Section One: Listening Comprehension (A) She wants the man to make a reservation for her

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200210 TOEFL试题

Section One: Listening Comprehension

1. (A) She wants the man to make a reservation for her.

(B) They don't need a reservation tonight.

(C) They should make reservations for next weekend.

(D) She thinks the restaurant will be crowded tonight.

2. (A) Get her watch fixed.

(B) Purchase a watch for the man.

(C) Cancel the next meeting.

(D) End the meeting early.

3 (A) Take the class with a different professor

(B) Take a class in a different subject.

(C) Ask the professor if she can take the class.

(D) Complete the required courses this term.

4. (A) He isn't sure who won the game.

(B) The game won't be played until next week.

(C) It started raining after the game was over.

(D) It probably will rain next week.

5. (A) The book had been misplaced on the shelf.

(B) He can probably get a copy of the book for the woman.

(C) He will call the warehouse to see if the book is available.

(D) The woman should check to see if other bookstores have the book..

6. (A) He used to have problems doing the assignments.

(B) The woman should become a tutor.

(C) The woman won't have difficulty in her next class.

(D) The woman needs help with her assignments.

7. (A) Buy the cheaper ice cream.

(B) Buy the brand of ice cream he usually buys.

(C) Choose an ice cream that tastes good.

(D) Get ice cream at a different store.

8. (A) He didn't enjoy the game because the team lost.

(B) He's impressed by the efforts of the team.

(C) The woman is wrong about who won the game.

(D) The players could have won if they'd tried harder.

9. (A) The woman already knew about the increase in fees.

(B) The dorms will be cheaper than off-campus housing.

(C) The woman thinks the man should move out of the dorm.

(D) The woman is pleased she won't have to pay the higher fees.

10. (A) He didn't know that David was having a problem.

(B) The woman doesn't know much about accounting.

(C) David hasn't started working on his project yet.

(D) David is going to ask the woman for help.

11. (A) Invite his family to go to Alaska with him.

(B) Get advice on how to organize the trip.

(C) Make a flight reservation as soon as possible.

(D) Borrow money from his family.

12. (A) He'd like to go for a walk another time.

(B) He doesn't want to walk in the rain.

(C) He's on his way to check out a book..

(D) He only has time for a short walk.

13. (A) She doesn't speak French very well.

(B) She may be too busy to help.

  1. (C) She didn't attend the French Club meeting yesterday.

  2. (D) She hadn't heard about the activities fair.

14. (A) She needs to relax.

(B) The man should try harder to concentrate.

(C) She has almost finished the reading assignment.

(D) The music will bother her.

15. (A) Speak to his previous employer.

(B) Get a job working on campus.

(C) Attend the career services workshop.

(D) Get a job application form from her.

16. (A) She will wash the sweater.

(B) The sweater has the wrong label.

(C) The man can get another sweater.

(D) The manufacturer will repair the sweater.

17. (A) He's very busy Friday night.

(B) He hasn't seen his parents for a long time.

(C) He's sorry that he missed dinner.

(D) He accepts the woman's invitation.

18. (A) Discuss her report with the man.

(B) Give the man her history notes.

(C) Work on an assignment.

(D) Answer the man's questions.

19. (A) She's going to spend the whole year in New York.

(B) She plans to travel somewhere other than New York.

(C) She decided not to take a vacation this year.

(D) She won't be able to travel until later in the year.

20. (A) She doesn't think that she looks like the student.

(B) Many of her students look alike.

(C) She isn't related to the student.

(D) Her daughter isn't in her class.

21. (A) The woman will probably not be able to get the call she's waiting for.

(B) The woman's phone call isn't important.

(C) He'll call the phone company for the woman.

(D) He'll try to repair the "woman's phone.

22. (A) He also plans to drop a class.

(B) He also waited in line for a long time today.

(C) He doesn't know where to go to drop a class.

(D) He missed the deadline for dropping a class.

23. (A) The man should use a new printer.

(B) The man's primer isn't set up correctly.

(C) There is nothing wrong with the man's printer.

(D) She can't help the man right away.

24. (A) The woman should wear his scarf to the game.

(B) It will be cold at the game.

(C) The woman should borrow another sweater.

(D) He'll go home and get another scarf.

25. (A) She understands why the man seems unhappy.

(B) She will help the man change his diet.

(C) The man should see a doctor.

(D) The doctor has already explained the problem to her.

26. (A) The number of people who voted was very low.

(B) The vote was very close.

(C) Congressman Baker didn't run for office.

(D) She was not pleased with the results.

27. (A) He's sorry that the woman didn't like the book.

(B) He can order the math book for the woman.

(C) It's too late for the woman to get a refund.

(D) The woman bought the book less than ten days ago.

28. (A) He was pleased with the art in the collection.

(B) He prefers small art exhibits to large ones.

(C) He hasn't visited the art gallery yet.

(D) He doesn't enjoy going to art galleries.

29. (A) He'd like to invite the woman for lunch..

(B) He didn't expect to join the woman for lunch.

(C) He can help the woman solve the math problem.

(D) He wants to postpone his lunch meeting with the woman.

30. (A) Vote for the man.

(B) Read the man's speech.

(C) Introduce the man to the class president.

(D) Tell her friends to vote in the election.

31. (A) The early history of bookbinding.

(B) How old books become valuable.

(C) Economical ways to protect old books.

(D) Why some books deteriorate. .

32. (A) They are often handled improperly by readers.

(B) The paper is destroyed by chemicals.

(C) The ink used in printing damages the paper.

(D) The glue used in the binding loses its strength.

33. (A) They are difficult to read.

(B) They are slowly falling apart.

(C) They were not made from wood pulp.

(D) They should be stored in a cold place.

34. (A) It's very expensive.

(B) It hasn't proven to be totally effective.

(C) It can be damaging to some books.

(D) It can't be used on books published before 1850.

35. (A) Get some books for the man to look at.

(B) Ask the man to look over her notes.

(C) Continue her research in the library.

(D) Find more information on how books are preserved.

36. (A) To plan an exhibit of the student's artwork.

(B) To discuss different whaling techniques.

(C) To prepare for a visit to a museum.

(D) To review information for an examination.

37. (A) Iron from old ships.

(B) Wood found floating in the ocean.

(C) Seashells of unusual shapes and colors.

(D) The bones and teeth of whales.

38. (A) To occupy their free time.

(B) To bring good luck.

(C) To earn extra money.

(D) To take part in art competitions.

39. (A) They were used in the home.

(B) They were used to decorate the ship.

(C) They were used to catch whales.

(D) They were sold to art dealers.

40. (A) The importance of anthropology to modern society,

(B) A good source of information about a society.

(C) Attitudes toward culture in the 1940's.

(D) The relationship between anthropology and the military.

41. (A) Students might not consider them to be an important part of culture.

(B) They symbolize the rebellion of youth in the 1950's.

(C) They are discussed in the student's textbook.

(D) They have been worn for hundreds of years.

42. (A) To show how politics have changed over the years.

(B) To point out that T-shirts often provide personal information.

(C) To illustrate how the printing on clothing has improved.

(D) To support that T-shirts are a form of art.

43. (A) Places where T-shirts are not acceptable.

(B) Images that are currently printed on T-shirts.

(C) Names of people who have made T-shirts popular.

(D) Ways that T-shirts represent American culture.

44. (A) Successful business practices.

(B) Famous inventors.

(C) Public health concerns.

(D) Unsuccessful inventions.

45. (A) They drank from public water fountains.

(B) They passed around a cup of water.

(C) They drank from personal tin cups that they carried with them.

(D) They bought a paper cup of water.
46. (A) To demonstrate the importance of public health laws.

(B) To point out that without luck businesses will not succeed.

(C) To explain how traveling led to new inventions.

(D) To illustrate the importance of having the right product at the right time.

47. (A) How grasshoppers find food.

(B) How grasshoppers fight other insects.

(C) How grasshoppers communicate with each other.

(D) How grasshoppers escape from danger.

48. (A) To correct a common misunderstanding about grasshoppers.

(B) To help explain how well grasshoppers can jump.

(C) To compare the size of grasshopper with that of other insects. -

(D) To show how quickly grasshoppers respond to danger.

49. (A) They detect nerve impulses transmitted to a grasshopper's legs.

(B) They sense how far a grasshopper has jumped.

(C) They detect changes in air pressure.

(D) They help a grasshopper find food.

50. (A) The number of impulses transmitted to the grasshopper's legs.

(B) The age of the grasshopper.

(C) The number of sensory organs the grasshopper has.

(D) The size of the nerves that control walking.

Section Two: Structure and Written Expression

1. Among the 450 artworks in the White House art collection __ .

(A) as is Mary Cassatt's Young Mother and Two Children

(B) is Mary Cassatt's Young Mother and Two Children

(C) which is Mary Cassatt's Young Mother and Two Children

(D) Mary Cassatt's Young Mother and Two Children

2. An unconsolidated aggregate of silt particles is also termed silt, _____ a consolidated aggregate is called siltstone.

(A) which

(B) why

(C) whereas

(D) whether

3. In 1864 the American Shakespearean actor Edwin Booth gained critical acclaim when he ____ Hamlet at the Winter Garden Theatre in New York City.

(A) perform

(B) performed

(C) had been performing

(D) having performed

4. ____ are chiefly derived from petroleum.

(A) Plastics today

(B) There are plastics today

(C) Because today plastics today

(D) Due to plastics today

5. Most tangerine trees and their flowers and fruits resemble ____the orange, although tangerines are generally smaller.

(A) of those

(B) which of those

(C) those of (D) which are of

  1. 6. Ohio, the center of_____ the Hopewell culture, has the greatest concentration of ancient burial mounds in the United States.

(A) called

(B) what is called

(C) that is called

(D) is called

7. ____ , such as jazz, are often played from memory rather than from a written score.

(A) Of some types music

(B) Music some of types

(C) Some types of music

(D) Types of music some

8. During the 1850', reform movements ___temperance and the abolition of slavery gained strength in the United States.

(A) advocating

(B) they had advocated

(C) to advocating

(D) to advocate when

9. Many meteorites are thought to have originated from ___ that once existed between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter.

(A) where a planet or planets

(B) a planet or planets so

(C) which a planet or planets

(D) a planet or planets
10. The modern automobile is a composed of more than 14,000 parts.

(A) complex technical system

(B) system of complex technical

(C) complex technical system that

(D) system is technically complex

11. over 100 years since the invention of the square-bottomed paper bag.

(A) Now is

(B) Now it has

(C) There is now

(D) It is now

12. The novelist John Dos Passes developed a style of fiction incorporating several documentary devices ____ to his works.

(A) lent realism

(B) that lending realism

(C) to lend realism

(D) of whose realism lent

13. In Earth's infancy, its surface was warm enough for life ____ the young Sun

was fainter than it is today.

(A) in spite of

(B) whether

(C) neither of which

(D) even though

  1. 14. The invention of the compound microscope (which allowed much higher magnification through multiple lenses) made _____ the great strides in life sciences.

(A) it possible

(B) possibly

(C) possible

(D) it was possible

15. Hares generally have longer ears and hind legs than rabbits and move by jumping

____ running.

(A) rather to be

(B) rather than

(C) are rather

(D) as rather

16. Lake trout, fish usually finding in deep, cool lakes, are greenish gray and are


covered with pale spots.


17. During the first 20 years of the space age, the United States spent more than 90


billion dollars onto its civilian and military space programs.


  1. 18. Vitamins A and C and most of the B vitamins are retain in foods that have


been canned.


19. Ella Baker spent her adult life working for social change by lecturing, writing,


teacher, and organizing adult literacy programs.


20. Gold can combined with silver in any proportion, but alloys with 50 to 60 percent


silver are the_strongest.


21. The camera obscura, a lensless precursor of the photographic camera, consists_of


a darkened chamber, with light pass into it through a single tiny hole.


22. Lumber production was the main industry in Michigan until the early 1900's,


which the automobile industry was established in Detroit.


23. Twenty minutes of vigorous exercise every day is very effect in helping a person


to maintain physical fitness.


24. It was not until after Emily Dickinson's death in 1886 that, hidden away in her


bureau, overly one thousand unpublished poems were discovered,


25. Rocks form within Earth are called intrusive or plutonic rocks because the


magma from which they form often intrudes into neighboring rock.


26. Most fish swim by moving their tails from side to side , with little relatively body



27. In its life expectancy, although in most other things, the Sun is a typical star.


28. Machines need energy to function, whether it is animal or human muscle, wind or


waters currents, or heat-generated energy, such as steam.


29. The modern violin, the smallest and versatile instrument in the violin family, is


tuned in fifths and produces tones ranging over four and a half octaves.


30. Norman Rockwell was a meticulous artist who paintings portrayed family


incidents and well-defined characters with a wealth of supporting details.


31. By the late twelve century, stained glass had emerged in Europe as an integral


part of Gothic architecture.

32. The United States, a nation with a highly diversified economy, is a major


exporter of grain, fruit, chemical, aircraft, and cars.


33. Canada began cultivation wheat intensively in 1910, which led to a demand for


tools, machines, housing, and building supplies.


34. Magnesium has little structural strength and must be alloyed with another metals


such as aluminum and zinc when it is to be subjected to stress.


35. Orchid seeds take up to eighteen months to mature before they sprout, and the


young plants may need another two years to reach at the flowering stage.


36. The oldest public edifice in Washington D.C., the White House was originally


constructed in the 1790's, also has been rebuilt or extensively remodeled


three times since.


37. Mitosis is the normal process by which a cell divides, each new cell ending up


with a same number of chromosomes as the parent cell.


38. There are a series of large-scale wind patterns all over Earth are called prevailing


winds that have a direct effect on weather and climate.


39. 1n June, 1846, near Sacramento, California, a number of new settlers rebelled in


the Bear Flag Revolt and proclaiming California an independent republic.


40. A mutation is result of a definite biochemical change in a gene that causes the


offspring to vary in some characteristic from the parents.


Section Three: Reading Comprehension
Question I~9

The first birds appeared during late Jurassic times. These birds are known from

four very good skeletons, two incomplete skeletons, and an isolated feather, all from

the Solnhofen limestone of Bavaria, Germany. This fine-grained rock, which is

extensively quarried for lithographic stone, was evidently deposited in a shallow

(5) coral lagoon of a tropical sea, and flying vertebrates occasionally fell into the water

and were buried by the fine limy mud, to be preserved with remarkable detail In this

way, the late Jurassic bird skeletons, which have been named Archaeopteryx, were

fossilized. And not only were the bones preserved in these skeletons, but so also

were imprints of the feathers. If the indications of feathers had not been preserved in

  1. (10)association with Archaeopteryx, it is likely that these fossils would have been

classified among the dinosaurs, for they show numerous theropod characteristics.

Archaeopteryx were animals about the size of a crow, with an archeosaurian type of

skull, a long neck, a compact body balanced on a pair of strong hind limbs, and a

long tail. The forelimbs were enlarged and obviously functioned as wings.

  1. (15) Modern birds, who are the descendants of these early birds, are highly

organized animals, with a constant body temperature and a very high rate of

metabolism. In addition, they are remarkable for having evolved extraordinarily

complex behavior patterns such as those of nesting and song, and the habit among

many species of making long migrations from one continent to another and back

(20)each year.

Most birds also have very strong legs, which allows them to run or walk on the

ground as well as to fly in the air. Indeed, some of the waterbirds, such as ducks and

geese, have the distinction of being able to move around proficiently in the water, on

land, and in the air, a range in natural locomotor ability that has never been attained

(25)by any other vertebrate.

1. According to the author, all of-the following evidence relating to the first birds was found EXCEPT

(A) nesting materials

(B) four skeletons in good condition

(C) two fragmented skeletons

(D) a single feather

2. The word "preserved" in line 8 is closest in meaning to

(A) confused with others

(B) gradually weakened

(C) protected from destruction

(D) lost permanently

3. It can be inferred from the passage that the Archaeopteryx were classified as birds on the basis of

(A) imprints of bones

(B) imprints of feathers

(C) the neck structure

(D) skeletons

4. The word "they" in line 11 refers to

(A) indications

(B) fossils

(C) dinosaurs

(D) characteristics

5. Why does the author mention "a crow" in line 12?

(A) to indicate the size of Archaeopteryx

(B) To specify the age of the Archaeopteryx fossils

(C) To explain the evolutionary history of Archaeopteryx

(D) To demonstrate the superiority of the theropod to Archaeopteryx

  1. 6. It can be inferred from the passage that theropods were

(A) dinosaurs

(B) birds

(C) Archaeopteryx


  1. 7. The word "constant" in line 16 is closest in meaning to

(A) comfortable

(B) combined

(C) consistent

(D) complementary

8. The author mentions all of the following as examples of complex behavior patterns evolved by birds EXCEPT

(A) migrating

(B) nesting


.(D) running

  1. 9. The word "attained" in line 24 is closest in meaning to

(A) required

(B) achieved

(C) observed

(D) merited

Questions 10-19

Newspaper publishers in the United States have long been enthusiastic users

and distributors of weather maps. Although some newspapers that had carried the

United States Weather Bureau's national weather map in 1912 dropped it once the

novelty had passed, many continued to print the daily weather chart provided by

  1. (5) their local forecasting office. In the 1930's, when interest in aviation and progress in

air-mass analysis made weather patterns more newsworthy, additional newspapers

started or resumed the daily weather map. In 1935, The Associated Press (AP) news

service inaugurated its WirePhoto network and offered subscribing newspapers

morning and afternoon weather maps redrafted by the AP's Washington, B.C., office

  1. (10)from charts provided by the government agency. Another news service, United Press International (UPI), developed a competing photowire network and also provided

timely weather maps for both morning and afternoon newspapers. After the United

States government launched a series of weather satellites in 1966, both the AP and

UPI offered cloud-cover photos obtained from the Weather Bureau.

  1. (15) In the late 1970's and early 1980's, the weather map became an essential

ingredient in the redesign of the American newspaper. News publishers, threatened

by increased competition from television for readers' attention, sought to package

the news more conveniently and attractively. In 1982, many publishers felt

threatened by the new USA Today, a national daily newspaper that used a page-wide,

  1. (20)full-color weather map as its key design element. That the weather map in USA

  2. 21 Today did not include information about weather fronts and pressures attests to the

largely symbolic role it played. Nonetheless, competing local and metropolitan

newspapers responded in a variety of ways. Most substituted full-color temperature

maps for the standard weather maps, while others dropped the comparatively drab

(25)satellite photos or added regional forecast maps with pictorial symbols to indicate

rainy, snowy, cloudy, or clear conditions. A few newspapers, notably The New York

Times, adopted a highly informative yet less visually prominent weather map that

was specially designed to explain an important recent or imminent weather event.

Ironically, a newspaper's richest, most instructive weather maps often are

  1. (30)comparatively small and inconspicuous.

10. What does the passage mainly discuss?

(A) The differences between government and newspaper weather forecasting in the United States.

(B) The history of publishing weather maps in United States newspapers

(C) A comparison of regional and national weather reporting in the United States.

(D) Information that forms the basis for weather forecasting in the United States
11. The word "resumed" in line 7 is closest in meaning to

(A) began again

(B) held back

(C) thought over

(D) referred to

12. According to the passage, one important reason why newspapers printed daily weather maps during the first half of the twentieth century was

(A) the progress in printing technology

(B) a growing interest in air transportation

(C) a change in atmospheric conditions

(D) the improvement of weather forecasting techniques

13. What regular service did The Associated Press and United Press International begin to offer subscribing newspapers in the 1930's?

(A) A new system of weather forecasting

(B) An air-mass analysis

(C) Twice daily weather maps

(D) Cloud-cover photographs

14. The phrase "attests to" in line 21 is closest in meaning to

(A) makes up for

(B) combines with

(C) interferes with

(D) gives evidence of

15. The word "others" in line 24 refers to

(A) newspapers

(B) ways

(C) temperature maps

(D) weather maps

16. The word "drab" in line 24 is closest in meaning to

(A) precise

(B) poor

(C) simple

(D) dull

17. In contrast to the weather maps of USA Today, weather maps in The New York Times tended to be

(A) printed in foil color

(B) included for symbolic reasons

(C) easily understood by the readers

(D) filled with detailed information

18. The word "prominent" in line 27 is closest in meaning to

(A) complex

(B) noticeable

(C) appealing

(D) perfect

19. The author uses the term "Ironically" in line 29 to indicate that a weather map's


(A) is not important to newspaper publishers

(B) does not always indicate how much information it provides

(C) reflects how informative a newspaper can be

(D) often can improve newspaper sales

Question 20-30

Some animal behaviorists argue that certain animals can remember past events,

anticipate future ones, make plans and choices, and coordinate activities within a

group. These scientists, however, are cautious about the extent to which animals can

be credited with conscious processing.

  1. (5) Explanations of animal behavior that leave out any sort of consciousness at all

and ascribe actions entirely to instinct leave many questions unanswered. One

example of such unexplained behavior: Honeybees communicate the sources of

nectar to one another by doing a dance in a figure-eight pattern. The orientation of

the dance conveys the position of the food relative to the sun's position in the sky,

  1. (10)and the speed of the dance tells how far the food source is from the hive. Most

researchers assume that the ability to perform and encode the dance is innate and

shows no special intelligence. But in one study, when experimenters kept changing

the site of the food source, each time moving the food 25 percent farther from the

previous site, foraging honeybees began to anticipate where the food source would

  1. (15) appear next. When the researchers arrived at the new location, they would find the

bees circling the spot, waiting for their food. No one has yet explained how bees,

whose brains weigh four ten-thousandths of an ounce, could have inferred the

location of the new site.

Other behaviors that may indicate some cognition include tool use. Many

  1. (20)animals, like the otter who uses a stone to crack mussel shells, are capable of using

objects in the natural environment as rudimentary tools. One researcher has found

that mother chimpanzees occasionally show their young how to use tools to open

hard nuts. In one study, chimpanzees compared two pairs of food wells containing

chocolate chips. One pair might contain, say, five chips and three chips, the other

  1. (25)our chips and three chips. Allowed to choose which pair they wanted, the

chimpanzees almost always chose the one with the higher total, showing some sort

of summing ability. Other chimpanzees have learned to use numerals to label

quantities of items and do simple sums.

20. What does the passage mainly discuss?

(A) The role of instinct in animal behavior

(B) Observations that suggest consciousness in animal behavior

(C) The use of food in studies of animal behavior

(D) Differences between the behavior of animals in their natural environments and in laboratory experiments.

21. Which of the following is NOT discussed as an ability animals are thought to have?

(A) Selecting among choices

(B) Anticipating events to come

(C) Remembering past experiences

(D) Communicating emotions

22. What is the purpose of the honeybee dance?

(A) To determine the quantity of food at a site

(B) To communicate the location of food

(C) To increase the speed of travel to food sources

(D) T identify the type of nectar that is available
23. The word "yet" in line 16 is closest in meaning to

(A) however

(B) since

(C) generally

(D) so far

24. What did researchers discover in the study of honeybees discussed in paragraph 2?

(A) Bees are able to travel at greater speeds than scientists thought.

(B) The bees could travel 25% farther than scientists expected.

(C) The bees were able to determine in advance where scientists would place their food.

  1. (D) Changing the location of food caused bees to decrease their dance activity.

25. It can be inferred from the passage that brain size is assumed to

(A) be an indicator of cognitive ability

(B) vary among individuals within a species

(C) be related to food consumption

(D) correspond to levels of activity

26. Why are otters and mussel shells included in the discussion in paragraph 3?

(A) To provide an example of tool use among animals

(B) To prove that certain species demonstrate greater ability in tool use than other species


27. The word "rudimentary" in line 21 is closest in meaning to

(A) superior

(B) original

(C) basic

(D) technical

  1. 28. It can be inferred from the statement about mother chimpanzees and their young (lines 21-23) that young chimpanzees have difficulty

(A) communicating with their mothers

(B) adding quantities

(C) making choices

(D) opening hard nuts

29. The phrase "the one" in line 26 refers to the

(A) study

(B) pair

(C) chimpanzee

(D) ability

30. Scientists concluded from the experiment with chimpanzees and chocolate chips

that chimpanzees

(A) lack abilities that other primates have

(B) prefer to work in pairs or groups

(C) exhibit behavior that indicates certain mathematical abilities

(D) have difficulty selecting when given choices

Questions 31-39

In eighteenth-century colonial America, flowers and fruit were typically the

province of the botanical artist interested in scientific illustration rather than being

the subjects of fine art. Early in the nineteenth century, however, the Peale family of

Philadelphia established the still life, a picture consisting mainly of inanimate

(5) objects, as a valuable part of the artist's repertoire. The fruit paintings by James and

Sarah Miriam Peale are simple arrangements of a few objects, handsomely colored,

small in size, and representing little more than what they are. In contrast were the

highly symbolic, complex compositions by Charles Bird King, with their biting

satire and critical social commentary. Each of these strains comminuted into and

(10) well past mid-century.

John F. Francis (1808-86) was a part of the Pennsylvania still-life tradition that

arose, at least in part, from the work of the Peales. Most of his still lifes date from

around 1850 to 1875. Luncheon Still Life looks like one of the Peales' pieces on a

larger scale, kits greater complexity resulting from the number of objects. It is also

(15) indebted to the luncheon type of still life found in seventeenth-century Dutch

painting. The opened bottles of wine and the glasses of wine partially consumed

suggest a number of unseen guests. The appeal of the fruit and nuts to our sense of

taste is heightened by the juicy orange, which has already been sliced. The

arrangement is additive, that is, made up of many different parts, not always

(20) compositionally integrated, with all objects of essentially equal importance.

About 1848, Severin Roesen came to the United States from Germany and

settled in New York City, where he began to paint large, lush still lifes of flowers,

fruit, or both, often measuring over four feet across. Still Life with Fruit and

Champagne is typical in its brilliance of color, meticulous rendering of detail,

(25) compact composition, and unabashed abundance. Rich in symbolic overtones, the

beautifully painted objects carry additional meanings------butterflies or fallen buds

suggest the impermanence of life, a bird's nest with eggs means fertility, and so on.

Above all, Roesen's art expresses the abundance that America symbolized to many of its citizens.

31. What does the passage mainly discuss?

(A) The artwork of James and Sarah Miriam Peale

(B) How Philadelphia became a center for art in the nineteenth century

(C) Nineteenth-century still-life paintings in the United States

(D) How botanical art inspired the first still-life paintings
32. Which of the following is mentioned as a characteristic of the still lifes of James and Sarah Miriam Peale?

(A) Simplicity

(B) Symbolism

(C) Smooth texture

(D) Social commentary
33. The word "biting" in line 8 is closest in meaning to

(A) simple

(B) sorrowful

(B) frequent

(D) sharp

34. The word "It" in line 14 refers to

(A) Luncheon Still Life

(B) one of the Peales' pieces

(C) a larger scale

(D) the number of objects

35. The word "heightened" in line 18 is closest in meaning to

(A) complicated

(B) directed

(C) observed

(D) increased

36. The word "meticulous" in line 24 is closest in meaning to

(A) careful

(B) significant

(C) appropriate

(D) believable

37. Which of the following terms is defined in the passage?

(A) "repertoire" (line 5)

(B) "satire" (line 9)

(C) "additive" (line 19)

(D) "rendering" (line 24)

38. All of the following are mentioned as characteristics of Roesen's still lifes EXCEPT that they

(A) are symbolic

(B) use simplified representations of flowers and fruit

(C) include brilliant colors

(D) are large in size

39. Which of the following is mentioned as the dominant theme in Roesen's painting?

(A) Fertility

(B) Freedom

(C) Impermanence

(D) Abundance

Question 40-50

Scientists have discovered that for the last 160,000 years, at least, there has

been a consistent relationship between the amount of carbon dioxide in the air and

the average temperature of the planet. The importance of carbon dioxide in

regulating the Earth's temperature was confirmed by scientists working in eastern

  1. (5) Antarctica. Drilling down into a glacier, they extracted a mile-long cylinder of ice

from the hole. The glacier had formed as layer upon layer of snow accumulated year

after year. Thus drilling into the ice was tantamount to drilling back through time.

The deepest sections of the core are composed of water that fell as snow

160,000 years ago. Scientists in Grenoble, France, fractured portions of the core and

  1. (10)measured the composition of ancient air released from bubbles in the ice.

Instruments were used to measure the ratio of certain isotopes in the frozen water to

get an idea of the prevailing atmospheric temperature at the time when that

particular bit of water became locked in the glacier.

The result is a remarkable unbroken record of temperature and of atmospheric

  1. (15)levels of carbon dioxide. Almost every time the chill of an ice age descended on the

planet, carbon dioxide levels dropped. When the global temperature dropped 9°F (5 °C),

carbon dioxide levels dropped to 190 parts per million or so. Generally, as each

ice age ended and the Earth basked in a warm interglacial period, carbon dioxide

levels were around 280 parts per million. Through the 160,000 years of that ice

  1. (20)record, the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere fluctuated between 190 and

280 parts per million, but never rose much higher-until the Industrial Revolution

beginning in the eighteenth century and continuing today.

There is indirect evidence that the link between carbon dioxide levels and

global temperature change goes back much further than the glacial record. Carbon

  1. (25) dioxide levels may have been much greater than the current concentration during the

  2. Carboniferous period, 360 to 285 million years ago. The period was named for a

profusion of plant life whose buried remains produced a large fraction of the coal

deposits that are being brought to the surface and burned today.

40. Which of the following does the passage mainly discuss?

(A) Chemical causes of ice ages

(B) Techniques for studying ancient layers of ice in glaciers

(C) Evidence of a relationship between levels of carbon dioxide and global temperature

(D) Effects of plant life on carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere

  1. 41. The word “accumulated” in line 6 is closest in meaning to_________

(A) spread out

(B) changed

(C) became denser

(D) built up

42. According to the passage, the drilling of the glacier in eastern Antarctica was important because it

(A) allowed scientists to experiment with new drilling techniques

(B) permitted the study of surface temperatures in an ice-covered region of Earth

(C) provided insight about climate conditions in earlier periods

(D) confirmed earlier findings about how glaciers are formed

43. The phrase "tantamount to" in line 7 is closest in meaning to

(A) complementary to

(B) practically the same as

(C) especially well suited to

(D) unlikely to be confused with

44. According to the passage, Grenoble, France, is the place where

(A) instruments were developed for measuring certain chemical elements

(B) scientists first recorded atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide

(C) scientists studied the contents of an ice core from Antarctica

45. According to the passage, scientists used isotopes from the water of the ice core to determine which of following?

(A) The amount of air that had bubbled to the surface since the ice had formed

(B) The temperature of the atmosphere when the ice was formed

(C) The date at which water had become locked in the glacier

(D) The rate at which water had been frozen in the glacier

  1. 46. The word "remarkable" in line 14 is closest in meaning to

(A) genuine

(B) permanent

(C) extraordinary

(D) continuous

47. The word "link" in line 23 is closest in meaning to

(A) tension

(B) connection

(C) attraction

(D) distance

48. The passage implies that the warmest temperatures among the periods mentioned occurred

(A) in the early eighteenth century

(B) 160,000 years ago

(C) at the end of each ice age

(D) between 360 and 285 million years ago

49. According to the passage, the Carboniferous period was characterized by

(A) a reduction in the number of coal deposits

(B) the burning of a large amount of coal

(C) an abundance of plants

(D) an accelerated rate of glacier formation

  1. 50. The passage explains the origin of which of the following terms?

(A) Glacier (line5)

(B) Isotopes (line 11)

(C) Industrial Revolution (line 21)

(D) Carboniferous period (lines 2


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