Skeleton Cheat Sheet Axial Skeleton Skull, Vertebral Column, and Bony Thorax



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Skeleton Cheat Sheet

Axial Skeleton - Skull, Vertebral Column, and Bony Thorax
Skull
Cranial vault

Cranial floor

Anterior, middle, and posterior cranial fossa

Sutures


Sagittal

Coronal


Lambdoid

Squamous


Frontal bone

Glabella


Parietal bones

Occipital bone

Foramen magnum

Occipital condyles

Temporal bone

Zygomatic process

Mastoid process

External auditory (acoustic) meatus

Styloid process

Mandibular fossa

Jugular foramen

Carotid canal

Sphenoid bone

Sella turcica (turk’s saddle)

Greater wing

Lesser wing

Pterygoid process

Superior orbital fissure

Optic canal

Ethmoid bone

Crista galli (rooster’s comb)

Cribriform plate

Maxilla (upper jaw)

Palatine process

Alveolar margins

Zygomatic process

Zygomatic bone (cheek bone)

Mandible (lower jaw)

Mandibular condyle

Alveolar margins

Mandibular notch

Mental foramen

Coronoid process

Mandibular foramen

Mandibular ramus

Nasal bone

Vomer bone

Inferior nasal concha

Lacrimal bone

Lacrimal fossa

Palatine bone

Horizontal plate

Perpendicular plate

Supraorbital margin

Supraorbital foramen (notch)

Infraorbital foramen

Hyoid bone
Vertebral Column
Body (centrum)

Vertebral foramen

Vertebral canal (formed from successive vertebral foramina)

Pedicle


Lamina

Spinous process

Transverse process

Superior and inferior articular facets

Intervertebral foramina

Cervical vertebrae (C1-C7)

Transverse foramina

Atlas (C1)

Axis (C2)

Dens (odontoid process)

Thoracic vertebrae (T­1-T12)

Lumbar vertebrae (L1-L5)

Sacrum (S1-S5)

Sacral promontory

Sacral canal

Ala (alae - plural)

Coccyx

Need to be able to distinguish between cervical, thoracic, and lumbar vertebrae


Bony Thorax
Sternum

Manubrium

Xiphoid process

Body


Jugular notch

Ribs – 12 pairs (Need to know a right rib from a left rib)

Vertebrosternal (true) (1-7)

Vertebrochondral (false) (8-12)

Vertebral (floating) (11, 12)

Head


Neck

Tubercle of rib

Shaft

Costal end



Appendicular Skeleton - Girdles and Appendages
Pectoral Girdle
Clavicles

Sternal end (medial)

Acromial end (lateral)

Superior and inferior/right and left

Scapulae

Coracoid process

Acromion

Supracapular notch

Spine

Supraspinous fossa



Infraspinous fossa

Glenoid cavity

Borders - superior, medial (vertebral), lateral (axillary)

Angles – superior, inferior

Right and left scapulae

anterior and posterior


Upper Limbs (appendages)
Upper Arm

Humerus


Head

Anatomical neck

Surgical neck

Greater tubercle

Lesser tubercle

Deltoid tuberosity

Epicondyles – medial and lateral

Trochlea


Capitulum

Coronoid fossa

Olencranon fossa

Right and left humerus

Anterior and posterior

Forearm


Ulna

Olecranon process

Coronoid process

Trochlear (semi-lunar) notch

Radial notch

Head


Styloid process

Radius


Head

Neck


Radial tuberosity

Styloid process


Hand


Carpals - 8 bones – collectively called the carpus-wrist

Metacarpals – 5 bones – collectively called the metacarpus - palm

Phalanges (each finger has 3 phalanges; thumb has only 2)
Pelvic Girdle
Os coxa – hip bone – composed of ilium, ischium, and pubis fused together

right and left os coxa

anterior and posterior

Pelvic brim (pelvic inlet)

Pelvic outlet

Obturator foramen

Acetabulum

Ilium


Ala (Alae - plural)

Iliac fossa

Iliac crest

Anterior superior iliac spine

Anterior inferior iliac spine

Posterior superior iliac spine

Posterior inferior iliac spine

Greater sciatic notch

Auricular surface

Ischium


Ischial spine

Lesser sciatic notch

Ischial tuberosity

Ischial ramus

Pubis

Superior and inferior ramus of pubis



Pubic symphysis

Pubic arch


Lower Limbs (appendages)

Thigh


Femur

Head


Fovea capitis

Neck


Greater and lesser trochanter

Intertrochanteric crest (posterior)

Gluteal tuberosity (posterior)

Linea aspera (posterior)

Lateral and medial condyles

Lateral and medial epicondyle

Intercondylar notch

Patellar surface

Anterior and posterior

Lateral and medial

Right and left femur
Patella

Lower Leg

Tibia

Medial and lateral condyles



Tibial tuberosity

Anterior crest

Medial malleolus

right and left tibia

Fibula

Head


Lateral malleolus

Foot


Tarsals - 7 bones – collectively called tarsus - ankle

Talus


Calcaneus (where Achilles tendon attaches)

Metatarsals – 5 bones – collectively called metatarsus

Phalanges – each toe has 3 phalanges; big toe has only 2

2 longitudinal arches (lateral and medial)



1 transverse arch


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