Something that is similar or comparable to something else\



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Term

Definition

Sound File

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Analogue

Something that is similar or comparable to something else\.




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Behaviourists

Learning theorists who argue that a scientific approach to understanding behaviour must refer only to observable and measurable behaviours and who emphasize the importance of rewards and punishments in the learning process.




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Bisexual

Sexually responsive to either gender. (From the Latin bi-, which means “two.”)




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Coitus

(co-it-us or co-EET-us\)\. Sexual intercourse\.




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Concubine

A secondary wife, usually of inferior legal and social status. (From Latin roots meaning “lying with.”) a




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Copulation

Sexual intercourse. (From the Latin copulare, which means “to unite” or “to couple.”)




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Courtesan

A prostitute—especially the mistress of a noble or wealthy man. (From Italian roots meaning “court lady.”)




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Cunnilingus

A sexual activity involving oral contact with the female genitals\.




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Defence mechanisms

In psychoanalytic theory, automatic processes that protect the ego from anxiety by disguising or ejecting unacceptable ideas and urges\.




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Erogenous zones

Parts of the body, including but not limited to the sex organs, that are responsive to sexual stimulation\.




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Erotic

Arousing sexual feelings or desires. (From the Greek eros, which means “love.”)




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Evolution

The development of a species to its present state, a process that is believed to involve adaptations to its environment\.




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Evolutionary psychology

The theory that dispositions toward behaviour patterns that enhance reproductive success may be genetically transmitted\.




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Fellatio

A sexual activity involving oral contact with the penis\.




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Fixation

In psychoanalytic theory, arrested development, which includes attachment to traits and sexual preferences that are characteristic of an earlier stage of psychosexual development\.




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Foreplay

Mutual sexual stimulation that precedes sexual intercourse\.




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Gender roles

Complex clusters of ways in which males and females are expected to behave within a given culture\.




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Gender roles

Complex clusters of ways in which males and females are expected to behave within a given culture\.




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Gender

One's personal, social, and legal status as male or female\.




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Human sexuality

The ways in which we experience and express ourselves as sexual beings\.




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Incest taboo

The prohibition against intercourse and reproduction among close blood relatives\.




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Modelling

Acquiring knowledge and skills by observing others.




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Monogamy

The practice of having one spouse. (From the Greek mono-, which means single” or “alone.”)




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Natural selection

The evolutionary process by which adaptive traits enable members of a species to survive to reproductive age and transmit these traits to future generations\.




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Oedipus complex

In psychoanalytic theory, a conflict of the phallic stage in which the boy wishes to possess his mother sexually and perceives his father as a rival in love. (The analogous conflict for girls is the Electra complex.)




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Pederasty

Sexual love of boys. (From the Greek paidos, which means “boy.”)




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Phallic symbols

Images of the penis.




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Phallic worship

Worship of the penis as a symbol of generative power\.




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Psychoanalysis

The theory of personality originated by Sigmund Freud, which proposes that human behaviour represents the outcome of clashing inner forces\.




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Psychosexual development

In psychoanalytic theory, the process by which sexual feelings shift from one erogenous zone to another\.




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Repression

The automatic ejection of anxiety-evoking ideas from consciousness\.




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Sexologist

A person who engages in the scientific study of sexual behaviour\.




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Social-learning theory

A cognitively oriented learning theory in which observational learning, values, and expectations play key roles in determining behaviour\.




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Unconscious mind

Those parts or contents of the mind that lie outside of conscious awareness\.




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Values

The qualities in life that are deemed important or unimportant, right or wrong, desirable or undesirable\.




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Case study

A carefully drawn, in-depth biography of an individual or a small group of individuals that may be obtained through interviews, questionnaires, and historical records.




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Control group

A group of study participants who do not receive the experimental treatment. However, other conditions are held comparable to those of individuals in the experimental group.




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Correlation coefficient

A statistic that expresses the strength and direction (positive or negative) of the relationship between two variables.




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Correlation

A statistical measure of the relationship between two variables.




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Demographic

Concerning the vital statistics (density, race, age, etc.) of human populations.




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Dependent variables

The measured results of an experiment, which are believed to be a function of the independent variables.




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Empirical

Derived from or based on observation and experimentation.




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Ethnography

The branch of anthropology that deals descriptively with specific cultures, especially preliterate societies.




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Experiment

A scientific method that seeks to confirm cause-and-effect relationships by manipulating independent variables and observing their effects on dependent variables.




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Experimental group

A group of study participants who receive a treatment.




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Generalize

To go from the particular to the general.




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Hypothesis

A precise prediction about behaviour that is often derived from theory and is tested through research.




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Incidence

A measure of the occurrence or the degree of occurrence of an event.




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Independent variable

A condition in a scientific study that is manipulated so that its effects can be observed.




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Informed consent

Agreement to participate in research after receiving adequate information about the purposes and nature of the study and about its potential risks and benefits.




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Naturalistic observation

A method in which organisms are observed in their natural environments.




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Operational definition

A definition of a concept or variable in terms of the methods used to measure it.




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Participant observation

A method in which observers interact with the people they study as they collect data.




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Penile strain gauge

A device for measuring sexual arousal in men in terms of changes in the circumference of the penis.




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Population

A complete group of organisms or events.




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Random sample

A sample in which every member of a population has an equal chance of participating.




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Reliability

The consistency or accuracy of a measure.




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Sample

Part of a population. a




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Selection factor

A bias that may operate in research when people are allowed to determine whether they will receive a treatment.




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Social desirability

A response bias to a questionnaire or interview in which the person provides a socially acceptable response.




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Stratified random sample

A random sample in which known subgroups in a population are represented in proportion to their numbers in the population.




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Survey

A detailed study of a sample obtained by means such as interviews and questionnaires.




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Treatment

In experiments, an intervention that is administered to participants (such as a test, a drug, or a sex education program) so that its effects can be observed.




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Vaginal photoplethysmograph

A tampon-shaped probe that is inserted in the vagina and suggests the level of vasocongestion by measuring the light reflected from the vaginal walls.




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Validity

With respect to tests, the degree to which a particular test measures the constructs or traits that it purports to measure.




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Variables

Quantities or qualities that vary or may vary.




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Vasocongestion

Congestion resulting from the flow of blood. (From the Latin vas, which means “vessel.”)




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Volunteer bias

A slanting of research data that is caused by the characteristics of individuals who volunteer to participate, such as willingness to discuss intimate behaviour.




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Amenorrhea

The absence of menstruation.




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Ampulla

A sac or dilated part of a tube or canal.




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Ampulla

The wide segment of a fallopian tube near the ovary. (A Latin word that means “bottle.”)




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Analogous

Similar in function.




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Androgens

Male sex hormones. (From the Greek andros, which means “man” or “males,” and -gene, which means “born.”)




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Anorexia nervosa

A psychological disorder of eating characterized by intense fear of putting on weight and refusal to eat enough to maintain normal body weight.




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Areola

The dark ring on the breast that encircles the nipple.




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Autonomic nervous system

The division of the nervous system that regulates automatic bodily processes, such as heartbeat, pupil dilation, respiration, and digestion. Abbreviated ANS.




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Bartholin's glands

Glands that lie just inside the minor lips and secrete fluid just before orgasm.




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Benign prostatic hyperplasia

Enlargement of the prostate gland due to hormonal changes associated with aging and characterized by symptoms such as urinary frequency, urinary urgency, and difficulty starting the flow of urine.




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Benign

Doing little or no harm.




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Bulbourethral glands

Another term for Cowper's glands.




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Cervix

The lower end of the uterus. (Latin for “neck.”)




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Cilia

Hairlike projections from cells which beat rhythmically to produce locomotion or currents.




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Circumcision

Surgical removal of the foreskin of the penis. (From the Latin circumcidere, which means “to cut around.”)




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Climacteric

A long-term process, including menopause, that involves the gradual decline in the reproductive capacity of the ovaries.




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Clitoridectomy

Surgical removal of the clitoris.




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Clitoris

A female sex organ consisting of a shaft and glans located above the urethral opening. It is extremely sensitive to sexual sensations.




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Clomiphene

A synthetic hormone that is chemically similar to LH and induces ovulation.




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Complete hysterectomy

Surgical removal of the ovaries, fallopian tubes, cervix, and uterus.




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Corona

The ridge that separates the glans from the body of the penis. (From the Latin for “crown.”)a




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Corpora cavernosa

Cylinders of spongy tissue in the penis that become congested with blood and stiffen during sexual arousal.




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Corpora cavernosa

Masses of spongy tissue in the clitoral shaft that become engorged with blood and stiffen in response to sexual stimulation. (Latin for “cavernous bodies.”)




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Corpus luteum

The follicle that has released an ovum and then produces copious amounts of progesterone and estrogen during the luteal phase of a woman's cycle. (From Latin roots that mean “yellow body.”)




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Corpus spongiosum

The spongy body that runs along the bottom of the penis, contains the penile urethra, and enlarges at the tip of the penis to form the glans.




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Cowper's glands

Structures that lie below the prostate and empty their secretions into the urethra during sexual arousal.




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Cremaster muscle

The muscle that raises and lowers the testicle in response to temperature changes and sexual stimulation.




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Crura

Anatomic structures resembling legs that attach the clitoris to the pubic bone. (Singular: crus. A Latin word that means “leg” or “shank.”)




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Cryptorchidism

A condition in which one or both testicles fail to descend from the abdomen into the scrotum.




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Cystitis

An inflammation of the urinary bladder. (From the Greek



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