|Second Dedication: 3/15/05
I dedicate this collection to my friends Orville and Evelyn Brynelson and my parents George and Marion Greenwald. I especially thank James Steckel, Barbara Zhibkowski, Gustavo Betancourt, and Joshua Ellis, colleagues and computer experts extraordinaire, for their invaluable assistance. Kathy Hart, MUHS librarian, was most helpful in suggesting sources. I further thank Gaylan DuBose, Ed Long, Hugh Himwich, Susan Schearer, Gardy Warren, and Kaye Warren for their encouragement and advice. My former students and now Classics professors Daniel Curley and Anthony Hollingsworth also deserve mention for their advice, assistance, and friendship. My student Michael Kocorowski encouraged and provoked me into beginning this dictionary. Certamen players Michael Fleisch, James Ruel, Jeff Tudor, and Ryan Thom were inspirations. Sue Smith provided advice. James Radtke, James Beaudoin, Richard Hallberg, Sylvester Kreilein, and James Wilkinson assisted with words from modern foreign languages. Without the advice of these and many others this dictionary could not have been compiled. Lastly I thank all my colleagues and students at Marquette University High School who have made my teaching career a joy.
American College Dictionary (ACD)
American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (AHD)
Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology (ODEE)
Oxford English Dictionary (OCD)
Webster’s International Dictionary (eds. 2, 3) (W2, W3)
Liddell and Scott (LS)
Lewis and Short (LS)
Oxford Latin Dictionary (OCD)
Schaffer: Greek Derivative Dictionary, Latin Derivative Dictionary
In addition many other sources were consulted; numerous etymology texts and readers were helpful. Zeno’s Word Frequency guide assisted in determining the relative importance of words. However, all judgments (and errors) are finally mine. Many internet sites added variety. Vobis multas gratias.
Copyright: 2002, 2005
a-, ab-, abs-, advance, advanced, advancement, advantage, advantageous, advantageously, avant-garde, disadvantage, disadvantageous, disadvantageously, readvance, van, vanguard, vantage
Examples: avert, abduct, abstain (and numerous others).
Distinguish Greek prefix a- (the alpha privative meaning not or without);
e.g, amoral, atypical.
abbatia: abbey abbacy, abbatial, abbe, abbess, abbey, abbot
abdomen, abdominal, abdominally, abs, dorsabdominal, postabdomen, subabdominal
aboleo, abolitum: destroy
abolish, abolisher, abolition, abolitionary, abolitionism, abolitionist, abolitionistic
acer: sharp; aceo: be sour; acerbus: bitter; acies: battle-line; acuo: sharpen; acutus: sharp
acerb, acerbate, acerbic, acerbity, acescent, acetabulum, acetate, acetic, acetone, acetosalicylic, acetous, acetyl, acetylene, acicula, acicular, acid, acidic, acidification, acidify, acidity, acidly, acidosis, acidulate, acidulous, aciduously, aciform, acrid, acridine, acridity, acrimonious, acrimoniously, acrimony, acrylic, acuate, acuity, aculeate, acumen, acuminate, acumination, acuminiferous, acupressure, acupuncture, acute, acutely, acuteness, acutifoliate, aglet, ague, aguish, aiguille, aiguillette, alegar, amyl, acetate, antacid, cute, cutely, cuteness, cutesy, cutesy-poo, cutie, deacidification, deacidify, diacetate, diacid, DNA, eager, eagerly, eagerness, eglantine, exacerbate, exacerbation, hyperacidity, hypoacidity, niacin, oxyacetylene, oxyacid, penacute, peracetate, peracid, peracute, subacid, subacute, triacetate, triacid, vinaigrette, vinegar, vinegarroon, vinegary
acervus: heaped up
acervation, coacervate, coacervation
-acius: tending to
perspicacious etc. (= Eng. -acious)
-acitas: quality of being inclined to
prespicacity etc. (= Eng. -acity)
-acia: quality of having
obstinacy etc. (= Eng. -acy)
ad-, adapt, accept, addition, adept, affect, aggressive, adhere, adit, adjacent, allege, admit, ammunition, announce, adopt, apply, acquire, arrive, assume, attend, adumbrate, advent etc.
Note assimilation: ad + munio becomes ammuntion.
Despite their appearance advance and advantage are not compounds of ad, but rather are a combination of ab and ante (q.v.).
adulescens (youth): see alo
adulor (1): fawn upon
adulate, adulation, adulatory
aedes (aedis): temple, building; aedificium: building
aedile, aedileship, edification, edificatory, edifice, edify, edifying, edifyingly, unedifying
Aegyptus: Egypt: see
emulate, emulation, emulative, emulator, emulous, emulously
See also imitor, which may be related.
aequus: level, fair, just; aequo: equal; aequor: sea; iniquus: unjust
adequacy, adequate, adequately, adequation, autumnal equinox, coequal, coequality, coequally, disequilibrium, Ecuador, Equadorian, egalitarian, egalitarianism, egality, equability, equable, equably, equal, equalitarian, equality, equalization, equalize, equalizer, equally, equanimity, equanimous, equant, equatable, equate, equation, equational, equator, equatorial, equiangular, equidistant, equifinal, equilateral, equilibrated, equilibrator, equilibrist, equilibrium, equilize, equinoctial, equinox, equinumerous, equipartition, equipedal, equipede, equipluve, equipoise, equiponderate, equipotent, equipotential, equiprobable, equirotal, equisonant, equitable, equitably, equity, equivalence, equivalency, equivalent, equivalently, equivalve, equivocal, equivocally, equivocate, equivocation, equivocator, equivacatory, equivoluminal, inadequacy, inadequate, inadequately, inequality, inequitable, inequitably, inequity, iniquitous, iniquitously, iniquity, nanoequivalent, triequal, unequal, unequaled, unequally, unequivocal, unequivocally, vernal equinox
aer: air, atmosphere ()
aerate, aeration, aerator, aerial, aeriferous, aerification, aeriform, aerify, air, airbag, airballon, air base, air bath, airboat, airborne, airbrake, airbrush, airbus, air-condition, aircraft, airfield, airfoil, airforce, airframe, airfreight, airhead, air-hole, airified, airify, airily, airiness, airlift, airline, airmail, airman, airplane, air pocket, airport, airproof, air pump, airseal, airship, airsick, airtight, airway, airworthy, airy, antiaircraft, aria, AWACS, Buenos Aires, deearate, deaeration, malaria, malarial, malariologist, malariology, malarious, midair, open-air, radio-aerial
OED does place aerial etc. under aer and aero- etc. under .
For air OED mentions both and aer.
aestimo (1): estimate; aes: bronze (LS; OLD doubts); aeneus: brazen; aerarium: treasury
aeneolithic, aeneous, aim, aimer, aimless, aimlessly, C.E., Common Era, disesteem, era, esteem, estimable, estimate, estimation, estimator, guestimate, inestimable, misestmate, overesteem, overestimate, self-esteem, underestimate, underestimated, unestimated
Italicized words directly from aes.
aestas: summer; aestus: tide
estival, estivate, estivation, estuarine, estuary
aether: upper air: see
aevum: age, generation; aetas: age; aeternus: everlasting
ab aeterno, age, aged, ageism, ageless, agelong, agene, coetaneity, coetaneous, coeternal, coeternally, coeternity, coeval, coevality, coevally, Dark Ages, eternal, eternalize, eternally, eternity, eviternity, in aeternum, longevity, medieval, medievalism, medievalist, medievalize, middle-age, nonage, old-age, over-aged, primeval, sempiternal, sempiternally, space age, steam age, stone age, teenage, teenager, underaged, world-age
ODEE adds tarnation (see damno).
Afer: African; Africa: Africa
Africa, African, Afrikaaner, Afrikaans, afro, Afro-, Afrocentric, Afrocentrism
ager: field; agrestis: rural (cf. )
acre, acreage, agrarian, agrarianism, agrestic, agribusiness, agricultural, agriculturalist, agriculture, agriculturist, agrogorod, pelerine, peregrinate, peregrination, peregrinator, peregrine, pilgrim, pilgrimage, VoAg, wiseacre
See notes on aerie in OED and W3.
agger (rampart): see gero
agnus: lamb ()
ago, actus: do, drive (cf. Grk : lead, bring), adigo: throw; agito: drive; agmen: line of march; cogito: think; cogo: compel; exigo: drive out; exiguus: small; redigo: drive back
abactor, abreaction, act, actable, acting, action, actionable, activation, activate, activator, active, actively, active-matrix, activism, activist, activity, actor, actress, Acts, actual, actuality, actually, actuarily, actuary, actuate, actuator, agency, agenda, agent, agent provacateur (Fr), agile, agility, agitate, agitatedly, agitation, agitato (It), agitator, Agit-Prop, ambagious, ambiguity, ambiguous, ambiguously, anticoagulant, assay, astrogator, astronavigation, astronavigator, auto-de-fe (Pg), bioactive, bioreactor, cache, cachepot, cachet, castigate, castigation, castigator, chain reaction, CIA, circumnavigate, circumnavigation, circumnavigator, coact, coagulability, coagulant, coagulate, coagulation, coagulative, coagulator, coagulin, coagulometer, coagulum, cogency, cogent, cogently, cogitable, cogitabund, cogitate, cogitation, cogitative, cogitatively, cogitator, cogito ergo sum, counteract, counteractant, counteracter, counteraction, counteractive, counteragency, counteragent, counteragitation, crossexamine, crossexamination, deactivate, deactivation, diddlysquat, disambiguate, disambiguation, double agent, eco-activist, enact, enactable, enaction, enactive, enactment, enactor, enactory, EPA, essay, essayism, essayist, exact, exactable, exacter, exacting, exactingly, exaction, exactitude, exactly, exactness, exactor, exam, examen, examinable, examinant, examination, examine, examiner, excogitate, exigency, exigent, exiguous, expurgate, expurgation, expurgator, expurgatory, fumigate, fumigation, fumigator, fustigate, -gate (for some words), geonavigation, hyper, hyperactive, hyperactively, hyperactivity, immunoassay, inaction, inactivate, inactivator, inactive, inactively, inactivity, incogitable, incogitant, inexact, inexactitude, inexactly, innavigable, interact, interaction, interactionism, interactive, interactively, interactivity, interagency, intransigence, intransigent, intransigently, levigate, levigation, levigator, litigant, litigate, litigation, litigator, litigious, litigiously, litigiousness, medcical examination, mitigate, mitigating, mitigation, mitigative, mitigator, mitigatory, movie actor, movie actress, mucilage (OED), mucilaginous (OED), navigability, navigable, navigate, navigation, navigator, navvy, nonactivity, nonambiguous, nonambiguity, nonnavigable, nonradioactive, nonreactive, nuclear reactor, objurgate, objurgation, objurgative, objurgatory, one-act, overact, overaction, overactive, overactively, overactivity, overreact, overreaction, photoaction, photoactive, photocoagulation, photoreaction, press agency, press agent, proactivator, proactive, procoagulant, prodigal,,prodigality, prodigalize, prodigally, psychoactive, purgation, purgative, purgatorial, ,purgator, purgatory, purge, purger, quick-acting, radioactivation, radioactive, radioactivity, react, reactance, reactant, reaction, reactionary, reactionism, reaction time, reactivate, reactive, reactor, reagent, redact, redaction, redactor, reenact, reenactment, reenactor, reexamination, reexamine, retroact, retroaction, retroactive, retroactively, self-examination, sex act, social action, squat, squattage, squatter, stress reaction, tea act, Test Act, transact, transaction, transactional, transactor, travel agency, travel agent, ultrareactionary, unacted, unambiguous, unambiguously, unenacted, unexacting, unexamined, unexpurgated, unnavigated, unpurged, unreactive, varactor, variegate, variegation, viraginous, virago, Vo-Ag, wave action, wire act
ODEE adds cache, cachet. W3 accepts cache, hesitates on cachet. OLD says virago from vir + ago; LS says virgo. ODEE and OED derive virago from vir alone.
LS, OLD divide purgo into purus + ago. See purgo. Italicized words are from purgo.
For double underlined words see aio.
adage, prodigal, prodigality, prodigalize, prodigally, prodigious, prodigiously, prodigiousness, prodigy
OLD says prodigalis, prodigium from either ago or aio. ODEE assigns prodigal to ago and prodigious to either ago or aio. OED assigns prodigal to ago and prodigious to aio.
W3 assigns prodigious and prodigy to aio, prodigal to ago.
ala: wing; ales: winged
aileron, aisle, alar, alary, alate, aliferous, aliform, aliped, axil, axillary, elevon
alacrity, allegretto (It), allegro (It)
alb, alba, Alba Longa, Alban, Albania, Albanian, albarium, albedo, albedometer, albescent, albifrons, albinism, albino, Albion, album, albumen, albumin, albuminous, alburnum, aubade, auburn, bedaub, daub, dauber, daubery, daubster, dauby, dealbation, ovalbumin
alea: dice: see
algeo: be cold
algae, algid, algometer, algor, macroalgae, microalgae
-alis: pertaining to
general, genial, manual etc. (= Eng. -al, -eal, -ial)
alius: another; alienus: foreign; aliquis: someone; aliter: elsewhere
abalienate, abalienation, alias, alibi, alien, alienable, alienage, alienate, alienation, alienator, alienee, alienism, alienist, aliquant, aliquot, et al., et alia, et alii, hidalgo, inalienability, inalienable, inalienably, per aliud
alo, al(i)tum: suckle, nourish; altus: high, deep; adulescens: youth; alma: nourishing
adolesce, adolescence, adolescent, adult, adulthood, aliment, alimentary, alimentation, alimentative, alimony, Alma, alma mater, altazimuth, altigraph, altimeter, altimetry, altiplanation, altiplano, altitude, alto, altocumulus, altostratus, altricial, alum (alumnus), alumna, alumnus, bio-enhanced, coalesce, coalescence, coalescent, coalition, coalitionism, coalitionist, contralto, enhance, enhancement, enhancive, exalt, exalter, exaltingly, exaltation, haughtily, haughtiness, haughty, haut (Fr), hauteur, hawser, maltitude, nonproliferation, oboe, oboist, overprolific, palimony, preadolescent, preadult, prole, proles, proletarian, proletarianism, proletatianization, proletariat, proletarization, prolicide, proliferate, proliferation, proliferative, proliferous, prolific, prolificacy, proligerous, proly, sine prole, superexalt, superexaltation, Terra Haute, unexalted
OED derives altar from alo; see note under oleo.
Alpestrine, Alpine, Alps, cisalpine, subalpine, transalpine
altaria (altar): see oleo.
alter: one or the other of two; adulter: illicit lover; alternus: by turns
AC, adulter, adulterant, adulterate, adulteration, adulterer, adulteress, adulterine, adulterous, adultery, alter, alter ego, alterability, alterable, alteration, altercation, alternate, alternately, alternating, alternating current, alternation, alternative, alternatively, alternativity, alternator, altrigenderism, altruism, altruist, altruistic, altruistically, inalterable, inalterably, subaltern, subalternation, unadulterated, unalterable, unalterably, unaltered
altus (high, deep): see alo.
alumen: astringent substance
alum (substance), aluminate, aluminiferous, aluminotype, aluminous, aluminum, sial
alveary, alveolar, alveolate, alveolus, interalveolar, postalveolar
ambo: both (cf. )
ambagious, ambi-, ambiance, ambidexter, ambidexterity, ambidextrous, ambience, ambient, ambiguity, ambiguous, ambiguously, ambilateral, ambisinister, ambisonic, ambit, ambition, ambitious, ambitiously, ambivalence, ambivalent, ambivalently, ambs-ace, anfractuosity, anfractuous, circumambience, circumambient, disambiguate, disambiguation, nonambiguity, nonambiguous, overambitious, unambiguous, unambiguously, unambitious, unambitiously
Note the changed spelling in anfractuous.
ambulo (1): walk
alley, alleyway, amble, ambulance, ambulant, ambulate, ambulation, ambulator, ambulatory, andante, circumambulate, circumambulation, deambulation, deambulatory, funambulism, funambulist, noctambulism, noctambulist, noctambulistic, noctambulous, perambulate, perambulation, perambulator, permabulatory, pram, preamble, solvitur ambulando, somnambulant, somnambulism, somnambulist
amita: (paternal) aunt
aunt, aunty, grandaunt, great-aunt
amo (1): love; amicus: friend(ly); amicitia: friendship; amoenus: pleasant; inimicus: enemy
Amanda, amateur, amateurish, amateurishly, amateurism, amative, amatory, amenity, amer (Fr), ami (Fr), amiability, amiable, amiably, amicable, amicably, amicus curiae, amiga (Sp), amigo (Sp), amity, amoretto (It), amorous, amorously, amour, amour-propre (Fr), Amy, archenemy, disamenity, enamor, enamorment, enemy, enmity, inamorata (It), inamorato (It), inimical, inimicality, inimically, Mabel, mon ami (Fr), odi et amo, omnia vincit amor, paramour, polyamor, polyamorous, pro-am, radio amateur, Somos Amigos
AM, ample, ampliate, amplification, amplified, amplifier, amplify, amplitude, amply, laser, laserprint
ampolla: bottle (ultimately Greek)
ancora: anchor, hook: see
angaria: transport wagon
ango, anctum: choke; anxius: troubled; anxietas: anxiety; angina: throat infection
angina pectoris, angle, angler, anguish, angular, angularity, angulate, angulation, angustifolia, anxiety, anxious, anxiously, cubangle, decangular, equiangular, heptangular, octangular, overanxious, pentangle, pentangular, phase angle, point angle, quadrangle, quadrangular, quinquangular, rectangle, rectangular, right-angle, septangular, slip angle, triangle, triangular, triangularity, triangularly, triangulate, triangulation, triangulator, warning triangle, wide-angle
N.B. Anger and angry are not derived from ango.
anguis: snake; anguilla: eel
anguiform, anguilliform, anguine, anguis in herba
animus: spirit; anima: soul, breath; animadverto: notice; animal: animal; exanimo: kill
anima, animadversion, animadvert, animal, animalcule, animalculum, animalish, animalism, animalistic, animality, animalize, anima mundi, animate, animated, animation, animator, anime, animism, animist, animistic, animosity, animus, de-animalize, disanimate, disanimation, equanimity, equanimous, exanimation, exanimate, inanimate, inanimately, longanimity, magnanimity, magnanimous, magnanimously, nonunanimous, parvanimity, pusillanimity, pusillanimous, pusillanimously, reanimate, reanimation, unanimism, unanimity, unanimous, unanimously, wheel animal
annal, annalist, annalistic, anniversary, anno Domini (AD), annual, annually, annuitant, annuity, annular, biannual, biannually, bicentennial, biennial, biennially, biennium, centennial, decennary, decennial, decennially, decennium, duodecennial, duodecentennial, interannual, millennial, millenialism, millenialist, millenially, millenian, millennium, octennial, per annum, perennate, perennial, perennially, perennibranch, postmillenial, premillenial, quadrennial, quadrennium, quincentennial, quindecennial, quinqennial, quinquennially, quinqennium, semiannual, semiannually, septicentennial, sesquicentennial, sexennial, sexennium, superannuate, superannuation, tercentennial, triannular, triannulate, tricentennial, triennial, triennially, triennium, vicennial
N.B. Centenary and millenary do not contain the root annus.
N.B. Distinguish decenary, decennary.
-ans: see -ant
anserine, anserous, merganser
important etc. (= Eng. -ant)
ante: before; antiquus: old
advance, advanced, advancement, advantage, advantageous, advantageously, a.m., ancestor, ancestorial, ancestral, ancestrally, ancestress, ancestry, ancien regime (Fr), ancient, anciently, ancientness, ante, ante bellum, antecede, antecedence, antecedent, antecessor, antechamber, antedate, antediluvial, antediluvian, antefebrile, antefix, anteflexion, antelabrum, antelocation, antemeridian, ante meridiem, antemortem, antenatal, antenate, antenuptial, antepartum, antepenult, antepenultimate, anteprandial, ante rem, anterior, anteroom, anteroposterior, anteversion, antic, anticipate, anticipation, anticipative, anticipatively, anticipatory, antics, antiquarian, antiquary, antiquated, antique, antiquity, avant-garde (Fr), disadvantage, disadvantageous, disadvantageously, penny ante, rampart, readvance, van, vanguard, vantage, verd antique (Fr)