Semester: Winter 2015 Instructor Information



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Mott Community College

Course Name: Oral Radiology

Semester: Winter 2015

Instructor Information:

Name: Jennifer Walker, RDH, MA

Office Location: MMB 2036F

Office Phone Number: (810) 762-0328

E-mail Address: Jennifer.walker@mcc.edu

Fax Number: (810) 232-8874

Division Phone Number: (810) 762-0493

Instructor Office Hours: See posting and by appointment.


Prerequisites: DHYG first semester classes for DH students, or permission of the instructor.
Days/Times/Location: Tuesday, 1:00 – 2:50, MMB 2024
Course Prefix and Number: DHYG 113
Credit/Contact Hours: 2 credits/2 contacts
Texts:

Title: Dental Radiography Principles and Techniques

Author: Iannucci and Howerton

Publisher: Elsevier

Edition: 4th

ISBN Number: 978-1-4377-1162-2
Course Description: The study of Radiology encompasses the principles of radiation biology, radiation physics, radiation safety, radiographic quality assurance, imaging modalities and receptors, including electronic imaging; Cone-Beam Computed Tomography, Ultrasound (Magnetic Resonance Imaging), as well as interpretation and the relationship to forensics.
Radiography is the study of the art and science of recording images of deep structures of the body on a receptor. This is commonly achieved by the controlled production of (electromagnetic radiation) x-ray beams and their detection, on silver halide film, or digital sensors, as such rays pass through the tissues being imaged.
Dental Radiology and Radiography is the application of the principles of radiology in the study of teeth and their surrounding structures, as well as radiographic interpretation and patient treatment planning. The registered dental assistant or the licensed dental hygienist commonly performs the exposure and processing of dental radiographs. The prescription and final interpretation is the legal responsibility of the dentist, (Dental Practice Act). Knowledge obtained in this course will support the student as a self-directed, self- assured practitioner. The dental team member must be able to solve problems effectively as encountered in the practice of dental radiology and radiography.
Course Content: The student will receive information to acquire a working knowledge of, and gain a proficiency in the principles of radiation, radiation biology, physics, safety, quality assurance, and imaging theory. Intra & extra oral techniques, patient management and special patient concerns, as well as processing, mounting and early interpretation skills are also introduced. Students who pass DHYG113 and the Laboratory course DHYG 114 will meet requirements for performing radiographic techniques in a dental office via the state of Michigan guidelines.
Learning Experiences: Topic review, discussion, class participation, demonstrations and media.
Course Objectives: The student must be able to recognize, evaluate, describe and demonstrate with 80% proficiency:

  1. Historical background of radiology

  2. Basic principles and concepts of radiation

  3. Component parts of the dental x-ray machine

  4. Production of x-rays

  5. Factors effecting the quality of the beam and image in both digital radiography and film

  6. The effects of ionizing radiation on living tissues

  7. Radiation bioeffects, health and safety

  8. Radiation protection procedures for the operator and patient

  9. Selection of appropriate radiographic surveys, film size, speed, duplication, and record keeping

  10. Quality assurance procedures

  11. Viewing techniques, principles of interpretation

  12. Normal anatomical structures

  13. Panoramic and other extra-oral techniques

  14. Examples of alternate imaging modalities and techniques

  15. Evaluation of radiographs and problem solving solutions – Intent: “Critical thinking and decision making skills are necessary to provide effective and efficient dental hygiene services. Throughout the curriculum, the educational program should use teaching and learning methods that support the development of critical thinking and problem solving skills”. Accreditation Standard 2-26

  16. Legal and Ethical issues related to dental radiography – Intent: “Dental hygienists should understand the laws which govern the practice of the dental profession”. Accreditation Standard 2-23.



Accreditation Standard

That is addressed: 2-7 Written course descriptions, content outlines, including topics to be presented, specific instructional objectives, learning experiences, and evaluation procedures must be provided to students at the initiation of each dental hygiene course.
2-11 Dental sciences content must include tooth morphology, head, neck and oral anatomy, oral embryology and histology, oral pathology, radiography, periodontology, pain management, and dental materials.
2-12 Dental hygiene science content must include oral health education and preventive counseling, health promotion, patient management, clinical dental hygiene, provision of services for and management of patients with special needs, community dental/oral health, medical and dental emergencies, legal and ethical aspects of dental hygiene practice, infection and hazard control management, and the provision of oral health care services to patients with bloodborne infectious diseases.

Goals and Competencies

Addressed: The student will receive information to acquire a working knowledge of, and gain a proficiency in the principles of radiation, radiation biology, physics, safety, quality assurance, and imaging theory. Intra and extra oral techniques, patient management and special patient concerns, as well as processing, mounting and early interpretation skills are also introduced. Students who pass DHYG113 and the Laboratory course DHYG 114 will meet requirements for performing radiographic techniques in a dental office via the state of Michigan guidelines.
Evaluation Criteria

And Procedures: Summative Assessments:

  • Syllabus Scavenger Hunt: 10 pts.

  • Chapter Quizzes: 5 pts. Ea. x 29 = 145

  • Test: 100 pts. Ea. x 3 = 300

  • Homework: points will vary

  • Final Comprehensive Examination = 100 pts.

  • There will be opportunities for extra credit.

Formative Assessments:

  • Weekly Minute Paper


Grading Policy Including

Grading Scale: EVALUATION GRADING SCALE

4.0 = 100 – 96

3.5 = 95 - 92

3.0 = 91 - 88

2.5 = 87 - 84

2.0 = 83 - 80

1.5 = 79 - 76 No Progression to next semester

1.0 = 75 - 0
Below 80% = Student may not continue on to next semester.

Students must complete the Lecture seminar at a minimum of 80 %.


Note: DHYG 114, the Radiography Laboratory course is a separate designated course and must be passed by a minimum of 80%. The grade in DHYG Lab 113 is not connected to the grade in lecture.
Complete Attendance Policy:

  • As stated in the college catalogue, “students are expected to attend class, since they are held responsible for the requirements of the course. Absence from class does not excuse the student from course requirements”.

  • The Accreditation Body of this program (American Dental Association Commission on Dental Accreditation) requires that students attend specific courses with specific content in order to meet the requirements for completion of an accredited program. Only students who graduate from an ADA accredited program may practice as licensed dental hygienists. Based on this requirement, absences are serious.

  • Any student who does not attend class will be marked absent and will miss the points assigned for the quiz or other daily activities. It is the student’s responsibility to contact other students about any information they may have missed.

          • Exams and quizzes:

          • Weekly pre-lecture and post-lecture quizzes cannot be made up. Exams must be made-up within five days and will be completed at MCC’s Testing Center. Any in-class examination not completed within five days of the original testing date will result in 50% credit of grade earned. A reading quiz which is administered via Blackboard must be completed during the open testing dates. If a failed attempt occurs, the instructor must be notified by email immediately. If a failed attempt is confirmed, the student will be allowed to complete the reading quiz prior to the beginning of the lecture. If a student fails to complete a quiz on Blackboard during open testing and no attempt is made, he or she will receive zero credit without the possibility for make-up.

  • In the event it becomes unavoidable to miss lecture class, please call the front desk at 762-0493 or Jennifer Walker or via e-mail: jennifer.walker@mcc.edu.


College Policy on

Accommodations for Persons

With Disabilities: Mott Community College is committed to providing equal opportunity for participation in all programs, services and activities and adheres to Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act (1973) and the Americans with Disabilities Act, as amended (2008) to provide effective auxiliary aids and services for qualified students with documented disabilities. Requests for accommodations by students with disabilities may be made by contacting Disability Services at 810-232-9181 or on the web at disability.mcc.edu. Once your eligibility for an accommodation has been determined, you will be issued an Instructor Notification Letter. Please present Instructor Notification Letters to instructors at the start of the semester and/or two weeks prior to the accommodation date (test, project, etc). Requests received after this date will be honored whenever possible.

Instructor’s classroom policies:

Cell phones and

electronic devices:

Electronic devices (including voice and video recorders) of any kind, with the exception of laptop computers will not be activated in class. Phones are not allowed out or within the student(s) eyesight during class. Phones will be removed if brought out in class. Students who text message in class or leave class to text or to have phone conversations will be marked absent.



Hats: Hats cannot be worn during evaluations.

Plagiarism:

Cheating, plagiarism or other forms of academic dishonesty, including acquisition of texts (via any source including taking pictures of past tests) and/or other academic materials (without permission) are violations of college conduct per MCC Student Code of Conduct and discipline will occur if this is violated. Academic dishonesty includes students who aid and abet as well as those who attempt such behavior. Impairing another student’s ability to learn (such as talking during class) is not acceptable. Students will be asked to leave class if they cannot comply with any of these rules. An instructor or supervising associate dean can initiate discipline for these forms of misconduct.


Discipline could include: Reduction or suspension of grade which can result in non-progression, written or oral reprimand, extra assignments or any other appropriate action. A formal process of discipline as listed in the MCC Student Code of Conduct Guide.
Test Taking is Monitored:

During testing students must have all notes and texts out of sight. Cell phones may not be out or within eyesight of the student (s) during class or evaluations. Students may be asked to move location during evaluations. Students must have all notes and texts out of sight and pencils/erasers put away when Scantron or test is returned. The use of any electronic device during testing will result in the student receiving an automatic 0.0 on the quiz or exam with no opportunity for make-up.


Children: Children are never allowed in class. Only those enrolled may attend

class.
Disclaimer: The lecture outline/activities/tasks are subject to change.




Academic Needs:

    1. Students are responsible to seek help for their academic needs. Mott College provides a plethora of support for students in need.

    2. It is not the responsibility of the professor to teach study skills. Please seek help from the variety of student services offered at this college if you need assistance.

    3. It is however, the students’ responsibility to discuss their progress with the professor and seek topic help if needed.

    4. Students who wait until the last few weeks of a semester to seek help must acknowledge that the time may be somewhat late to solve any serious defects in their grade.

    5. Students are required to keep track of their own grades. This is a must!!


Content Outlines, with Topics to be Presented


Date

Lecture Schedule

Assignments Due

1. January 13

Chapter 1 Radiation History: 20 min.

Chapter 15 Infection Control and the Dental Radiographer: 20 min.

Chapter 10 Quality Assurance in the Dental Office: 20 min.

Chapter 16 Introduction to Radiographic Examinations: 20 min.

Review of Syllabus: 20 min

Due: Syllabus Scavenger Hunt Review: 10 min

Reading Quiz: Ch. 1, 10, 15, 16 via Blackboard

2. January 20

Chapter 11 Dental Radiographs and the Dental Radiographer: 10 min

Chapter 17 Paralleling Technique: 50 min.

Chapter 19 Bite-Wing Technique: 30 min.

Chapter 28 Film Mounting and Viewing: 20 min.

Reading Quiz: 11, 17, 19, 28 via Blackboard

3. January 27

Chapter 6 Dental X-Ray Equipment: 20 min.

Chapter 7 Dental X-Ray Film: 30 min.

Chapter 9 Dental X-Ray Film Processing: 30 min.

Chapter 25 Digital Imaging: 30 min.

Reading Quiz: Ch. 6, 7, 9, 25 via Blackboard


4. February 03

TEST 1: 110 min.




5. February 10

Chapter 22 Panoramic Imaging: 30 min.

Chapter 20 Exposure and Technique Errors: 20 min.

Chapter 18 Bisecting Technique: 45 min.

Reading Quiz: Ch. 18, 20, 22 via Blackboard


6. February 17

Chapter 4 Radiation Biology: 30 min.

Chapter 21 Occlusal and Localization Techniques: 30 min.

In-class Activity: Labeling X-Ray Equipment Worksheets

Reading Quiz: Ch. 4, 21 via Blackboard


7. February 24

TEST 2: 110 min.




8. March 03

Chapter 5 Radiation Protection: 30 min.

Chapter 12 Patient Relations and the Dental Radiographer: 15 min.

Chapter 13 Patient Education and the Dental Radiographer: 15 min.

In-class Activity: 55 min.

Reading Quiz: Ch. 5, 12, 13 via Blackboard


March 10

Spring break




9. March 17

Chapter 8 Dental X-Ray Image Characteristics: 20 min.

Chapter 2 Radiation Physics: 50 min.

Chapter 3 Radiation Characteristics: 30 min.

In-class Activity: 45 min.

Reading Quiz: Ch. 2, 3, 8 via Blackboard


10. March 24

TEST 3: 110 min.





11. March 31

Chapter 14 Legal Issues and the Dental Radiographer: 20 min.

Chapter 24 Imaging of Patients With Special Needs: 30 min.

In-class Activity: 60 min.

Reading Quiz: Ch. 14, 24 via Blackboard


12. April 07

Chapter 23 Extraoral Imaging: 30 min.

Chapter 26 Three-Dimensional Digital Imaging: 30 min.

In-class Activity: 40 min.

Reading Quiz: Ch. 23, 26 via Blackboard

13. April 14

Final Exam Review: 110 min.




14. April 21

Final Exam Comprehensive: 110 min.




15. April 28

Course wrap-up; prepare for fall radiography requirements

Pot Luck!






Disclaimer:

Syllabus subject to change at the decision of the professor and any changes will be announced.
Specific Instructional Objectives:

Chapter 1 Radiation History

Method of instruction: Lecture

Instructional time allocated: 20 minutes

After completion of this chapter, the student will be able to do the following:

  1. Define the key words associated with radiation history

  2. Summarize the importance of dental radiographs

  3. List the uses of dental radiographs

  4. Summarize the discovery of x-radiation

  5. Recognize the pioneers in dental x-radiation and their contributions and discoveries

  6. List the highlights in the history of x-ray equipment and film

  7. List the highlights in the history of dental radiographic techniques


Chapter 2 Radiation Physics

Method of instruction: Lecture, collaborative group work

Instructional time allocated: 50 minutes

After completion of this chapter, the student will be able to do the following:

  1. Define the key words associated with radiation physics

  2. Identify the structure of the atom

  3. Describe the process of ionization

  4. Discuss the difference between radiation and radioactivity

  5. List the two types of ionizing radiation and give examples of each

  6. List the characteristics of electromagnetic radiation

  7. List the properties of x-radiation

  8. Identify the parts of the dental x-ray tubehead and the dental x-ray tube

  9. Describe in detail how dental x-rays are produced

  10. List and describe the possible interactions of x-rays with matter


Chapter 3 Radiation Characteristics

Method of instruction: Lecture, collaborative group work

Instructional time allocated: 30 minutes

After completion of this chapter, the student will be able to do the following:

  1. Define the key words associated with radiation characteristics

  2. Describe the effect that the kilovoltage peak has on the quality of the x-ray beam

  3. Describe how milliamperage influences the quantity of the x-ray beam

  4. Identify the range of kilovoltage and milliamperage required for dental radiography

  5. Describe how increasing and decreasing exposure factors affect the density and contrast of the image

  6. State the rules governing kilovoltage, milliamperage, distance, and exposure time that are used when changing exposure variables

  7. Describe how kilovoltage, milliamperage, exposure time, and source-to-receptor distance influence the intensity of the x-ray beam

  8. Calculate an example of radiation intensity using the inverse square law

  9. Explain how the half-value layer determines the penetrating quality of the x-ray beam


Chapter 4 Radiation Biology

Method of instruction: Lecture, collaborative group work

Instructional time allocated: 30 minutes

After completion of this chapter, the student will be able to do the following:

  1. Define the key words associated with radiation injury

  2. Describe the mechanisms, theories, and sequence of radiation injury

  3. Define and discuss the dose–response curve and radiation injury

  4. List the determining factors for radiation injury

  5. Discuss the short-term and long-term effects as well as the somatic and genetic effects of radiation exposure

  6. Describe the effects of radiation exposure on cells, tissues, and organs

  7. Identify the relative sensitivity of a given tissue to x-radiation

  8. Define the units of measurement used in radiation exposure

  9. List common sources of radiation exposure

  10. Discuss risk and risk estimates for radiation exposure

  11. Discuss dental radiation and exposure risks

  12. Discuss the risk versus benefit of dental radiographs


Chapter 5 Radiation Protection

Method of instruction: Lecture, collaborative group work

Instructional time allocated: 30 minutes

After completion of this chapter, the student will be able to do the following:

  1. Define the key words associated with radiation protection

  2. Describe in detail the basics of patient protection before x-ray exposure

  3. Discuss the different types of filtration, and state the recommended total filtration for dental x-ray machines operating above and below 70 kVp

  4. Describe the collimator used in dental x-ray machines, and state the recommended diameter of the useful beam at the patient's skin

  5. List six ways to protect the patient from excessive radiation during x-ray exposure

  6. Describe the importance of receptor handling and processing after patient exposure to x-radiation

  7. Discuss operator protection in terms of adequate distance, shielding, and avoidance of the useful beam

  8. Describe personnel and equipment monitoring devices used to detect radiation

  9. Discuss radiation exposure guidelines, including radiation safety legislation, maximum permissible dose (MPD), maximum accumulated dose (MAD), and the ALARA concept

  10. Discuss with the dental patient what radiation protection steps will be used before, during, and after exposure to x-radiation


Chapter 6 Dental X-Ray Equipment

Method of instruction: Lecture, collaborative group work

Instructional time allocated: 20 minutes

After completion of this chapter, the student will be able to do the following:

  1. Define the key words associated with dental x-ray equipment

  2. Discuss the regulation of dental x-ray machines at the federal, state, and local levels

  3. Recognize dental x-ray machines used for intraoral and extraoral films

  4. Identify the component parts of the dental x-ray machine

  5. Describe the purpose and use of dental x-ray film holders and devices

  6. Identify commonly used dental x-ray film holders and devices


Chapter 7 Dental X-Ray Film

Method of instruction: Lecture, collaborative group work

Instructional time allocated: 30 minutes

After completion of this chapter, the student will be able to do the following:

  1. Define the key words associated with dental x-ray film

  2. Describe in detail film composition and latent image formation

  3. List and describe the different types of x-ray film used in dentistry

  4. Define intraoral film and describe intraoral film packaging

  5. Identify the types and sizes of intraoral film available

  6. Discuss film speed

  7. Discuss the differences between intraoral film and extraoral film

  8. Describe the difference between screen and nonscreen films

  9. Describe the use of intensifying screens and cassettes

  10. Describe duplicating film

  11. Discuss proper film storage and protection


Chapter 8 Dental X-Ray Image Characteristics

Method of instruction: Lecture, collaborative group work

Instructional time allocated: 20 minutes

After completion of this chapter, the student will be able to do the following:

  1. Define the key words associated with dental x-ray image characteristics

  2. Differentiate between radiolucent and radiopaque areas on a dental radiograph

  3. Describe a diagnostic dental radiograph

  4. List the two visual characteristics of the radiographic image

  5. List the factors that influence density and contrast

  6. Discuss the difference between high contrast and low contrast

  7. Describe film contrast and subject contrast

  8. Describe the difference between short-scale contrast and long-scale contrast

  9. Identify images of high contrast, low contrast, no contrast, short-scale contrast, and long-scale contrast

  10. Describe a stepwedge

  11. List the three geometric characteristics of the radiographic image

  12. List the factors that influence sharpness, magnification, and distortion


Chapter 9 Dental X-Ray Film Processing

Method of instruction: Lecture, collaborative group work

Instructional time allocated: 30 minutes

After completion of this chapter, the student will be able to do the following:

  1. Define the key words associated with processing of dental x-ray film

  2. Describe in detail how a latent image becomes a visible image

  3. List and discuss the five steps of manual film processing

  4. List and describe the four basic ingredients of the developer solution

  5. List and describe the four basic ingredients of the fixer solution

  6. Discuss the parts of the processing tank: insert tanks, master tank, and lid

  7. List and describe the equipment needed for manual film processing

  8. List and discuss the procedural steps for manual film processing

  9. Describe the care and maintenance of the processing solutions, equipment, and equipment accessories used in manual film processing

  10. Discuss the advantages of automatic film processing

  11. List and identify the component parts of the automatic film processor

  12. Describe the mechanism of automatic film processing

  13. List and discuss the four procedural steps for automatic film processing

  14. Describe the care and maintenance of the automatic film processor and automatic processing solutions

  15. Discuss the location, size, lighting, and equipment requirements necessary for the darkroom

  16. Discuss safelighting

  17. Discuss the equipment requirements and procedural steps for film duplication

  18. Describe film processing problems that result from time and temperature errors

  19. Describe film processing problems that result from chemical contamination errors

  20. Describe film processing problems that result from film handling errors

  21. Describe film processing problems that result from lighting errors


Chapter 10 Quality Assurance in the Dental Office

Method of instruction: Lecture

Instructional time allocated: 20 minutes

After completion of this chapter, the student will be able to do the following:

  1. Define the key words associated with quality assurance in the dental office

  2. List quality control tests and quality administration procedures that should be included in the quality assurance plan

  3. Discuss the purpose and frequency of testing dental x-ray machines

  4. Describe the tests used to check for fresh film and adequate film-screen contact; discuss the frequency of testing and the interpretation of test results

  5. Describe the test used to check for darkroom light leaks and proper safelighting. Discuss the frequency of testing and the interpretation of test results

  6. Describe the test used to check the automatic processor; discuss the frequency of testing and the interpretation of test results

  7. List the three tests used to check the strength of the developer solution

  8. Describe the preparation of the reference radiograph and the standard stepwedge radiograph; discuss the use of these radiographs to compare densities and to monitor the strength of the developer solution

  9. Describe the test used to check the strength of the fixer; discuss the frequency of testing and the interpretation of test results

  10. Discuss the basic elements of a quality administration plan

  11. Detail the importance of operator competence in dental radiographic procedures


Chapter 11 Dental Radiographs and the Dental Radiographer

Method of instruction: Lecture, collaborative group work

Instructional time allocated: 10 minutes

After completion of this chapter, the student will be able to do the following:

  1. Define the key words

  2. Discuss the importance of dental radiographs

  3. List the uses of dental radiographs

  4. Discuss the benefits of dental radiographs

  5. List examples of common dental conditions that may be evident on a dental radiograph

  6. Discuss the knowledge and skill requirements of the dental radiographer

  7. List the responsibilities that may be assigned to the dental radiographer

  8. Discuss the professional goals of the dental radiographer


Chapter 12 Patient Relations and the Dental Radiographer

Method of instruction: Lecture, collaborative group work

Instructional time allocated: 15 minutes

After completion of this chapter, the student will be able to do the following:

  1. Define the key words associated with patient relations

  2. Discuss verbal, nonverbal, and listening skills, and explain how each can be used to enhance communication

  3. Discuss how facilitative skills can be used to enhance patient trust

  4. Define a relationship of trust between the dental professional and the patient

  5. Discuss the importance of first impressions, chairside manner, and attitude, and explain how each can enhance patient relations


Chapter 13 Patient Education and the Dental Radiographer

Method of instruction: Lecture, collaborative group work

Instructional time allocated: 15 minutes

After completion of this chapter, the student will be able to do the following:

  1. Summarize the importance of educating patients about dental radiographs

  2. List the three methods that can be used by the dental radiographer to educate patients about dental radiographs

  3. Answer common patient questions about the need for dental radiographs, x-ray exposure, the safety of dental x-rays, digital imaging, and other miscellaneous concerns


Chapter 14 Legal Issues and the Dental Radiographer

Method of instruction: Lecture, collaborative group work

Instructional time allocated: 25 minutes

After completion of this chapter, the student will be able to do the following:

  1. Define key words associated with legal issues

  2. List federal and state regulations affecting the use of dental x-ray equipment

  3. Describe the general application of federal and state regulations as they affect the dental auxiliary

  4. Describe licensure requirements for exposing dental radiographs

  5. Define the legal concept of informed consent

  6. Describe ways to obtain informed consent from a patient

  7. Discuss the legal significance of the dental record

  8. Describe the legal implications of patient refusal to have dental x-radiation

  9. Discuss how confidentiality laws affect the information in the dental record

  10. Describe the patient's rights with regard to the dental record


Chapter 15 Infection Control and the Dental Radiographer

Method of instruction: Lecture, collaborative group work

Instructional time allocated: 20 minutes

After completion of this chapter, the student will be able to do the following:

  1. Define the key terms associated with infection control

  2. Describe the rationale for infection control

  3. Describe the three possible routes of disease transmission

  4. Describe the conditions that must be present for disease transmission to occur

  5. Discuss personal protective equipment (PPE), hand hygiene, sterilization and disinfection of instruments, and the cleaning and disinfection of the dental unit and environmental surfaces.

  6. Describe the infection control procedures that are necessary before x-ray exposure.

  7. Describe the infection control procedures that are necessary during x-ray exposure

  8. Describe the infection control procedures that are necessary for digital imaging

  9. Describe the infection control procedures that are necessary after x-ray exposure

  10. Describe the infection control procedures that are necessary for processing

  11. Discuss film handling in the darkroom—with and without barrier envelopes

  12. Discuss film handling without barrier envelopes using the daylight loader of an automatic processor


Chapter 16 Introduction to Radiographic Examinations

Method of instruction: Lecture

Instructional time allocated: 20 minutes

After completion of this chapter, the student will be able to do the following:

  1. Define the key terms associated with radiographic examinations

  2. List the three types of intraoral radiographic examinations

  3. Describe the purpose and the type of receptor and technique used for each of the three types of intraoral radiographic examinations

  4. List the various projections that constitute a complete mouth radiographic series (CMRS)

  5. List the general diagnostic criteria for intraoral radiographs

  6. List examples of extraoral radiographic examinations

  7. Discuss the prescribing of dental radiographs

  8. Describe when prescribing a CMRS for a new patient is warranted


Chapter 17 Paralleling Technique

Method of instruction: Lecture, collaborative group work

Instructional time allocated: 50 minutes

After completion of this chapter, the student will be able to do the following:

  1. Define the key terms associated with the paralleling technique

  2. State the basic principle of the paralleling technique and illustrate the placement of the receptor, beam alignment device, position-indicating device (PID), and central ray

  3. Discuss how object–receptor distance affects the radiographic image and how target–receptor distance is used to compensate for such changes

  4. List the beam alignment devices that can be used with the paralleling technique

  5. Describe why a beam alignment device is necessary with the paralleling technique

  6. Identify and label the parts of the Rinn XCP instruments

  7. Describe the different sizes of receptors used with the paralleling technique and how each receptor is placed in the bite-block

  8. State the five basic rules of the paralleling technique

  9. Describe the patient and equipment preparations that are necessary before using the paralleling technique

  10. Discuss the exposure sequence for 15 periapical receptor placements using the paralleling technique

  11. Describe each of the 15 periapical receptor placements recommended for use with the XCP instruments

  12. Summarize the guidelines for periapical receptor positioning

  13. Explain the modifications in the paralleling technique that are used for a patient with a shallow palate, bony growths, or a sensitive premolar region

  14. List the advantages and disadvantages of the paralleling technique


Chapter 18 Bisecting Technique

Method of instruction: Lecture, collaborative group work

Instructional time allocated: 45 minutes

After completion of this chapter, the student will be able to do the following:

  1. Define the key terms associated with the bisecting technique

  2. State the rule of isometry

  3. State the basic principles of the bisecting technique and illustrate the location of the receptor, tooth, imaginary bisector, central ray, and position-indicating device (PID)

  4. List the beam alignment devices that can be used with the bisecting technique

  5. Describe the receptor size used with the bisecting technique

  6. Describe the correct and incorrect horizontal angulation

  7. Describe correct and incorrect vertical angulation

  8. State each of the recommended vertical angulation ranges used for periapical exposures in the bisecting technique

  9. State the basic rules of the bisecting technique

  10. Describe patient and equipment preparations necessary before using the bisecting technique

  11. Discuss the exposure sequence used for the 14 periapical receptor placements used in the bisecting technique

  12. Describe each of the 14 periapical receptor placements recommended for use in the bisecting technique

  13. List the advantages and disadvantages of the bisecting technique


Chapter 19 Bite-Wing Technique

Method of instruction: Lecture, collaborative group work

Instructional time allocated: 30 minutes

After completion of this chapter, the student will be able to do the following:

  1. Define the key terms associated with the bite-wing technique

  2. Describe the purpose and use of the bite-wing image

  3. Describe the appearance of opened and overlapped contact areas on a bite-wing image

  4. State the basic principles of the bite-wing technique

  5. List the two ways a receptor can be stabilized in the bite-wing technique and identify which one is recommended for bite-wing exposures

  6. List the three receptor sizes that can be used in the bite-wing technique and identify which size is recommended for exposures in the adult patient

  7. Describe correct and incorrect horizontal angulation

  8. Describe the difference between positive and negative vertical angulation

  9. State the recommended vertical angulation for all bite-wing exposures using a bite-wing tab

  10. State the basic rules for the bite-wing technique

  11. Describe patient and equipment preparations that are necessary before using the bite-wing technique

  12. Discuss the exposure sequence for a complete mouth radiographic series (CMRS) that includes both periapical and bite-wing exposures

  13. Describe the premolar and molar bite-wing receptor placements

  14. Describe the purpose and use of vertical bite-wing images

  15. List the number of exposures and the size of receptor used in the vertical bite-wing technique


Chapter 20 Exposure and Technique Errors

Method of instruction: Lecture, collaborative group work

Instructional time allocated: 20 minutes

After completion of this chapter, the student will be able to do the following:

  1. Define the key terms associated with exposure and technique errors

  2. Identify and describe the appearance of the following errors: unexposed receptor, film exposed to light, underexposed receptor, and overexposed receptor

  3. Describe horizontal and vertical angulation

  4. Identify and describe the appearances of the following periapical technique errors: incorrect horizontal angulation, incorrect vertical angulation (foreshortened images and elongated images), and incorrect beam alignment (cone-cut images)

  5. Describe and identify proper receptor placement for bite-wing radiographs

  6. Identify and describe the appearances of the following bite-wing technique errors: incorrect horizontal angulation, incorrect vertical angulation, and incorrect position-indicating device (PID) alignment (cone-cut images)

  7. Identify and describe the appearances of the following miscellaneous technique errors: film bending, film creasing, phalangioma, double exposure, movement, and reversed film


Chapter 21 Occlusal and Localization Techniques

Method of instruction: Lecture, collaborative group work

Instructional time allocated: 30 minutes

After completion of this chapter, the student will be able to do the following:

  1. Define the key terms associated with occlusal and localization techniques

  2. Describe the purpose of occlusal examination

  3. List the uses of occlusal examination

  4. Describe the patient and equipment preparations that are necessary before using the occlusal technique

  5. State the recommended vertical angulations for the following maxillary occlusal projections: topographic, lateral (right or left), and pediatric

  6. State the recommended vertical angulations for the following mandibular occlusal projections: topographic, cross-sectional, and pediatric

  7. State the purpose of localization techniques

  8. Describe the buccal object rule

  9. Describe the right-angle technique

  10. List the patient and equipment preparations that are necessary before using the buccal object rule or the right-angle technique

  11. Describe receptor placements for the buccal object rule and compare the resulting images

  12. Describe receptor placements for the right-angle technique and compare the resulting images


Chapter 22 Panoramic Imaging

Method of instruction: Lecture, collaborative group work

Instructional time allocated: 30 minutes

After completion of this chapter, the student will be able to do the following:

  1. Define the key terms associated with panoramic imaging

  2. Describe the purpose and uses of panoramic imaging

  3. Describe the fundamentals of panoramic imaging

  4. Describe the equipment used in panoramic imaging

  5. Describe patient preparation, equipment preparation, and patient-positioning procedures needed before exposing a panoramic projection

  6. Identify the patient-preparation and patient-positioning errors seen on panoramic images

  7. Discuss the causes of patient-preparation and patient-positioning errors and the necessary measures needed to correct such errors

  8. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of panoramic imaging


Chapter 23 Extraoral Imaging

Method of instruction: Lecture, collaborative group work

Instructional time allocated: 25 minutes

After completion of this chapter, the student will be able to do the following:

  1. Define the key terms associated with extraoral imaging

  2. Describe the purpose and uses of extraoral imaging

  3. Describe the equipment used in extraoral imaging

  4. Detail the equipment and patient preparations necessary before exposing an extraoral projection

  5. Identify the specific purpose of each of the extraoral projections

  6. Describe the head position, the receptor placement, and the beam alignment for each of the following: lateral jaw projection–body of the mandible, lateral jaw projection–ramus of the mandible, lateral cephalometric projection, posteroanterior projection, Waters projection, submentovertex projection, reverse Towne projection, and transcranial projection.


Chapter 24 Imaging of Patients with Special Needs

Method of instruction: Lecture, collaborative group work

Instructional time allocated: 25 minutes

After completion of this chapter, the student will be able to do the following:

  1. Define the key terms associated with patients who have special needs

  2. List the areas of the oral cavity that are most likely to elicit the gag reflex when stimulated

  3. List two precipitating factors responsible for initiating the gag reflex

  4. Describe how to control the gag reflex using operator attitude, patient and equipment preparations, exposure sequencing, and receptor placement and technique

  5. Describe common physical disabilities and what modifications in technique may be necessary during the imaging examination

  6. Describe common developmental disabilities and what modifications in technique may be necessary during the imaging examination

  7. List helpful hints that can be used when treating a person with a disability

  8. Describe the prescribing of dental images, patient and equipment preparations, recommended techniques, and patient management as they pertain to the pediatric dental patient

  9. Describe the use of receptor placement modifications, and recommended periapical technique during root canal procedures

  10. Describe the purposes of the imaging examination in the edentulous patient

  11. List and describe the three types of imaging examination that may be used for the edentulous patient


Chapter 25 Digital Imaging

Method of instruction: Lecture, collaborative group work

Instructional time allocated: 30 minutes

After completion of this chapter, the student will be able to do the following:

  1. Define the key terms associated with digital imaging

  2. Describe the purpose and use of digital imaging

  3. Discuss the fundamentals of digital imaging

  4. List and describe the equipment used in digital imaging

  5. List and describe the two types of digital imaging

  6. Describe the patient and equipment preparations required for digital imaging

  7. List and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of digital imaging


Chapter 26 Three-Dimensional Digital Imaging

Method of instruction: Lecture, collaborative group work

Instructional time allocated: 30 minutes

After completion of this chapter, the student will be able to do the following:

  1. Define the key terms associated with three-dimensional digital imaging

  2. Describe the purpose and uses of three-dimensional digital imaging

  3. Describe the equipment used in three-dimensional digital imaging

  4. Detail the equipment and patient preparation necessary before exposure to x-radiation using three-dimensional digital imaging

  5. Identify advantages and disadvantages of three-dimensional digital imaging


Chapter 28 Film Mounting and Viewing

Method of instruction: Lecture, collaborative group work

Instructional time allocated: 20 minutes

After completion of this chapter, the student will be able to do the following:

  1. Define the key terms associated with film mounting and viewing

  2. List the individuals who are qualified to mount and view dental radiographs

  3. Describe when and where films are mounted

  4. List five reasons to use a film mount

  5. Describe what information is placed on a film mount

  6. Discuss the importance of normal anatomy in film mounting

  7. Describe how the identification dot is used to determine film orientation

  8. List and describe two methods of film mounting and identify the preferred method

  9. List and describe the step-by-step procedures for film mounting

  10. List and describe the necessary equipment for film viewing

  11. Discuss the importance of masking extraneous viewbox light seen around a film mount

  12. Describe optimal viewing conditions, as well as when and where images should be viewed

  13. Explain the importance of examining images in an established viewing sequence

  14. List and describe the step-by-step procedures for film viewing

  15. Explain why multiple viewings of dental images are necessary, and list the areas, diseases, and abnormalities that must be included in the examinations


Syllabus subject to change at the discretion of the instructor. All changes will be posted.

11-21-14 JW; 2-5-14 JW




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