Search strategy



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APPENDIX 1
SEARCH STRATEGY

A comprehensive literature search using the terms and variants of all malignant and pre-malignant oral manifestations of inflammatory bowel diseases (ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease) was performed in January 2015 within Pubmed, Embase and Scopus and restricted to human studies (1946 to January 31st, 2015) and EMBASE (1947 to 1946 to January 31st, 2015) (search strategy is available below). Studies were included if they were published in any language and if related to oral malignant or pre-malignant manifestations in IBD. Additionally, references from relevant papers were hand searched for other appropriate studies. Additional search was performed in the official SPC of all drugs related to IBD therapy and in websites related to oral cancer.

The term oral cancer constitutes cancers of the mucosal surfaces of the lips, floor of mouth, oral tongue, buccal mucosa, lower and upper gingiva, hard palate maxilla/maxillary sinus, junction of soft and hard palate labio marginal, sulcus, vestibular sulcus and mandible, mandible jaw, salivary gland, parotid gland, Waldeyer’s ring, and retromolar trigone.

Additional search was conducted including extensive review of all SPCs of drugs related to IBD therapy and internet-based databases or any information related to oral cancer and pre-cancerous lesions in IBD.


A. Method of bibliographical search
SEARCH 1

azathioprine OR methotrexate OR tacrolimus OR mycophenolate mofetil OR 6-mercaptopurine OR thioguanine OR cyclosporine OR ciclosporin OR anti-TNF OR infliximab OR remicade OR humira OR adalimumab OR Entyvio OR vedolizumab OR certolizumab OR Cimzia OR natalizumab OR tysabri OR biological therapy OR anti-integrin OR golimumab OR simponi AND (oral, oropharyngeal, lip, buccal, gingival, tongue, hard or soft palate, tonsils, oropharunx, recurrence, precancerous, metastatic) cancer


SEARCH 2

inflammatory bowel disease OR ulcerative colitis OR Crohn’s AND oral cancer OR oropharyngeal cancer OR Mouth cancer OR Oral cancer OR Oral cancer risk factors OR Oral cancer recurrence OR Oral lymphoma OR Oral cancer relapse on anti-TNFa OR Oral leukoplakia OR Oral erythroplakia OR Oral erythroleukoplakia OR Oral precancerous lesions or conditions OR Oral HPV infection OR Oral lymphoma OR Oral leukoplakia OR Lip cancer OR Oral HPV OR Buccal cancer OR Oral lichen planus OR Oral lichen planus Gingival cancer OR Oral caniditiasis OR Tongue cancer OR Hard palate cancer OR Sjogren’s syndrome OR Oral metastatic cancer OR Tonsil cancer


SEARCH 3

immunosuppressant OR immunosuppressive OR azathioprine OR methotrexate OR tacrolimus OR mycophenolate mofetil OR 6-mercaptopurine OR thioguanine OR cyclosporine OR ciclosporin OR anti-TNF OR infliximab OR remicade OR humira OR adalimumab OR Entyvio OR vedolizumab OR certolizumab OR Cimzia OR natalizumab OR tysabri OR biological therapy OR anti-integrin OR golimumab OR simponi AND cancer


SEARCH 4

anti-TNF OR infliximab OR remicade OR humira OR adalimumab OR Entyvio OR vedolizumab OR certolizumab OR Cimzia OR natalizumab OR tysabri OR biological therapy OR anti-integrin OR golimumab OR simponi OR anti-TNFa OR antiTNF AND oral cancer relapse


SEARCH 5

anti-TNF OR infliximab OR remicade OR humira OR adalimumab OR Entyvio OR vedolizumab OR certolizumab OR Cimzia OR natalizumab OR tysabri OR biological therapy OR anti-integrin OR golimumab OR simponi OR anti-TNFa OR antiTNF AND oral cancer recurrence


SEARCH 6

cancer relapse OR recurrence OR new onset cancer OR cancer flare AND anti-TNF


SEARCH 7

Oral inflammatory bowel diseases OR oral ulcerative colitis OR oral Crohn’s disease OR oral OR mouth OR orofacial OR oral OR masticatory OR lining OR labial OR buccal OR lip OR gingiva OR hard palate OR teeth OR tongue OR tonsils OR salivary gland AND Adalimumab OR Infliximab OR Azathioprine OR Budesonide OR Certolizumab pegol OR Vedolizumab OR Cholestyramine OR Cyclosporin OR Ciprofloxacin Loperamide OR Mesalazine OR Methotrexate OR Metronidazole OR prednisolone OR Mycophenolate mofetil OR Sulphasalazine OR Tacrolimus



B. Review of the following drugs SPC for any evidence on oral cancer

Infliximab (Remicade)

Adalimumab (Humira)

Certilizumab (Cimzia)

Natalizumab (Tysabri)

Vedolizumab (Entyvio)

Golimumab (Simponi)

azathioprine (6-mercaptopurine)

methotrexate

tacrolimus

mycophenolate mofetil

thioguanine

cyclosporine (ciclosporin)
C. Review of the following websites for information on oral cancer

“Crohn’s Disease.” National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health. http://digestive.niddk.nih.gov/ddiseases/pubs/crohns/#treatment.

“Inflammatory Bowel Disease.” FamilyDoctor.org, American Academy of Family Physicians. http://familydoctor.org/online/famdocen/home/common/digestive/disorders/252.printerview.html.

“Inflammatory Bowel Disease.” American Gastroenterological Association. http://www.gastro.org/patient-center/digestive-conditions/inflammatory-bowel-disease.

“Oral Manifestations of Gastrointestinal Diseases.” T. Daley et al. The Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology. Vol. 21, No. 4, pp. 241-4, April 2007. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov:80/pmc/articles/PMC2657699/pdf/cjg21241.pdf.

“Thrush.” Medline Plus, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health. www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000626.htm.



“Ulcerative Colitis.” National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health. http://digestive.niddk.nih.gov/ddiseases/pubs/colitis/.


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