-processing of perms and bleaching. The weather can also have an adverse effect on hair. Sun, wind, sand, sea and salt will all damage hair as will extremes of climate (hot or cold, dry or humid).
The aim of these of shampoos and conditioners is to coat the hair and, if possible, fill in the missing particles of the cuticles. These contain substances such as egg, beer, protein and herbs and help re-moisure the hair leaving it manageable and shiny.
Dandruff is caused by an over-production of skin cells. Shampoos for this condition are usually medicated or anti-dandruff and contain substances such as selenium sulphide and zinc pyrithone. These work by reducing the activity of the germinative layer of skin.
Before Chemical Services
The hair is always shampooed prior to a perm being carried out in order top remove any dirt particles, which could prevent the perm lotion from penetrating into the cortex. There are specific shampoos available for pre-perm shampooing, which are very gentle, mild and soapless. They remove any dirt particles from the hair without causing any barriers to the hair. If a conditioning shampoo were used prior to a perm, this would coat the hair and therefore, cause a barrier to the perm lotion thus preventing the lotion penetrating the cortex.
Stabilize the hair and lengthen the durability of the treatment
Easily distributed through the hair
Reduce static electricity
Give the hair its shine
Easy to lather
Easily removed during rinsing
Does not irritate the scalp
THE CLEANING ACTION OF SHAMPOO
Shampoos contain detergents.
A detergent is made from chemicals, which act, with water to help cleanse things. Water along is not an effective cleanser. Shampoos contain detergents, which help lower the surface tension of the water, allowing both water and the detergent to spread evenly over the hair. Detergents are also known as wetting agents.
These tadpole shaped molecules enable the detergent to lower the surface tension of water, and form an emulsion between water and grease during the shampooing.
Detergent molecules have a hydrophobic (water-hating) tail (attracted to grease, repelled by water) and hydrophilic (water-liking) head (attracted to water, repelled by grease).
SHAMPOOING HEALTH AND SAFETY
*Make sure the client is adequately protected.
*Clean towels and gowns should be given for every client to avoid cross infection.
*Check water temperature.
*Keep product out of the client’s eyes.
*Check hair and scalp for disorders.
*Avoid long fingernails that will scratch the scalp.
*Avoid protruding rings and bracelets, which may scratch or interfere with the process.
*Avoid jerky, uncontrolled movements these can be uncomfortable or painful for the client.
*Ensure the client is comfortable at the basin.
*Dry hands thoroughly in-between shampoos and use a barrier cream, prolonged use could result in dermatitis.
*Always follow manufacturer’s instructions.
*Keep work area clean.
*Keep electrical equipment away.
Testing the water temperature
The temperature of the water should be checked on the back of the wrist, before allowing the water to run on the scalp. This is to avoid scalding you client. Water should be turned off during massage to conserve hot water.
The hardness of water
Both water sprays and mixing values need regular maintenance because lime scaledeposits (‘furring’) develops if the water is hard. This causes blockages and low water pressure, causing hair rinsing to take a long time.
If the salon is in a soft water area, or uses a water softener, then you will not find lime scale deposits. Soft water will lather up easily when you wash your hands with a bar of soap and no scum will be left.
You will know if the water is hard because lime scale deposits will be formed around the spray heads and in the kettle, and in the salon steamer. Hard water contains dissolved calcium and magnesium salts it is these that produce scum whey you wash your hands. In areas of hard water a water softening system is used.
It is important to recognise these substances in hairdressing, preparations because they have different effects on the hair
The pH scale is used to measure the Acidity and Alkalinity of a substance using a numbering scale of 0-14, acids have a pH less than 7; alkalis have a pH greater than 7, substances with a pH of 7 are neutral.
Strong acids with a pH of 1 or 2 make the hair feel harsh, but the hair is not destroyed.
Week acids with a pH of 5 or 6 condition the hair by closing the cuticle, so making the hair smoother and more shiney.
Alkalis with a pH greater than 9.5 destroy the hair making it jelly-like and finally dissolve it. They are therefore act as depilatory or hair remover.
Most salons today use back wash basins for shampooing, but some clients still prefer the front basin. There are advantages and disadvantages with both, whichever you use the client must be comfortable and protected. If a front wash is to be given a flannel/towel should be provided for the clients face.
CONDITIONERS AND TREATMENTS
Surface conditioners are deposited on the hair as droplets that smooth the surface only, by coating it. They add gloss and make the hair more manageable, some also neutralize the effects of chemical processes.
After a perm has been completed the hair must be conditioned, there are specific conditioners available called anti-oxy or pH balanced conditioners. These have two actions, firstly the hair has a natural pH of 4.5-5.5 but perm lotions usually depend on a high alkaline content of approximately 9.5, which will have the effect of lifting the cuticle scales. These conditioners therefore need to have an acid balance of 4.5, which will restore the hair back to its natural balance and close the cuticle. Therefore preventing ‘creeping oxidation’.
Penetrating conditioners are designed to repair the chemical structure or fibres within the cortex, which have been damaged by previous hairdressing process, ill health or medication. These types of conditioners can smooth the hair cuticle and make the whole hair structure much stronger.
These are designed for hair that has become weakened and overprocessed (such as Trichorrhexis nodosa). They contain protein. They help to strengthen the hair and can be used before chemical treatments. Used before perming it will even out the porosity of the hair and protect it.
These may be applied to correct some hair and scalp problems e.g. dry or greasy hair and scalp. Warm oil treatment is used for dry conditions to loosen the scalp and stimulate the sebaceous glands. Acid rinses or spirit lotions for greasy hair and scalp.
APPLICATION OF AN OIL TREATMENT This is a method of conditioning which consists of the application of warm vegetable oil, e.g. olive, palm or coconut.
This is done with the use of a brush. First section the hair into 4 from forehead to nape and ear to ear. Working from the nape take ¼ inch partings and apply to hair until whole head has been treated. The oil should be pre-heated to room temperature. Hot oil should never be applied as this will burn the scalp. While the oil is being heated, place the client under a warm steamer for 5 minutes.
After oil and head have been warmed, apply oil to scalp or hair, whichever treating. Once oil has been applied all over the head, you will need to use the vibro machine. It is a light instrument made of ebonite. The attachment is spiked and made of rubber. Massage the scalp all over for a few minutes then place the client under the steamer for 15 minutes. Steam and hot towels will aid the process by allowing the hair to swell and the oil to penetrate the hair shaft.
Oil conditioners can be difficult to remove from the hair. You must apply shampoo to the oil on the hair, massage to form an emulsion then apply warm water and rinse. There should be no need to apply a conditioner after this treatment.
A variety of sources of added heat may be used during treatments. Added heat will encourage the hair shaft to swell, and therefore allowing easier penetration of the treatment into the cortex.
Sources of heat:
Steamer or Accelerator
NEVER MASSAGE THE SCALP:
If there are any breaks in the skin such as cuts or abrasions.
If the scalp is inflamed or sore to touch.
If there are signs of rashes or disease.
If the client has any medical problems, e.g. a high temperature, as with colds or flu.
REMOVAL OF COLOURS
Shampooing after a tint When permanent tint has developed, it will need to be removed from the hair and scalp. Adding a small amount of water to the scalp and massaging to loosen the tint does this. This is called emulsifying. Gradually add more water; continue to massage until the entire tint is loosened. Note at this stage, shampoo has not been used. Rinse thoroughly until the water runs clear. Choose a pH-balanced shampoo and conditioner for colour treated hair. This will reduce oxidation damage and help to restore the hair back to its natural state.
Removal is the same as a permanent colour, the only difference been that the colour is usually applied to shampooed towel dried hair.
Shampooing for Semi-permanent
Most semi-permanents are applied to shampooed towel-dried hair. Always check manufacturer’s instructions. After development, shampoo is note used; the hair is emulsified as a permanent tint, as a shampoo would reduce the life of the colour. A conditioner is not usually required unless the hair is very damaged.
MASSAGE TECHNIQUES Hair and scalp massage used in shampooing and conditioning, helps to promote the health of the hair and combat disorders of the scalp, such as dandruff, and hair loss, this stimulates the blood supply and restores the natural elasticity of hair and skin.
There are three types of massage movements used during shampooing and conditioning:
Always begin and end with effleurage. It is a slow stroking movement applied to the scalp, using both hands at the same time. Starting at the centre front of the head and working down towards the nape.
It relaxes and relieves scalp tension.
A slow deep kneading movement in which the scalp is gently ‘gripped’ by the fingertips and massaged in a circular motion around the head.
It improves the blood supply and stimulates the sebaceous glands to produce sebum. So it is beneficial for dry hair and scalp. It also helps loosen and remove dead skin cells and waste products from the scalp.
A light rubbing movement most often used during shampooing. It is applied more quickly than rotary, but is not as deep a movement.
Eases scalp tension and improves blood circulation. Used in shampooing. If the scalp is greasy, don’t massage to vigorously or you will stimulate the sebaceous glands and produce more sebum (grease).
When shampooing longer hair, you need to ensure that it does not become tangled.
Use effleurage massage drawing the shampoo through the hair from roots to points.