Standardi there are actually three different standards for dvd recordables, dvd-r/RW, dvd+R/rw and dvd-ram



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STANDARDI

There are actually three different standards for DVD recordables,



DVD-R/RW, DVD+R/RW and DVD-RAM.

All three different formats come in the 4.7 GB (single sided, single layer : DVD-5) format, although DVD-RAM come in double sided form factor (DVD-9). DVD-RAM is the only format that requires a cartridge/caddy, which means that many drives are not able to read this format. More information about the different DVD recordable standards can be found on the next page. The three different formats also makes things more complicated, since the different standards also have different compatibility problems (for example, a DVD video player may read one format, but not the other).

Many first generation DVD recorders did not support CD-R/RW writing, or used smaller 3.9 GB media. New generation drives pretty much all support CD-R/RW writing (although usually at lower speeds than dedicated CD-R/RW writers).



Three Standards and a Caddy

The biggest single reason why DVD recording has not taken off as quickly is perhaps what the press bills as the "Format Wars".

There is big money to be made in terms of licensing of recordable media standards. This is why several different companies have formed two different groups to promote their own DVD recordable format.

The compatibility of these formats are discussed further on in this article.

DVD-R/RW, created by Pioneer, is support by the DVD-Forum industry group. DVD+R/RW, created by Sony and HP, is the format of choice of the DVD+RW Alliance industry group. Despite what you may hear from both camps, neither groups are "official" groups. And to add to the confusion, DVD-RAM, which is supported by the DVD-Forum, is also being promoted, although it is mainly intended for data storage and has the least compatibility with DVD-ROM and DVD-Video. The DVD-Forum does sound the most official, since they were responsible for mapping out the DVD-ROM and DVD-Video formats, and are also behind the now familiar DVD logo that you see plastered everywhere these days. Despite what you may have read, compatibility for DVD-R/RW and DVD+R/RW with existing DVD devices is quite similar, and nowhere near 100%.




DVD-R/RW :

DVD-R was the first format to be introduced. At that time, a SCSI DVD-R burner would set you back well over $10,000. DVD burners these days retail for less than $300. While you may think that this is a huge price drop, it actually isn't. Professional DVD-R burners still costs $10,000, mainly because these can be used in the duplication of DVD movies (hence, a favorite of DVD pirates). The type of DVD-R burners that are retailing for the lower cost use "General Use" DVD-Rs, which cannot be used to duplicate DVDs, because they cannot duplicate CSS encrypted DVDs (and pretty much all commercial DVD movies use CSS encryption) - although this does not mean you can't still copy a DVD movie to one :)

DVD-RW is the re-writable version of DVD-R. DVD-RW can be written only about 1000 times. More precisely, each sector on the DVD media can be written 1,000 times.

DVD-R media is probably the cheapest on the market right now, mainly because it was released earlier than DVD+R, and this is the only reason for the price differences at the moment (there aren't any technological or production reasons why one format is cheaper or more expensive than the other). DVD-R media (standard 2x) can be found for $US 1.50, and DVD-RW can be found for $US 3 (as of January 2003). Double sided DVD-R media (9.4 GB) are also available, with an added cost, of course.

The maximum writing speed of DVD-R recorders is 4x (5,540 KB/s). DVD-RW are written to at 2x (2,770 KB/s).




DVD+R/RW :

DVD+R/RW, as mentioned earlier, is the brain child of the DVD+RW Alliance group. DVD+RW was actually the first released format, with DVD+R coming in later to compete with DVD-R. Both formats are similar to their DVD- counterparts, and so the only real difference that separates these formats is the fact that they are being supported by different industry groups.

DVD+ media costs more than DVD- media at the moment, mainly because it was released at a later date - current prices (as of January 2003) for DVD+R media is between $US 2 and 3, while DVD+RW can be found for between $US 3 to 4. Prices should drop to around the same level as DVD- within this year.

DVD+RW media supports random read and write, allowing Windows drag and drop type of file copying. It also supports defect management - more about that later on. DVD+RW media, like DVD-RW, can only be written to about 1000 times.

The maximum writing speed of DVD+R recorders is 2.4x (3324 KB/s). DVD+RW are also written to at 2.4x. Note that a 4x DVD+R drive will be released in Q1 2003.


DVD-RAM :

DVD-RAM was the very first re-writable format on the market. Unlike DVD-RW and DVD+RW, DVD-RAM relies on a cartridge/caddy system, which instantly makes them physically incompatible with many existing DVD devices. DVD-RAM comes in either single sided variety (4.7 GB) or double sided (9.4 GB).

DVD-RAM media are the most expensive, costing more than $US 7 per 4.7 GB disc.

DVD-RAM media also supports random read and write and defect management. DVD-RAM media can be over-written about 100,000 times, much better compared to the 1000 times that DVD-RW and DVD+RW supports.




The Best of Both Worlds :

There is, however, a simple solution to the problem of deciding the format of your choice - get a DVD recorder that supports all of them. While such a recorder doesn't actually exist at the moment, there are however DVD recorders that support more than one standard.

Take Sony's new DRU500A drive - this DVD recorder drive supports the DVD+R/RW standard (which is understandable, since Sony was one of the companies behind the creation of this standard), but a little more surprisingly, it also supports the competing DVD-R/RW.

There is also Panasonic's new Multi Drive, which supports both DVD-R/RW and DVD-RAM.




Comparison Table :

The below is a table that compares the attributes of the various DVD recording formats discussed on this page. Note that we have yet to discuss in detail performance and compatibility attributes of these standards, and our opinion of which format is best will not be made until the end of this article.



 

Cost Per (4.7GB) Media

Writing Speed

# of Re-writes

Random Read
and Write


Defect Management

DVD-R

$1.50 (2x)
$3 (4x)

4x

-

-

-

DVD-RW

$2 - 3

2x

1,000

No

No

DVD+R

$2 - 3

2.4x

-

-

-

DVD+RW

$3 - 4

2.4x

1,000

Yes

Yes

DVD-RAM

$7 - 8

2x

100,000

Yes

Yes



The Fast and the Format-less

This section looks at the performance issues of the three DVD recording standards.

The DVD+ standards (both DVD+R and DVD+RW) used to have faster writing speeds, and at 2.4x, this amounts to 3,324 KB/s. However, the new Pioneer A05 drive now adds 4x burning for DVD-R and 2x burning for DVD-RW (2x burning is equivalent to 18x CD burning). To put it into perspective, 2x writing, or 2,770 KB/s will mean that for writing to a full 4.7 GB DVD, a 2.4x drive will be some 5 minutes faster than a 2x drive. Burning a full 4.7 GB DVD will take around 25 minutes for a 2.4x drive. A 4x drive will burn the full 4.7 GB in about 15 minutes. Note that a 4x DVD+R drive will be released in Q1 2003.

Raw burning speed is not the only factor when it comes to performance though. DVD+RW design ensures shorter lead-in and lead-out times - this will mean it takes shorter to finalise than DVD-RW media. Formatting for DVD-RM or DVD+RW media can be done on-the-fly, although some older software for DVD-RW may not support this feature.


CLV and CAV Burning :

There are also two different recording methods, CLV (Constant Linear Velocity) and CAV (Constant Angular Velocity). CLV is mainly used in streaming video applications where high transfer speed is required. CAV has better random access times, and hence better for computer storage/applications.

DVD-R/RW uses CLV, which makes them good for DVD-Video applications. DVD+R/RW can use both CLV and CAV.

DVD-RAM uses Zoned CLV, which is a combination of CLV and CAV and similar to how a hard-disk works.




CD Burning :

CD burning speeds for DVD recorders are usually slower than compared to dedicated CD burners. However, CD burning speeds are already at super fast speeds (48X!!), and differences in speed can now be measured in terms of seconds, rather than minutes.




Comparison Table :

 

Maximum
Burning Speed


Burning Time (full 4.7 GB)

Burning Method

DVD-R

4x

15 Minutes

CLV

DVD-RW

2x

30 Minutes

CLV

DVD+R

2.4x

25 Minutes

CLV and CAV

DVD+RW

2.4x

25 Minutes

CLV and CAV

DVD-RAM

2x

30 Minutes

Zoned CLV

Kratka istorija DVD-a  [Na vrh]


 

Kada su se Philips i Sony udružili da bi razvili CD, oni su bili samo dve od mnogih kompanija koje su prevashodno tražile zamenu za LP ploče. Odluke o tome kako sistem treba da radi su bile donete od strane inžinjera i prošle su bez većih teškoća. Specifikacije naslednika CD-a su išle potpuno drugim smerom, sa prepirkama, konfuzijom, poluistinama i Makijavelijanskom intrigom iza scene. Postojala su dva nekompatibilna formata: Matsushita, Toshiba i Time Warner sa jedne strane, sa njihovom SD (Super disc) tehnologijom i Sony i Philips sa druge strane sa njihovom MMCD (Multimedia CD) tehnologijom. Pod pritiskom kompjuterske industrije, naročito giganata kao što su Microsoft, Intel, Apple i IBM, najveći proizvođači su formirali DVD konzorcijum da bi stvorili jedinstven standard. DVD-ROM standard, nastao 1995. godine, je bio kompromis između ove dve tehnologije, koji se ipak više oslanjao na SD tehnologiju. Najveći proizvođači, 11 njih, stvorili su savez pod imenom DVD Forum, gde se raspravlja o svakom poboljšanju ili novoj tehnologiji koja treba da se inkorporira u finalnu specifikaciju.

Slično kao i kod CD-a postoji više različitih formata DVD-a: DVD-ROM (Digtal Video Disc Read Only Memory), DVD-Video, DVD-Audio, DVD-R (DVD-Recordable) i DVD-RAM (DVD-Random Access memory). Sa veličinom diska kao i kod CD-a, tj. 120mm prečnik, 1.2mm debljina, na DVD disk može da se uskladišti do 17GB podataka sa brzinom transfera većom nego kod CD-ROM-a i sličnim vremenima pristupa. Postoje četiri standarda za kapacitet DVD-a: DVD-5 za jednostrani-jednoslojni disk sa kapacitetom od 4.7GB, DVD-9 za jednostrani-dvoslojni disk sa kapacitetom 8.5GB, DVD-10 za dvostrani-jednoslojni disk kapaciteta 9.4GB i DVD-18 za dvostrani-dvoslojni disk kapaciteta 17GB.
 

Zbog ogromne rasprostranjenosti CD formata, jedan od glavnih zadataka projektanata je bio da na jednom uređaju omoguće upotrebu i CD i DVD diskova. To je zahtevalo dizajniranje specijalne optike koja može da podesi veličinu fokusa i za tanke (0.6mm) nosioce DVD formata i za stare 1.2mm lejere CD-a. Najjednostavnije rešenje se svodi na montiranje dva sočiva u jednoj optičkoj glavi - jedno za CD format, a drugo za DVD format. Zatim se mehaničkim putem aktivira jedno od njih zavisno od tipa diska. Elegantnije rešenje podrazumeva upotrebu specijalnog sočiva u čiji centar je utisnut hologramski element. Laserska svetlost koja prolazi po obodu sočiva, van holograma, fokusirana je tako da na površini diska stvara dovoljno malu tačku pogodnu za čitanje DVD formata. Jedna trećina zraka prolazi kroz hologram u centru i reaguje sa njim tako da je takav zrak fokusiran i sočivom i hologramom i na površini diska stvara tačku pogodnu za čitanje CD formata.



DVD-ROM (DVD-Read only memory[Na vrh]
 

Slično kao kod DVD i CD diskova, teško je razlikovati CD-ROM i DVD-ROM uređaje kada se gleda od spolja - jedino što odaje DVD-ROM-ove je DVD logo na prednjem delu uređaja. Čak se i u unutrašnjosti CD-ROM-ovi i DVD-ROM-ovi ne razlikuju mnogo: oba koriste SCSI ili ATAPI interfejse, mehanika je ista, kao i funkcionalni sitemi, a deo za čitanje podataka je sličan sa tom razlikom što se kod DVD-a koristi drugačiji laser i već opisan sistem sočiva. Zbog toga nećemo ulaziti u detalje, koji se mogu pogledati u delu o CD-ROM-u, već ćemo dati kratak pregled osobina DVD-ROM-ova. DVD-ROM uređaji su sposobni za čitanje i CD i DVD diskova i podržavaju (uglavnom) sve formate koje podržavaju CD-ROM-ovi uz dodatak DVD-Video i DVD-Audio formata.

 

DVD-Video [Na vrh]


 

Iako se na DVD diskovima zbog velikog kapaciteta može distribuirati bilo koja vrsta digitalnih podataka, prva i najvažnija upotreba DVD diskova je za smeštanje filmova. Kako i samo ime (Digtal Video Disk) sugeriše DVD je prvi digitalni medijum specijalno napravljen za video reprodukciju i kao takav ima mnoge prednosti u odnosu na VHS sistem, Video CD i laserske diskove.

Prva i najvažnija prednost je kvalitet. Video materjal sa DVD-a je odličnog kvaliteta koji je neuporedivo bolji u odnosu na ostale: oštra i čista slika sa zasićenim bojama uz neverovatno dobar kvalitet zvuka.

MPEG-1 (ili ISO/IEC 11172-2 standard), koji se koristi kod VideoCD-a, propisuje rezoluciju od 352x240 sa 30 slika u sekundi, univerzalan je i radiće na bilo kojoj mašini. Standard je prihvaćen iz dva razloga: prvi razlo je što je kvalitet slike i tona poznat i prihvaćen u okviru VHS standarda, a drugi što se celovečernji film može smestiti na dva CD-a, što je prihvatljivo. Prednosti standarda su bile to što korisnik nije bio ograničen teritorijom, tj. nebitno je da li se u njegovoj zemlji koristi PAL, SECAM ili NTSC sistem, dok su mane to što je kvalitet slike u apsolutnom smislu nezadovoljavajući, a zvuk je najčešće 11kHz, što baš i nije impresivno.

DVD se ovde pojavio kao sjajno rešenje. On koristi novi format MPEG-2 (ISO/IEC 13818-2), koji podržava osvežavanje slike do 60Hz, dok se rezolucija penje do 720x480 sa 29.97 sl/s (za NTSC) ili 720x576 sa 25 sl/s (za PAL/SECAM). NTSC sistem se pretežno koristi u SAD, Kanadi i delu Dalekog Istoka, a PAL/SECAM je pretežno evropski standard koji i mi koristimo. Zapelo je oko standarda zvuka - Amerikanci su hteli Dolby Digtal, poznat i kao Dolby AC-3, a Evropa je htela MPEG-2 audio. Nekakav dogovor bi se verovatno postigao, ali je stvar zapela zbog firme Philips, koja je bila angažovana u promociji MPEG-2 zvuka i koja ni do dan danas nije ispunila obećanje da će isporučiti potreban set čipova za kodiranje/dekodiranje MPEG-2 zvuka. MPEG-2 zvuk je nudio isto što i Dolby Digital, ali i korak više u vidu 7.1 formata (7 umesto 5 surround kanala plus infrabas), koji je radio na svim mogućim nivoima od mono, preko stereo i 3Stereo pa do maksimalnih 7.1. DVD takođe uključuje opciju za linearni PCM (pulse code modulation) digital audio zapis, koji nudi uzorkovanje na 48 ili 96kHz, 16/20/24 bita, brzinu protoka do 6.144MB/s i osam kanala, a koristi se za DVD-Audio. Zvučni efekti su privukli i dve dodatne firme koje se bave zvukom mahom po bioskopima i sudijima - DTS (Digital Theatre System) i SDDS.

Podaci na DVD-Video disku su drugačije organizovani nego na CD-u, jer nisu više kontinualni na spirali koja kreće od centra diska, već su podeljene na podatke o navigaciji i sam sadržaj. Podaci o navigaciji osim skoka na bilo koji deo diska omogućuju i dodatne opcije kao što su: odabir jezika za titl ili sinhronizaciju (do 8 audio traka digitalnog audia i do 32 titla - subtitle/karaoke tracks), odabir formata slke (aspect ratio), kontrola toka filma kroz roditeljsku zaštitu (parental control) ili direktno učešće u radnji (npr. film sa više završetaka u kome vi donosite sve važne odluke) i promena jednog od (do devet) uglova posmatranja. Sve ovo omogućava veliku interaktivnost, koja predstavlja jednu od važnih prednosti u odnosu na ostale formate.

Tradicionalni format TV slike koji danas gledamo je prevaziđen jer se format od 4:3 (širina:visina) razlikuje od onoga koga gledamo u bioskopima, tj. onoga koji je reditelj originalno zamislio za film. Format 16:9 predstavlja svetski trend jer je mnogo bliži onome što gledamo na bioskopskom platnu. DVD i ovaj problem rešava skoro perfektno omogućavajući sve kombinacije formata slike i formata televizora: Full Frame (4:3 video za 4:3 displej), Letterbox (16:9 video za 4:3 displej), Pan and Scan (16:9 video za 4:3 displej) i Widescreen (16:9 video za 16:9 displej). Ovo je omogućeno ogromnim kapacitetom DVD-a, pa na jednom DVD disku mogu da se uskladište četiri verzije istog filma (koji traje ispod dva sata) u sva četiri formata.

Popularnost DVD-a u velikoj meri zavisi od filmova i drugih naslova koje kontroliše Holivud, koji neće ni da čuje za piratska izdanja, pa zahteva efikasne mere zaštite autorskih prava od ilegalnog presnimavanja. Zaštita od neovlašćenog kopiranja je jedan od osnovnih razloga kašnjenja DVD medijuma na tržištu. Proizvođači su se dugo dogovarali i sporili oko zaštite od presnimavanja i kao rezlutat toga DVD je najzaštićeniji format do sada. Naravno, stepeni zaštite su ostavljeni proizvođaču na izbor, ali kada se sve uzme u obzir mogućnosti su fenomenalne.

Na samom vrhu zaštite je regionalno kodiranje. Kompanije koje distribuiraju i proizvode filmove su se složile da se mora obezbediti da naslovi koji se pojave na nekom tržistu ne mogu biti prenosivi na neko drugo tržište bez dozvole. Svet je tako podeljen na šest regiona (zona): Kanada i SAD (1. zona); Evropa, Japan, južna Afrika i Srednji istok (2. zona); jugoistočna i istočna Azija (3. zona); Australija, Novi Zeland, Pacifička ostrva, Karibi, Centralna i Južna Amerika (4. zona); zemlje bivšeg SSSR, indijski subkontinent i Afrika (5. zona); i Kina (6. zona), a postoje i DVD diskovi zone 0. koji se mogu gledati na svim DVD plejerima. DVD plejeri se prodaju sa ugrađenim kodom regiona u kome se prodaju, a DVD naslovi imaju na sebi bajt koji signalizira regionalni kod. Ako se kodovi ne poklope plejer će odbiti da čita podatke. Računarski DVD-ROM uređaji su nešto manje otporni jer se kod njih regionalni kod može softverski promeniti maksimalno 5 puta, posle čega promena ostaje trajna. Međutim, za skoro sve DVD-ROM-ove sa našeg tržišta se mogu naći hakovani tzv. zone-free BIOS-i (tj. firmware-ovi), koji uklanjaju ova ograničenja.

Sledeća zaštita je makrovizija (Macrovision 7), zaštita od presnimavanja koja se sastoji od emitovanja posebnih signala u delu slike koji se ne vidi na ekranu, a koje plejeri (i noviji videorekorderi) raspoznaju. Kada dobiju ovakav signal, oni sprečavaju funkcionisanje kola za automatsko prilagođenje (AGC - Automatic Gain Control) uređaja koji snima, što dovodi do prezasićenja koje rezultira crnim ekranom, pa nema ništa od kopiranja sadržaja čak i legalno kupljenog DVD-a na video kasetu.

Za one koji imaju Macro-killer, tu je CGMS (Copy Generation Management System) sistem, digitalna zaštita koju poseduju i mnogi (ali ne i svi) noviji videorekorderi. To je modifikacija makrovizije, koja omogućava zaštitu i od digitalnog, a ne samo analognog kopiranja, ali podrazumeva da je i u videorekorder ugrađen isti sistem.

Sledeći zid zaštite je CSS (Content Scrambling System), koji onemogućava čisto digitalno kopiranje filmova. Ovo je sistem baziran na ključevima, gde DVD disk i uređaj koji ga čita moraju uspešno razmeniti ključeve da bi se podaci dešifrovali i uspešno prikazali.

Na kraju, tu je i DivX ili DVE (Digital Video Express) sistem koji omogućava vremensko ograničenje trajanjamogućnosti prikazivanja naslova na disku. Za razliku od prethodnih metoda DivX zahteva posebne plejere koji koriste posebnu telefonsku liniju za registraciju diska; konsultujući bazu podataka, oni će onemogućiti gledanje diska nakon 48h od prvog umetanja diska u plejer.

Kada se sve ovo sabere očigledno je da je DVD dobro zaštićen, ali vremenom pada jedna po jedna zaštita i već sada postoje načini za presnimavanje DVD-a na video kasetu, CD ili na hard disk. Pojavim jeftinih DVD snimača situacija će se verovatno još više pogoršati za proizvođače i distributere filmova, ali će oni tada izmisliti neki novi "neprobojan" format i priča će krenuti ispočetka.



Pioneer began development of a new digital video disc format in 1991, with the goal of recording two or more hours of high-quality video on one disc, as a next-generation replacement for the LaserDisc.

In 1994, Pioneer introduced to the market an industrial model called the Karaoke System, which could store and play back 2.1 GB of MPEG-1 data from a one-sided, 1.2 mm thick disc, using a 680 nm laser. In 1994, Pioneer also developed another digital video disc system which used an SHG blue laser. In response to Hollywood's desire to have this kind of new system enter the market before multi-channel satellite broadcasting, Pioneer worked with Toshiba to propose a disc specification called SD, which used a red laser, at the end of 1994. Around the same time, Sony and Philips were promoting the MMCD specification. The major difference between the SD and MMCD specifications were whether the discs should use two 0.6 mm substrates bonded together, or a single 1.2 mm substrate, as an extension of the CD format. At the end of 1995, agreement was finally reached on a specification that combined the two-substrate approach of SD with the 8/16 modulation of the MMCD specification. At this point the DVD Consortium was formed, and DVD truly got started.

In August 1996 the DVD Video Book was published, and the first DVD video players went on sale in November of the same year. The 3.95 GB Write-Once DVD-R Book, and the 2.6 GB rewritable DVD-RAM Book, were published in 1997. A DVD-RW Book and DVD-RAM Book, which define 4.7 GB rewritable formats, were published in 1999. A specification for 4.7 GB DVD-R was introduced in 2000. Two application specifications, the DVD Audio and the DVD Video Recording specification, were introduced in 1999. Following these specifications, DVD audio players, which provide high-quality multi-channel audio, and DVD video recorders, which allow recording to and playback of DVDs, were introduced to the market.




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