Among other important factors are a patient’s psychological condition, motivation, ability to cooperate during the implantation preparation phase, as well as further caring of dentures (fixed or removable) carried by dental implants.
Without a perfect anamnesis, local analysis and without meeting all requirements for indication or contraindication, it would not be possible to utilize dental implants successfully for the treatment of dental defects.
7. Orthopedics of Jaws
Orthopedics of jaws (orthodontics) is the dental specialty and practice of preventing
, diagnostics and correcting irregularities of the teeth, relationships of dental arches and anomalies of the oro-facial area. Orthodontic care is a part of the dental care provided for the generation of young people. It has a preventive character and contributes to formation of functional and esthetic qualities of the oro-facial system.
7.1 Orthodontic Anomalies
Among orthodontic anomalies belong defects of positions of individual teeth, groups of teeth
, defective mutual relationships of dental arches, and defects in the build or growth of the facial skeleton. Cleft disorders form a separate group of anomalies.
The frequency at which orthodontic anomalies occur is high at present times. In our population, more than one half of school-age children are affected by ailments of occlusion. Not every aberration found has to be treated. Therapy of tiny irregularities that do not hamper the teeth functions or personal visage would not be beneficial.
of orthodontic anomalies. Many factors contribute to appearance of these anomalies. Among general causes
of orthodontic anomalies there are heredity, growth rate
, physical constitution, diseases, diet, function of endocrine glands. Dental caries, premature loss of teeth
, functional defects are the local causes
of orthodontic anomalies. From the etiology viewpoint, orthodontic anomalies can be further divided into congenital and acquired ones.
can be either hereditary or appear during intrauterine development as a result of harmful influences. These influences can be toxic chemicals (drugs), physical (X-ray irradiation
, radioactivity), viral infections (rubeola). Hereditary disorders include anomalies in number, shape and position of the teeth. A primary position of the tooth germ, the shape and size of jawbones are genetically determined as well. An example of a hereditary dominant disease is progenia.
appear after a child’s birth by effects of internal and external influences. Internal causes include metabolic disorders
, rachitis, endocrine disorders etc. External factors are for example: various bad habits, such as sucking fingers, putting foreign objects inside the mouth
, biting of lips, the tongue, cheeks, breathing by mouth etc. These habits are long-term forces that may unfavorably influence position of the teeth, shape of alveolar ridges
, mutual relationship of jaws, growth and development of the oro-facial system. Dental decays and premature losses of teeth may lead to formation of orthodontic anomalies, too.
Prevention of orthodontic anomalies.
The basis of prevention of orthodontic anomalies is the care about healthy and harmonic development of children and their oro-facial system. It begins by the mother and child care during pregnancy. Very important is also a mother’s healthy lifestyle and environment, as well as avoiding all influences which could negatively affect her pregnancy. Postnatal prevention and prophylaxis are tasks for parents, a pediatrician and later for a pedo-stomatologist. Right diet is highly important for proper development of children’s oro-facial system. Breast-feeding is preferred against an artificial feeding at nursing age. At later age, care has to be paid to the food composition and texture. Employing functions of the chewing system has an essential influence on right development of the oro-facial system and prevents from various bad habits to occur. If bad habits still appear, it is mandatory to quit them with aid of simple shielding devices or muscular exercises. An important part of prevention of orthodontic anomalies is avoidance of dental decays and systematic sanative care of the teeth. Premature losses of teeth lead to weakening of the functional fitness of the teeth, shifts of neighboring teeth into gaps and loss of space for cutting of the permanent teeth. This all depends on cooperation of parents, a pediatrician and pedo-stomatologist, as well as proper health education.