Sports Medicine Curriculum Essentials Document V102


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Objective 1: Identify members of the Sports Medicine team.

1. Recognize the primary members of the sports medicine team to include: Coach, Athlete,

2. Parents, Team Physician, and Certified Athletic Trainer, and Allied Health professionals.

3. Understand that other careers provide support to the sports medicine team.

4. Compare and contrast the roles of each member of the sports medicine team.
Objective 2: Explore a variety of therapeutic careers and describe the job duties and skills, education required, job settings, and potential salary.

1. Certified Athletic Trainer

2. Physical Therapist

3. Physical Therapy Assistant

4. Physical Therapy Aide

5. Occupational Therapist

6. Occupational Therapy Assistant

7. Occupational Therapy Aide

8. Exercise Physiologist

9. Orthopedic Surgeon

10. Physician

11. Physician Assistant

12. Massage Therapist

13. Chiropractor

14. Sports Psychologist

15. Certified Strength & Conditional Specialist/Personal Trainer

16. Dietician

17. Podiatrist

Objective 3: Explain legal issues and legal terminology.

1. Discuss risk management in an athletic setting (collision, contact, non-contact; surfaces).

2. Define legal terminology and discuss issues including:

Assumption of Risk


Commission and Omission

Failure to Warn


Informed Consent



Negligence (Duty of care, breach of duty, damage/injury, proximal cause)

Standard of Care

3. Discuss parameters of ethical conduct and associated issues including:

Americans with Disabilities Act

2. Cheating

Drug testing

Fair play and sportsmanship

Performance enhancing drugs

Scope of practice

Title IX (Gender equity in sports)

Winning at all costs

4. Review preventative measures to reduce potential risks of litigation.

Be familiar with athletes

Carry liability insurance

Continuing education

Demonstrate appropriate documentation (SOAP)

Follow physician orders and recommendations

Have an emergency action plan

Maintain adequate supervision

Maintain good rapport with the Sports Medicine Team

Objective 1: Identify and utilize anatomical positions, planes, and directional terms.

1. Demonstrate what anatomical position is and how it is used to reference the body.

2. Distinguish between the commonly used anatomical planes and recognize their individual views.

Sagittal / Midsagittal Plane

Frontal / Coronal Plane

Transverse / Horizontal Plane

3. Apply directional terms to their location on the human body.

Superior / Inferior

Anterior / Posterior

Medial / Lateral

Distal / Proximal

Superficial / Deep

Ventral / Dorsal

Prone / Supine Unilateral / Bilateral

Objective 2: Demonstrate body movements.

1. Compare and contrast the various movements of the body and their counter-movements.

Flexion / Extension / Hyperextension

Adduction / Abduction

Pronation / Supination

Retraction / Protraction

Elevation / Depression

Rotation / Circumduction

External Rotation / Internal Rotation

Lateral Flexion (side-bending left or right)

2. Compare and contrast the various movements of the foot /ankle and their counter-movements.

Inversion / Eversion

Dorsiflexion / Plantarflexion

Pronation / Supination

3. Compare and contrast the lateral movements of the wrist/hand and their counter-movements.

Radial Deviation / Ulnar Deviation

Objective 3: Define terms associated with Exercise Science.

1. Define the terminology that describes common sports injuries.

2. Define the concepts related to the injury process.



Objective 1: Describe the basic principles and specialized equipment used in the prevention of athletic injury.

1. Recognize types and functions of protective equipment.

Helmet / face mask / ear guards

Mouth guards

Neck collars


Sports bras

Athletic supporter / cup

Shin guards


Other sport specific protection devices

2. Discuss the legal ramifications of manufacturing, buying, and issuing equipment.

NOCSAE warning

Modification of equipment

Proper fit and selection

Use of defective or worn out equipment
Objective 2: Demonstrate theory and principles of prophylactic taping.

1. Analyze the basic principles of prophylactic taping.

2. Identify the necessary supplies and their purpose for prophylactic taping.

Athletic tape (various size)


Heel and lace pad

Adhesive spray

Shark / Scissors

3. Analyze the basic principles of proper tape removal.

4. Explain the terminology associated with prophylactic taping procedures.






Checkrein / fan

5. Competently tape an ankle using the standard prophylactic taping method.

6. Competently tape an arch using the standard prophylactic taping method.

7. Competently tape a thumb using the standard prophylactic taping method.

8. Competently tape a wrist using the standard prophylactic taping method.

Objective 3: Identify principles of protective bracing.

1. Discuss the differences between functional and prophylactic bracing.

2. Identify the function of joint sleeves (compression).

Objective 1: Define terms associated with performance enhancement.

1. Cardiovascular endurance

2. Muscular endurance

3. Power

4. Speed

5. Strength

Objective 2: Discuss general conditioning principles.

1. Adaptation

2. Overload

3. Specificity

4. Reversibility

5. Periodization

Objective 3: Examine the roll the cardiovascular / respiratory systems have on fitness/athletic performance.

1. Describe the anatomy of the cardiovascular / respiratory systems.

Heart – 4 chambers, 4 valves, 4 blood vessels

Lungs – oxygen exchange from alveoli to capillaries

2. Identify vital signs related to the cardiovascular / respiratory system.

Describe and accurately measure blood pressure (systolic / diastolic).

Describe and accurately measure respiratory rate

Describe and accurately measure pulse rate

Describe lung volume

Describe the importance of cardiac output, stroke volume, and heart rate during exercise.

3. Examine different types of tests used to quantify cardiovascular fitness.


Harvard step test

12 minute run test

4. Describe the effects exercise has on the cardiovascular / respiratory systems.

Immediate effects of exercise (heart rate, ventilation)

Long term effects of exercise (heart rate, stroke volume, cardiac output)

5. Compare and contrast aerobic / anaerobic training.

6. Examine the importance of a warm up / cool down in a training program.

7. Examine different cardiovascular training methods.





8. Apply general conditioning principles to improve cardiovascular fitness.

Rate of perceived exertion (BORG scale)

Target heart rate
Objective 4: Examine the effects of the environment on training and performance.

Discuss the effect of high and low altitude.

Describe the effects of acclimatization.

Recognize the effects of travel on the body.

Objective 5: Examine the roll strength training has on fitness / athletic performance.

1. Compare and contrast the difference between slow twitch and fast twitch muscles fibers and the type of athletic performance each influence.

2. Compare and contrast different types of movements related to strength training.

Isometric / isotonic / isokinetic

Eccentric / concentric

Closed chain / open chain


3. Identify methods of resistance.

4. Apply general conditioning principles to improve strength.


Muscular endurance

Objective 6: Examine the importance of flexibility in fitness / athletic performance.

1. Explain the general guidelines of flexibility.

Define ROM and how it relates to fitness / athletic performance

Identify the benefits of flexibility

o Decrease risk of injury

o Reduce muscle soreness

o Improve muscular balance and postural awareness

Demonstrate proper timing of flexibility techniques

o Before activity

o After activity

2. Identify the different methods to increase flexibility and the safety / effectiveness of each.

Static stretching

Ballistic Stretching

Dynamic Stretching

Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation Stretching

o Contract/Relax

o Hold / Relax


Objective 1: Describe the basics components of nutrition.

1. Utilize the Food Guide Pyramid at to recognize the components of a sound diet.

2. Recognize the basic human needs and the sources of the following nutrients:






Objective 2: Describe basic body composition.

1. Define body composition.

2. Compare and contrast the most common methods for analyzing body composition.


Bod Pod




3. Describe the parameters of safe weight loss and weight gain.
Objective 3: Examine the importance of fluid replacement and hydration.

1. Examine the importance of water and its role in the body.

2. Explain the correct process of hydration during athletic activity.

Identify the dangers of inappropriate hydration techniques.

Identify the dangers of dehydration.

3. Compare and contrast advantages and disadvantages of sports drinks.

Identify the roll of sports drinks in hydration

Discuss the correct chemical make-up of sports drinks.

4. Discuss the dangers of energy drinks and their effects on the body.
Objective 4: Identify the components of a pre and post event meal and explain the value of each.

1. Describe recommended nutrient percentages of pre and post event meals.

2. Identify foods that are easily digested.

3. Identify foods that should be avoided.

4. Identify when pre and post event meals should be eaten.

5. Explain the process of carbohydrate loading and discuss when it is most effective.

Objective 5: Recognize disorders associated with nutrition.

1. Identify signs, symptoms, and effects of Anorexia Nervosa.

2. Identify signs, symptoms, and effects of Bulimia Nervosa.

3. Identify signs, symptoms, and effects of the Female Athlete Triad.

Objective 6: Compare and contrast the physiological and psychological effects of ergogenic aids.

1. Define ergogenic aid.

2. Recognize the effects and possible dangers of common ergogenic aides.



Anabolic steroids

Beta blockers


Human growth hormone

Blood doping products






Objective 1: Discuss the inflammatory response and the healing process.

1. Compare and contrast acute and chronic injuries.

2. Discuss the purpose of inflammation.

3. Categorize the stages of acute injury healing and explain the processes involved in each:

Acute (Inflammation) Phase

o Signs and symptoms of inflammation (heat, redness, swelling, pain, loss of function)

o Time frame

o Define vasodilatation and explain why it occurs

o Define hypoxia and explain its role in secondary injury

Subacute (Repair and Regeneration) Phase

o Time frame

o Explain what fibroblasts are

o Explain what collagen is and its role in scar tissue formation

Remodeling (Maturation) Phase

o Time frame

o Define adhesions

o Explain Wolff’s Law
Objective 2: Compare and contrast injury classifications.

1. Describe first degree injuries

2. Describe second degree injuries

3. Describe third degree injuries


Objective 1: Explain an injury assessment (HIPS)

1. Identify proper PPE / BSI precautions.

2. Identify the components included in obtaining an accurate history.

3. Identify the components of an inspection.

4. Describe the process of palpation.

5. Describe the purposes of special tests.

Range of Motion

o Passive

o Active

o Resistive

Stress Tests (structural integrity)



6. f. Discuss the decisions that can be made from a HIPS evaluation.

7. g. Explain a HIPS assessment.
Objective 2: Identify soft tissue injuries and skin conditions.

1. Differentiate signs and symptoms and treatment for:








2. Differentiate signs and symptoms and treatment for:

Ring worm

Jock itch

Athlete’s foot




Objective 3: Recognize abdominal injuries, bleeding, and shock.

1. Discuss external bleeding.

2. Demonstrate proper procedures to control bleeding.

Apply direct pressure with sterile gauze pad

Apply a pressure dressing

Check circulation

3. Identify signs, symptoms, and treatment of internal bleeding.

4. Identify signs and symptoms and treatment of abdominal injuries.

Ruptured spleen



5. Describe shock and the treatment for it.

Objective 4: Discuss immobilization techniques.

1. Identify fracture signs and symptoms.

2. Explain the steps to immobilization.

Splint in the position found

Immobilize the joint above and the joint below

Check circulation distal to the injury

3. Explain head / neck immobilization.

Maintain in-line stabilization.

Monitor ABC’s.
Objective 5: Describe the treatment for medical conditions.

1. Seizures

2. Fainting

3. Diabetes

4. Anaphylactic shock

5. Asthma

Objective 6: Recognize and provide treatment for environmental conditions.

1. Compare and contrast the causes, signs, symptoms, and treatment of heat illnesses.

Heat cramps

Heat exhaustion

Heat stroke

2. Compare and contrast the causes, signs, symptoms, and treatment of cold exposure.




Objective 1: Recognize common injuries to the head and neck to include: concussion, cervical spine fractures, brachial plexus injuries, and nose bleeds.

1. Review the anatomy of the head and neck.

Bones (Frontal, Occipital, Parietal, Temporal, Mandible, Maxillae, Zygomatic, Nasal, Cervical Vertebrae)

Muscles (Sternocleidomastoid, Trapezius)

Structures (Brain, Intervertebral disks)

Nerves (Cervical plexus, Brachial plexus)

2. Identify the mechanism of injury.

3. Identify the signs and symptoms of the injury.

4. Indicate appropriate treatment for the injury.

5. Describe injury prevention strategies.

Objective 2: Recognize common injuries to the upper extremity to include: clavicle fracture, impingement syndrome, rotator cuff injuries, glenohumeral dislocation, AC joint separation, epicondylitis, and interphalangeal dislocation.

1. Review the anatomy of the upper extremity.

Bones (Scapula, Clavicle, Humerus, Radius, Ulna, Carpals, Metacarpals, Phalanges)

Joints (Shoulder – sternoclavicular, acromioclavicular, glenohumeral, scapulothoracic; Elbow, Wrist, Metacarpal Phalangeal, Interphalangeal)

Soft tissues (Subacromial bursa, AC ligament, Glenoid Labrum)

Muscles (Deltoid, SITS, Biceps Brachii, Triceps Brachii)

2. Identify the mechanism of injury.

3. Identify the signs and symptoms of the injury.

4. Indicate appropriate treatment for the injury.

5. Describe injury prevention strategies.

Objective 3: Recognize common injuries to the lower extremity to include: collateral ligament sprains, cruciate ligament sprains, meniscal injury, patello-femoral injuries, ankle sprains, plantar fasciitis, turf toe, thigh contusions, quadriceps/hamstring strains, and medial tibial stress syndrome – “shin splints”.
1. Review the anatomy of the lower extremity.

Bones (Femur, Tibia, Fibula, Patella, Talus, Calcaneus, Metatarsals, Phalanges)

Joints (Tibial Femoral, Patello Femoral, Talocrural, Subtalar)

Soft tissues (patellar tendon, ACL, MCL, PCL, LCL, lateral and medical meniscus. Anterior tibiofibular ligament, Anterior talofibular ligament, Deltoid ligament)

Muscles (Quadriceps, Hamstrings, Peroneals, Tibialis Anterior, Tibialis Posterior, Gastrocnemius, Soleus, Achilles Tendon)

2. Identify the mechanism of injury.

3. Identify the signs and symptoms of the injury.

4. Indicate appropriate treatment for the injury.

5. Describe injury prevention strategies.

Objective 1: Explore therapeutic modalities.

1. Identify the purpose of therapeutic modalities.

2. Explain how to properly select the use of therapeutic modalities.

3. Identify the Gate Control Theory as a principle of pain management and describe the physiological process of the theory.

Objective 2: Describe the physiologic effects, indications, contraindications, and application of:

1. Cryotherapy

Ice packs

Ice massage

Ice immersion

Cold whirlpool

Chemical coolant

Describe the R.I.C.E. method for acute injuries

2. Thermotherapy

Heat packs


Hot whirlpool

Contrast baths

3. Electrotherapy

4. Massage
Objective 3: Discuss the components and goals of a rehabilitation program.

1. Identify the general guidelines of a rehabilitation program.

Individualize each program

Be as aggressive as possible without causing harm

Use a variety of equipment

Common mistakes

o Treat the cause not the symptoms

o Not addressing the contra-lateral side

o Postural defects, anatomical mal-alignment, and biomechanical imbalances are often neglected

Appropriate goal setting

Components of a rehabilitation program

2. Phase I

Body conditioning/maintain cardiovascular fitness throughout all phases

Control swelling

Control pain

Increase range of motion

3. Phase II

Restore full range of motion

Strength, endurance, speed, power in all muscle groups

Begin skill patterns and proprioception

4. Phase III

Functional and sport specific skills

Restore balance and proprioception

Return to sport

5. Relate the different exercise principles to rehabilitation.



Objective 1: Identify the psychological implications of an injury to an athlete.

1. Describe the five psychological phases an athlete experiences following an injury.






2. Compare and contrast athletes that deny pain and loss of function or view injury as a source of relief.

Objective 2: Identify effective psychological intervention skills.

1. Describe the importance of goal setting.

Performance goals

Outcome goals

SMART goals

2. Examine different relaxation techniques and how they can help performance.

Focused breathing

Progressive muscle relaxation

3. Analyze the use of visual imagery in sport.

Aid in rehabilitation and healing

Reduce anxiety

Improve performance

Objective 3: Identify potential problems associated with overtraining.

1. Compare and contrast staleness and burnout.

2. Identify interventions to prevent or treat staleness or burnout.

Remove from activity

Time off

Allow athlete to have more control

Decreasing emotional and stressful demands

Avoid repetition

Sufficient attention to complaints and small injuries

Supportive and caring environment

Post-Secondary and Workforce Readiness Content Standards (Colorado Community College Systems)

PWR.01.01.a - Read fiction and non-fiction, understanding conclusions reached and points of view expressed

PWR.01.01.b - Write clearly and coherently for a variety of purposes and audiences

PWR.01.01.c - Use logic and rhetoric to analyze and critique ideas

PWR.01.01.d - Access and use primary and secondary sources to explain questions being researched

PWR.01.01.e - Employ standard English language properly and fluently in reading, writing, listening, and speaking

PWR.01.02.a - Think critically, analyze evidence, read graphs, understand logical arguments, detect logical fallacies, test conjectures, evaluate risks, and appreciate the role mathematics plays in the modern world, i.e., be quantitatively literate

PWR.01.02.b - Understand and apply algebraic and geometric concepts and techniques

PWR.01.02.c - Use concepts and techniques of probability and statistics

PWR.01.02.d - Apply knowledge of mathematics to problem solve, analyze issues, and make critical decisions that arise in everyday life

PWR.01.03.a - Think scientifically and apply the scientific method to complex systems and phenomena

PWR.01.03.b - Use theoretical principles within a scientific field and relevant empirical evidence to make and draw conclusions

PWR.01.03.c - Recognize that scientific conclusions are subject to interpretation and can be challenged

PWR.01.03.d - Understand the core scientific concepts, principles, laws, and vocabulary, and how scientific knowledge is extended, refined, and revised over time

PWR.01.04.a - Identify and describe historical, social, cultural, political, geographical, and economic concepts

PWR.01.04.b - Interpret sources, and evaluate evidence and competing ideas

PWR.01.04.c - Build conceptual frameworks based on an understanding of themes and the overall flow of events

PWR.01.04.d - Understand how government works in the United States and in other countries, the varying roles individuals may play in society, and the nature of civic responsibility

PWR.01.04.e - Interpret information from a global and multicultural perspective

PWR.02.01.a - Apply logical reasoning and analytical skills

PWR.02.01.b - Conduct research using acceptable research methods

PWR.02.01.c - Understand different research approaches

PWR.02.01.d - Collect and analyze quantitative and qualitative data and research

PWR.02.01.e - Evaluate the credibility and relevance of information, ideas, and arguments

PWR.02.01.f - Discern bias, pose questions, marshal evidence, and present solutions

PWR.02.02.a - Select, integrate, and apply appropriate technology to access and evaluate new information

PWR.02.02.b - Understand the ethical uses of information

PWR.02.02.c - Provide citations for resources

PWR.02.03.a - Demonstrate intellectual curiosity

PWR.02.03.b - Generate, evaluate, and implement new ideas and novel approaches

PWR.02.03.c - Develop new connections where none previously existed

PWR.02.04.b - Interact effectively with and respect the diversity of different individuals, groups, and cultures

PWR.02.04.c - Recognize the interdependent nature of our world

PWR.02.05.a - Recognize the value of civic engagement and its role in a healthy democracy and civil society

PWR.02.05.b - Be involved in the community and participate in its political life

PWR.02.05.c - Balance personal freedom with the interests of a community

PWR.02.06.a - Plan and prioritize goals

PWR.02.06.b - Manage time effectively

PWR.02.06.c - Take initiative, and follow through

PWR.02.06.d - Learn from instruction and criticism

PWR.02.06.e - Take responsibility for completion of work

PWR.02.06.f - Act with maturity, civility, and politeness

PWR.02.06.g - Demonstrate flexibility and adaptability

PWR.02.07.a - Balance self-advocacy with the consideration of others

PWR.02.07.b - Possess financial literacy and awareness of consumer economics

PWR.02.07.c - Behave honestly and ethically

PWR.02.07.d - Take responsibility for actions

PWR.02.07.e - Understand the relevance of learning to postsecondary and workforce readiness

PWR.02.07.f - Demonstrate awareness of and evaluate career options

PWR.02.07.g - Attend to personal health and wellness

PWR.02.08.a - Read, write, listen and speak effectively

PWR.02.08.b - Construct clear, coherent, and persuasive arguments

PWR.02.08.c - Communicate and interact effectively with people who have different primary languages

PWR.02.09.a - Work effectively with others

PWR.02.09.b - Acknowledge authority and take direction

PWR.02.09.c - Cooperate for a common purpose

PWR.02.09.d - Use teamwork and leadership skills effectively

Pathway: Therapeutic Services- Sports Medicine

Plan of Study: Personal Trainer

Career Goal (O*Net Code): Physical Therapist, Sports Therapist, Physician specializing in Sports Injuries,

Suggested High School Courses

High School

* Default includes CDHE Higher Education

Admission Requirements


Core Academic Courses*:

English I, Algebra I, Biology, State History/Civics

Suggested Electives:

Computer Applications

Physical Education

Career Path Courses:



Core Academic Courses*:

English II,Algebra II/ Geometry, Chemistry, US History, Foreign Language I

Suggested Electives:


Career Path Courses:

 PE II, Nutrition


Core Academic Courses*:

English III, or other, Chemistry

Suggested Electives:


Career Path Courses:

Medical Anatomy/Physiology,


Core Academic Courses*:

English IV, Trigonometry or other Math,

Suggested Electives:


Career Path Courses:

 Microbiology and Infectious Disease. Sports Medicine

Secondary to Postsecondary Linkages & Certifications

Recognition for Advanced Learning

Postsecondary Credit Options:

HPR 100 Intro to Health, HPR 101 Customer Service in Health Care, HPR 104 Health Career Options, HPR 106 Law & Ethics, HPR 178 Medical Terminology, MOT 136 Intro to Clinical Skills     

Industry Recognized Certificate(s) or License(s):

Personal Trainer Certification

Postsecondary Programs Available in Colorado

Colorado Institutions

Entrance Exams/ Requirements

Postsecondary Education Opportunities



AVS: Delta/Montrose, Emily Griffith, Arapahoe Campus- BVSD,
Pickens, San Juan Basin

Community Colleges/Colleges: Aims CC,

Arapahoe CC, Colorado Mountain College, Colorado Northwestern CC, CC of Denver,

Front Range CC, Lamar CC, Morgan CC,

Northeastern Jr. College, Otero Jr. College,

Pikes Peak CC, Pueblo CC, Western Colorado CC, Mesa State College,

Red Rocks CC, Trinidad State Jr. College

High School diploma/GED

Associate Degree


Aims CC, Front Range Cc, Arapahoe CC,

Colorado Mountain College, Colorado Northwestern CC, CC of Denver, Lamar CC,

Morgan CC, Northeastern Jr. College, Otero Jr. College, Pikes Peak CC, Pueblo CC,

Trinidad State Jr. College, Western Colorado CC, Mesa State College

High School diploma/GED

Bachelor Degree


Adams State College, Mesa State College, Metropolitan State College of Denver, Univ.of Northern Colorado


See each school's Admissions website.

Graduate Degree

University of Colorado - Health Sciences Center, Colorado State University - Pueblo, University of Colorado-Colorado Springs,


See each school's Admissions website.

Insert Institution Name Here does not discriminate on the basis of race, color, national origin, sex, disability or age in its programs or activities. Please direct inquiries to: Insert name, address and telephone number of AA/EEO officer

for Health Ed

Cluster Overview: The Health Science Career Cluster prepares students for careers in planning, managing, and providing therapeutic services, diagnostic services, health informatics, support services, and biotechnology research and development.

Extended Learning Experiences

Curricular Experiences:

Health Occupations Students of America

Extracurricular Experiences:

National Youth Leadership Forum on Medicine

Medical Mission Trips

Special Olympics

Work-Based Learning Experiences:
Career Preparation – Paid and Unpaid, Job Shadowing, Internships

Program Accreditation and/or Professional Association(s):

Service Learning Experiences:
Example: Community Service Volunteer

Career Options:

Salary Range:


Personal Trainer


Associate Degree

Sports Medicine PT/OT Assistant

$$ - $$$

Bachelor Degree


$$ - $$$

Graduate Degree

Physician specializing in Sports Injuries

$$$ - $$$$

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