Skeletal System Study Guide Functions of the Skeleton



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Skeletal System

Study Guide

Functions of the Skeleton

Support


_____________________

Blood cell ________________

Storage

___________________



Classification

Long –_______________than they are __________________

Short –______________shaped

Flat –______________, with broad surfaces

Irregular –______________shapes

Round –________________in shape


Anatomy of a Long Bone

Periosteum – tough, ______________________________covering

Epiphysis – expanded portion at the _____________of bones

Diaphysis – portion ___________________________________

Medullary cavity – hollow portion of diaphysis containing ___________________ _________________

Articular cartilage – layer of hyaline cartilage where bones ____________________ ___________________

Endosteum – lines the medullary cavity and the spaces of _____________________ ___________________

Compact Bone

Lacunae – contain ___________ ____________(osteocytes)

Lamellae – concentric layers of matrix containing _________________ ____________and _____________ ______________________

Blood vessels and nerves enter the central canal



Spongy Bone

Contains __________________and ____________________called trabeculae

Trabeculae follow lines of stress, giving bones strength

Bone Growth and Repair

Osteoprogenitor cells –__________________________________cells

Osteoblasts –_____________forming cells

Osteocytes –________________bone cells

Osteoclasts – break down bone
Bone Development and Growth

Ossification –_________________of bone

Intramembranous ossification

Bone forms between two __________________of fibrous connective tissue

Form bones of the skull

Endochondral ossification

Form most bones of the ______________________body

Hyaline cartilage models are replaced by bone

Epiphyseal plate

____________________of cartilage in the _______________________of long bones

Long bone growth continues until plate is ossified

Appositional growth –____________________in bone diameter


Remodeling of Bones

Bone is continually being _________________________and built up again

Osteoclasts remove ____________cells and deposit _________________in the blood

Osteoblasts remove calcium from the blood and form new bone

Three important ____________________regulating bone growth

Parathyroid hormone

Calcitonin

Growth hormone



Bone Repair

Required after it __________________(breaks)

Steps involved in bone repair

Hematoma


Fibrocartilaginous callus

________________callus

Remodelling

Naming of fractures

Complete – bone is broken _____________

Incomplete – bone is not _______________into two parts

Simple – does not ______________the skin

Compound –__________________the skin

Impacted – broken ends are wedged into each other

Spiral – ragged break due to twisting of bone

Reduction – repair of a fracture

Closed reduction – re-aligning bone fragments ______________________________surgery

Open reduction –______________________of the bone using plates, screws, or pins

Axial Skeleton

Lies in the ____________________of the body

Bones of the axial skeleton

Skull


Hyoid bone

The ____________________column

The thoracic ________________

Middle ear bones

Axial Skeleton

Skull

Formed by the ________________________and the _________________________bones

Sinuses

Air ___________________________within the bones



Lined by _____________________ membranes

Reduce the ____________________of the skull

Give the voice a ____________________ sound

________________sinuses

Maxillary

Frontal


Sphenoidal

Ethmoidal

_______________sinuses

Bones of the Cranium

________________the brain

Sutures –__________________joints

Composed of _______________bones

___________bone

____________ bones

_____________bone

______________ bones

External auditory meatus

Mandibular fossa

Mastoid process

Styloid process

Zygomatic process

______________bone

_______________bone

Crista galli

Cribriform plate

Perpendicular plate

Superior and middle nasal conchae



Bones of the Face

Maxillae


Alveolar process

Palatine process

____________________bones

____________________bones

Lacrimal bones

Nasal bones

____________________bone

Inferior nasal conchae

Mandible

Mandibular ____________

Coronoid process

Hyoid bone

Superior to larynx

Only bone in the body that does not _____________________________ with another bone

Anchors the _____________________________

Site of attachment for muscles associated with _____________________________

Axial Skeleton

Vertebral Column (Spine)

Supports _____________________

Serves as a point of ________________________ for the pelvic girdle

Protects the _______________________

Consists of a series of separate bones named for their location

Seven _________________(neck)

Twelve ________________(chest)

Five ____________________ (lower back)

Five _______________________

Three to five _______________



Normal curvatures

Cervical and lumbar –_________________anteriorly

Thoracic and sacral –__________________anteriorly

Provide support and balance



Abnormalities

__________________– exaggerated lumbar curvature

__________________– increased roundness of the thoracic curvature

__________________– abnormal lateral curvature that occurs most often in the thoracic region



Intervertebral Disks

Prevent vertebrae from ___________________against one another

Absorb ____________________

Allow __________________between vertebrae



Vertebrae

Body –__________________portion

Vertebral foramin –_____________for spinal cord

Bony projections serve as sites for _____________________________

Atlas (C1) – supports the______________________; allows head movement _______________________

Axis (C2) - serves as a ________________for the atlas; allows head movement from _________________

Sacrum – fused sacral vertebrae; forms posterior wall of the pelvic cavity

Coccyx – formed from a ___________________of three to five vertebrae



The Rib Cage

Protects the __________________________________

Provides support for the bones of the pectoral girdle

The ribs


__________________that connect to the thoracic vertebrae

True ribs – upper seven pairs connect directly to the _________________by costal cartilages

False ribs – next five pair that attach _____________________ to the sternum or not at all (“floating” ribs)

The sternum

Flat, _________________bone

Composed of three bones that fuse

Manubrium

Body


Xiphoid process

Appendicular Skeleton

Pectoral Girdle

Clavicles

Articulate medially with the manubrium

Only attachment to the axial skeleton

Serves as a brace for the _____________________ and stabilizes the __________________



Scapulae

Spine


Acromion process

Coracoid process

Glenoid cavity

Upper Limb

Humerus

long bone of the ______________

Head ___________________with the glenoid cavity of the scapula

Greater and lesser tubercles serve as attachments for muscles

Intertubercular groove holds a tendon from the biceps brachii

Deltoid tuberosity attaches the deltoid

Capitulum articulates with the head of the radius

Trochlea articulates with the ulna

Coronoid fossa

Olecranon fossa



Radius

__________________ side of the forearm

Head ____________________with the capitulum of the ___________________and fits into the radial notch of the ulna

Radial tuberosity attaches a tendon from the biceps brachii

Ulnar notch articulates with the head of the ulna

Styloid process attaches _____________________that run to the ________________



Ulna

________________bone of the forearm

Coronoid process ____________________with the coronoid fossa when elbow is flexed

Olecranon process articulates with the olecranon fossa when the elbow is extended

Trochlear notch articulates with the trochlea of the humerus

Head articulates with the ulnar notch of the radius

Styloid process attaches ligaments that run to the wrist

Hand

Wrist (carpus) contains _____________small bones

Metacarpal bones form the ________________

Phalanges

_______________of the fingers

The thumb has only ___________phalanges (proximal and distal)

The other fingers have ____________phalanges each (proximal, middle, and distal)

Pelvic Girdle

Coxal bones

Ilium

Ischium


Pubis

Pubic symphysis

Obturator foramen

Gender differences

Female has _____________hips

Female ___________is wider

Female inlet and outlet of the true pelvis are _____________

Female pelvic cavity is more _________________

Female bones are _____________and thinner

Female pubic arch is wider

Lower Limb

Femur

________________and _________________bone in the body

Head fits into acetabulum of _______________bone

Greater and lesser trochanters attach muscles of the thigh and buttocks

Linea aspera attaches several muscles

Medial and lateral epicondyles attach muscles and ligaments

Lateral and medial condyles articulate with the tibia

Patellar surface articulates with the patella



Tibia

________________bone of the _____________leg

Bears the weight from the _______________

Medial and lateral condyles articulate with the femur

Tibial tuberosity attach patellar ligaments

Anterior crest

Medial malleolus articulates with the talus in the foot

Fibula

_______________to the tibia

Stabilizes _____________

Foot

______________tarsal bones

Only the talus can move freely

The calcaneus and the talus support the weight of the body

_____________metatarsal bones form the ______________

The phalanges form the toes

Big toe has only _________

___________ each in other toes


Joints (Articulations)

Classification according to the amount of movement

Synarthrosis – immovable

Amphiarthrosis – slightly moveable

Diarthrosis – freely moveable



Classification according to structure

Fibrous


Cartilaginous

Synovial


Fibrous fibrous connective tissue

Fibrous connective tissue joins _______________________

Typically ____________________

Sutures of the _____________________

Coronal – between the parietal bones and the frontal bone

Lambdoidal – between the parietal bones and the occipital bone

Squamosal – between each parietal bone and each temporal bone

Sagittal – between the parietal bones

Joints formed by each tooth in its socket

Cartilaginous

Bones are joined by _________________________or __________________cartilage

Usually slightly _____________________

Synovial

Bones do not __________________ each other

Bones are separatedby a joint __________________

Usually freely _______________________



Types of synovial joints

Saddle joint

Ball-and-socket joint

Pivot joint

Hinge joint

Gliding joint

Condyloid joint

Movements permitted by synovial joints

Angular movements

Flexion


Extension

Adduction

Abduction

Circular movements

Circumduction

Rotation


Supination

Pronation

Special movements

Inversion and eversion

Elevation and depression

Effects of Aging

__________________and ________________tend to deteriorate

Articular cartilage may not function properly, resulting in _____________________

Osteoarthritis – deterioration of the ________________________

Rheumatoid arthritis – synovial membrane becomes _____________________

Gout – excessive buildup of _______________________

Osteoporosis is common

Homeostasis

Functions of the Skeletal System

_______________of internal organs

Bones assist in all phases of _____________________

Bones store and release _____________________

Bones assist the lymphatic system and ________________________

Bones assist ______________________

The skeleton is necessary to ________________________

Functions of Other Systems

The integumentary and the muscles assist in protecting internal organs



The digestive system absorbs calcium from food and the endocrine system regulates the storage of calcium in the bones

Movement of the bones is only possible because of the ______________________of skeletal muscle


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