Scientists' Statement on Protecting the World's Deep-sea Coral and Sponge Ecosystems



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Scientists' Statement on Protecting the World's

Deep-sea Coral and Sponge Ecosystems


As marine scientists and conservation biologists, we are profoundly concerned that human activities, particularly bottom trawling, are causing unprecedented damage to the deep-sea coral and sponge communities on continental plateaus and slopes, and on seamounts and mid-ocean ridges.
Shallow-water coral reefs are sometimes called "the rainforests of the sea" for their extraordinary biological diversity, perhaps the highest anywhere on Earth. However, until quite recently, few people - even marine scientists - knew that the majority of coral species live in colder, darker depths, or that some of these form coral reefs and forests similar to those of shallow waters in appearance, species richness and importance to fisheries. Lophelia coral reefs in cold waters of the Northeast Atlantic have over 1,300 species of invertebrates, and over 850 species of macro- and megafauna were recently found on seamounts in the Tasman and Coral Seas, as many as in a shallow-water coral reef. Because seamounts are essentially undersea islands, many seamount species are endemics - species that occur nowhere else - and are therefore exceptionally vulnerable to extinction. Moreover, marine scientists have observed large numbers of commercially important but increasingly uncommon groupers and redfish among the sheltering structures of deep-sea coral reefs. Finally, because of their longevity, some deep-sea corals can serve as archives of past climate conditions that are important to understanding global climate change. In short, based on current knowledge, deep-sea coral and sponge communities appear to be as important to the biodiversity of the oceans and the sustainability of fisheries as their analogues in shallow tropical seas.
In recent years scientists have discovered deep-sea corals and/or coral reefs in Japan, Tasmania, New Zealand, Alaska, California, Nova Scotia, Maine, North Carolina, Florida, Colombia, Brazil, Norway, Sweden, UK, Ireland and Mauritania. Because research submarines and remotely operated vehicles suitable for studying the deep sea are few and expensive to operate, scientific investigation of these remarkable communities is in its very early stages. But it is increasingly clear that deep-sea corals usually inhabit places where natural disturbance is rare, and where growth and reproduction appear to be exceedingly slow. Deep-sea corals and sponges may live for centuries, making them and the myriad species that depend on them extremely slow to recover from disturbance.
Unfortunately, just as scientists have begun to understand the diversity, importance and vulnerability of deep-sea coral forests and reefs, humans have developed technologies that profoundly disturb them. There is reason for concern about deep-sea oil and gas development, deep-sea mining and global warming, but, at present, the greatest human threat to coral and sponge communities is commercial fishing, especially bottom trawling. Trawlers are vessels that drag large, heavily weighted nets across the seafloor to catch fishes and shrimps. Scientific studies around the world have shown that trawling is devastating to corals and sponges. As trawlers become more technologically sophisticated, and as fishes disappear from shallower areas, trawling is increasingly occurring at depths exceeding 1,000 meters.
It is not too late to save most of the world's deep-sea coral and sponge ecosystems. We commend nations including Australia, New Zealand, Canada and Norway, which have already taken initial steps towards protecting some coral and sponge ecosystems under their jurisdiction. We urge the United Nations and appropriate international bodies to establish a moratorium on bottom trawling on the High Seas. Similarly, we urge individual nations and states to ban bottom trawling to protect deep-sea ecosystems wherever coral forests and reefs are known to occur within their Exclusive Economic Zones. We urge them to prohibit roller and rockhopper trawls and any similar technologies that allow fishermen to trawl on the rough bottoms where deep-sea coral and sponge communities are most likely to occur. We urge them to support research and mapping of vulnerable deep-sea coral and sponge communities. And we urge them to establish effective, representative networks of marine protected areas that include deep-sea coral and sponge communities.
The following 1,136 scientists have signed the Scientists' Statement on Protecting the World's Deep-Sea Coral and Sponge Ecosystems. Affiliations are for identification only, and do not imply endorsement by the signers' institutions.
Tony Koslow, Ph.D., CSIRO Marine Research, Western Australia, Australia

André Freiwald, Prof. Dr., Institute of Paleontology, Erlangen, Germany

Edward O. Wilson, Ph.D., Harvard University, Massachusetts, USA

Sylvia A. Earle, Ph.D., Conservation International, California, USA

Norman Myers, Ph.D., University of Oxford, Oxford, UK

Michael Soulé, Ph.D., University of California-Santa Cruz, California, USA

Robert Paine, Ph.D., University of Washington, Washington state, USA

Daniel Pauly, Ph.D., University of British Columbia, British Columbia, Canada

Rainer Froese, Ph.D., Institute of Marine Research, Kiel, Germany

Jarl-Ove Strömberg, Professor, Kristineberg Marine Biological Station, Fiskebäckskil, Sweden

D. James Baker, Ph.D., Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

George Branch, Ph.D., University of Cape Town, Rondebosch, South Africa

Callum Roberts, Ph.D., University of York, York, UK

Jane Lubchenco, Ph.D., Oregon State University, Oregon, USA

Hjalmar Thiel, Prof. Dr., University of Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany

Stephen Hall, Ph.D., Australian Institute of Marine Science, Queensland, Australia

Jeremy Jackson, Ph.D., University of California San Diego, California, USA

Bill Ballantine, Ph.D., University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand

George H. Leonard, Ph.D., Monterey Bay Aquarium, California, USA

Vera Alexander, Ph.D., University of Alaska Fairbanks, Alaska, USA

Reed F. Noss, Ph.D., University of Central Florida, Florida, USA

Rod Salm, Ph.D., The Nature Conservancy, Hawaii, USA

George M. Woodwell, Ph.D., The Woods Hole Research Center, Massachusetts, USA

John Harte, Ph.D., University of California - Berkeley, California, USA

Jorge Soberon, Ph.D., Instituto de Ecologia - UNAM, México City, México

Carlos Saavedra, Ph.D., Inst. Acuicultura de Torre la Sal - CSIC, Castellon, Spain

Stuart L. Pimm, Ph.D., Duke University, North Carolina, USA

J. Veron, M.Sc., Ph.D, Australian Institute of Marine Science, Townsville, Australia

Ussif Rashid Sumaila, Ph.D., University of Namibia, Windhoek, Namibia

Theo Colborn, Ph.D., World Wildlife Fund, Washington DC, USA

Paul R. Ehrlich, Ph.D., Stanford University, California, USA

Anne Ehrlich, Ph.D., Stanford University, California, USA

Francesc Giró, M.Sc., Fundación Natura, Barcelona, Spain

John Terborgh, Ph.D., Duke University, North Carolina, USA

James Barry, Ph.D., Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, California, USA

Hugh Possingham, D.Phil., The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia

Terence Done, Ph.D., Australian Institute of Marine Science, Queensland, Australia

Phil Alderslade, Ph.D., Museum & Art Gallery of the Northern Territory, Darwin, Australia

Marta Estrada, Ph.D., Institut de Ciencies del Mar, Catalunya, Spain

Peter Raven, Ph.D., Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri, USA

John K. Reed, M.Sc., Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institution, Florida, USA

Karen Stocks, Ph.D., University of California San Diego, California, USA

Graeme Kelleher, B.E., WCPA, Canberra, Australia

Verena Tunnicliffe, Ph.D., University of Victoria, British Columbia, Canada

Michael Risk, Ph.D., McMaster University, Ontario, Canada

David W. Inouye, Ph.D., University of Maryland, Maryland, USA

Nick Polunin, Ph.D., Newcastle University School of Marine Science & Technology, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK

P. Dee Boersma, Ph.D., University of Washington, Washington state, USA

Boris Worm, Ph.D., Institute for Marine Science, Kiel, Germany

Peter Auster, Ph.D., University of Connecticut, Connecticut, USA

Ransom Myers, Ph.D., Dalhousie University, Nova Scotia, Canada

Anson H. Hines, Ph.D., Smithsonian Environmental Research Center, Maryland, USA

Sandra Brooke, Ph.D., Oregon Institute of Marine Biology, OR, USA

Lisa Levin, Ph.D., Scripps Institution of Oceanography, California, USA

Rodrigo Bustamante, Ph.D., Charles Darwin Foundation, Galapagos Islands, Ecuador

Gert Wörheide, Prof. Dr., GZG Geobiology, Göttingen, Germany

J. Frederick Grassle, Ph.D., Rutgers University, New Jersey, USA

John Gray, Ph.D., University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway

Jason Hall-Spencer, Ph.D., University of Plymouth, Plymouth, UK

George Somero, Ph.D., Hopkins Marine Station of Stanford University, California, USA

Richard Bromley, Ph.D., University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

Giovanni Bearzi, Ph.D., Tethys Research Institute, Milano, Italy

Manfred Krautter, Prof. Dr., Universität Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany

Alex Rogers, Ph.D., British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge, UK

John Gage, Ph.D., Dunstaffnage Marine Laboratory, Oban, Scotland

Erdal Ozhan, Ph.D., Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey

Jose Orensanz, Ph.D., Centro Nacional Patagónico, Chubut, Argentina

Ana Parma, Ph.D., Centro Nacional Patagónico, Chubut, Argentina

Richard Kenchington, D.Sc., University of Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia

Alan White, Ph.D., Tetra Tech EM Inc, Cebu City, Philippines

Edgardo Gomez, Ph.D., University of the Philippines, Quezon City, Philippines

Anthony Charles, Ph.D., Saint Mary's University, Nova Scotia, Canada

Giuseppe Notarbartolo di Sciara, Ph.D., Tethys Research Institute, Milano, Italy

Amanda Vincent, Ph.D., University of British Columbia, British Columbia, Canada

Paul K. Dayton, Ph.D., University of California San Diego, California, USA

Michael Rex, Ph.D., University of Massachusetts-Boston, Massachusetts, USA

Larry Crowder, Ph.D., Duke University, North Carolina, USA

Les Watling, Ph.D., University of Maine, Maine, USA

Helene Marsh, Ph.D., James Cook University, Queensland, Australia

Fiorenza Micheli, Ph.D., Hopkins Marine Station of Stanford University, California, USA

James Estes, Ph.D., US Geological Survey, California, USA

Elva Escobar Briones, Ph.D., Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, D.F., Mexico

Elisa Berdalet i Andrés, Ph.D., Institut de Ciències del Mar, Barcelona, Spain

Alex Aguilar, Ph.D., Universidad de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain

James Carlton, Ph.D., Williams College-Mystic Seaport, Connecticut, USA

Anne Kapuscinski, Ph.D., University of Minnesota, Minnesota, USA

John Brodie Wilson, Ph.D., Royal Holloway University of London, Egham, UK

Kostas Kiriakoulakis, Ph.D., University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK

Marie-Cecile Le Goff-Vitry, Ph.D., Southhampton University, Southampton, UK

Anthony Grehan, Ph.D., National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland

Marco Taviani, Ph.D., Istituto di Scienze Marine, Sezione Geologia Marina, CNR, Bologna, Italy

Anneleen Foubert, Ph.D., University of Ghent, Gent, Belgium

Matthias López Correa, Ph.D., Erlangen University, Erlangen, Germany

Sebastiano Di Geronimo, Ph.D., Università de Catania, Catania, Italy

Martin White, Ph.D., National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland

Martin Hovland, Ph.D., Statoil, Stavanger, Norway

Dierk Hebbeln, Ph.D., Universität Bremen, Bremen, Germany

Nadiezhda Santodomingo, Ph.D., INVEMAR, Santa Marta, Colombia

Jeremy Colman, Ph.D., Woodside Energy, Perth, Australia

Helmut Lehnert, Ph.D., Thetis-IBN, Hamburg, Germany

Evan Edinger, Ph.D., Memorial University of Newfoundland, Newfoundland, Canada

J. Murray Roberts, Ph.D., Scottish Association for Marine Science, Oban, UK

Marc Lavaleye, Ph.D., Netherlands Institute for Sea Research, Den Burg - Texel, the Netherlands

Mark Tasker, Ph.D., Joint Nature Conservation Committee, Aberdeen, UK

Andy Wheeler, Ph.D., University College Cork, Cork, Ireland

Carl Safina, Ph.D., Blue Oceans Institute, New York, USA

Michael Orbach, Ph.D., Duke University, North Carolina, USA

Martin Willison, Ph.D., Dalhousie University, Nova Scotia, Canada

Charles Peterson, Ph.D., University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA

John Avise, Ph.D., University of Georgia, Georgia, USA

Karen Eckert, Ph.D., Wider Caribbean Sea Turtle Conservation Network, California, USA

Ratana Chuenpagdee, Ph.D., Coastal Development Centre, Bangkok, USA

James Powell, Ph.D., Wildlife Trust, Florida, USA

Gregory Stone, Ph.D., New England Aquarium, Massachusetts, USA

John Teal, Ph.D., Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute, Massachusetts, USA

Robert Livingston, Ph.D., Florida State University, Florida, USA

Sally Murphy, M.Sc., South Carolina Department of Natural Resources, South Carolina, USA

Laurence D. Mee, Ph.D., University of Plymouth, Plymouth, UK

John Ogden, Ph.D., Florida Institute of Oceanography, Florida, USA

Michael Hirshfield, Ph.D., Oceana, Washington DC, USA

Allen Andrews, M.S., Moss Landing Marine Laboratories, California, USA

Amy Baco-Taylor, Ph.D. Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Massachusetts, USA

Mark Costello, Ph.D., The Huntsman Marine Science Center, New Brunswick, Canada

William Schroeder, Ph.D., University of Alabama, Alabama, USA

Kevin Strychar, Ph.D., Dalhousie University, Nova Scotia, Canada

Kirsten Martin, M.Sc., IUCN, Gland, Switzerland

Onno Gross, Ph.D. Deepwave Inc., Hamburg, Germany

Pablo J. Lopez-Gonzalez, Ph.D., University of Sevilla, Sevilla, Spain

R. Scott Carr, Ph.D., US Geological Survey, Texas, USA

Owen Sherwood, Ph.D. candidate, Dalhousie University, Nova Scotia, Canada

Jim Silliman, Ph.D., Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi, Texas, USA

Hermann Ehrlich, Ph.D., Dresden University of Technology, Dresden, Germany

Robert George, Ph. D., George Institute for Biodiversity and Sustainability, North Carolina, USA

Mark Hixon, Ph.D., Oregon State University, Oregon, USA

Carolyn Lundquist, Ph.D., National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research, Hamilton, New Zealand

Walt Jaap, Ph.D., Florida Marine Research Institute & Lithophyte Research, Florida, USA

John Tunnell, Jr., Ph.D., Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi, Texas, USA

Judith C. Lang, Ph.D., independent, Virginia, USA

James E. Maragos, Ph.D., U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Hawaii, USA

John Pearse, Ph.D., University of California-Santa Cruz, California, USA

Enric Sala, Ph.D., University of California-San Diego, California, USA

Stephen D. Cairns, Ph.D., Smithsonian Institution, Washington DC, USA

Alan D. Thornhill, Ph.D., Society for Conservation Biology, Virginia, USA

Simon Thrush, Ph.D., National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research, Hamilton, New Zealand

Robert R. Warner, Ph.D., University of California- Santa Barbara, California, USA

Donald F. Boesch, Ph.D., University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science, Maryland, USA

Christopher C. Koenig, Ph.D., Florida State University, Florida, USA

Richard Law, Ph.D., University of York, York, UK

Richard L. Haedrich, Ph.D., Memorial University, Newfoundland, Canada

Melanie L. J. Stiassny, Ph.D., American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA

Steve Gaines, Ph.D., University of California- Santa Barbara, California, USA

Lorenzo Rojas Bracho, Ph.D., Instituto Nacional de Ecología (INE), Ensenada, Mexico

Richard C. Brusca, Ph.D., Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum/University of Arizona, Arizona, USA

Gregor M. Cailliet, Ph.D., Moss Landing Marine Laboratories, California, USA

Thomas C. Shirley, Ph.D., University of Alaska Fairbanks, Alaska, USA

John P Croxall, Ph.D, British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge, UK

John L. Largier, Ph.D., Scripps Institution of Oceanography, UCSD, California, USA

Joel E. Cohen, Ph.D., Dr.P.H., Rockefeller & Columbia Universities, New York, USA

Gary E. Davis, M.Sc., U. S. National Park Service, California, USA

Karl W. Flessa, Ph.D., University of Arizona, Arizona, USA

Luis E. Calderon-Aguilera, Ph.D., Center Scientific Research & Graduate Studies of Ensenada, Baja California Norte, Mexico

Richard H. Rosenblatt, Ph.D., Scripps Institution of Oceanography, California, USA

Valerie Allain, Ph.D., Secretariat of the Pacific Community, Noumea, New Caledonia

Raymond L. Hayes, Ph.D., Howard University, DC, USA

Thomas J. Goreau, Ph.D., Global Coral Reef Alliance, Massachusetts, USA

Chang-feng Dai, Ph.D., National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan

Tim McLanahan, Ph.D., The Wildlife Conservation Society, Mombasa, Kenya

Jean Harris, Ph.D., Ezenvelo KZN Wildlife, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

Juan Carlos Castilla, Ph.D., Pontifica Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago, Chile

J.K. Patterson Edward, Ph.D, Suganthi Devadason Marine Research Institute, Tamil Nadu, India

Felicia Coleman, Ph.D., Florida State University, Florida, USA

Judith S. Weis, Ph.D., Rutgers University, New Jersey, USA

Ana Oliveira, M.Sc., Fisheries and Sea Research Institute, Lisbon, Portugal

Eric Knudsen, Ph.D., Consulting Fisheries Scientist, Washington, USA

Debbie Spring, M.Sc., NOAA Fisheries, Washington, USA

Lorena Lara-Bolaños, M.Sc. candidate, UNED- Costa Rica, San Jose, Costa Rica

Graça Bauleth D'Almeida, M.Sc., Ministry of Fisheries and Marine Resources, Swakopmund, Namibia

Musa Mhagama, B.Sc., Local Government Authority, Town Council, Mtwara, Tanzania

Dalit Ucitel, M.Sc., The Arava Institute for Environmental Studies, Kibbutz Ketura, Israel

Benjamin Kahn, M.Sc., APEX Environmental, Bali, Indonesia

Daniel Brito, M.Sc., Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil

B. Munkhtsog, Ph.D. candidate, Wildlife Biologist, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

Asma Trabelsi, M.Sc. Marine Ecology, Tunis, Tunisia

Gary K. Meffe, Ph.D., University of Florida, Florida, USA

Ron Etter, Ph.D., University if Massachusetts - Boston, Massachusetts, USA

Craig R. Smith, Ph.D., Unversity of Hawaii at Manoa, Hawaii, USA

Paul Snelgrove, Ph.D., Memorial University of Newfoundland, Newfoundland, Canada

Jon A. Moore, Ph.D., Florida Atlantic University, Florida, USA

Robert C. Vrijenhoek, Ph.D., Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, California, USA

Andrew A. Rosenberg, Ph.D., University of New Hampshire, New Hampshire, USA

Frederick M. Bayer, Ph.D., National Museum of Natural History, Washington DC, USA

Lance Morgan, Ph.D., Marine Conservation Biology Institute, California, USA

Elliott Norse, Ph.D., Marine Conservation Biology Institute, Washington state, USA

David Boshier, D.Phil., University of Oxford, Oxford, UK

Marcos Yukio Yoshinaga, M.Sc. candidate, Instituto Oceanografico - Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil

Kelly Hooper, B.Sc., Florida Marine Research Institute, Florida, USA

John A. Cigliano, Ph.D., Cedar Crest College, Pennsylvania, USA

Nel Beaumont, Ph.D., Terramar Foundation, Nevis, St. Kitts and Nevis

Nicola Beynon, M.Sc., Humane Society International, Sydney, Australia

Arthur H. Kopelman, Ph.D., Coastal Research & Education Society of Long Island, New York, USA

Mona McCrea, M.Sc., Ecological Consultancy Service, Ltd., Dublin, Ireland

Jennie Axén, M.Sc., Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden

Andrea Sayfy, M.E.S. candidate, Dalhousie University, Nova Scotia, Canada

Nilima Lindmark, M.Sc. candidate, Goeteborg University, Stroemstad, Sweden

William Barnhill, M.E.M., Geo-Marine, Inc., Texas,USA

Bruce Wright, M.Sc., Conservation Science Institute, California, USA

Amy Rheault, M.Sc. candidate, Antioch New England Graduate School, Vermont, USA

Asako Matsumoto, M.Sc., Japan Marine Science and Technology Center, Yokosuka, Japan

Susan Gass, M.Sc., Scottish Association for Marine Science, Oban, UK

Emerson Muziol Morosko, M.Sc., Petrobras, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Marco Stadelmaier, Ph.D. candidate, Universität Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany

Richard Allen, M.M.A., Independent Fishery Conservationist, Rhode Island, USA

Tanya Leverette, M.Sc. candidate, Dalhousie University, Nova Scotia, Canada

Javier Reyes, M.Sc., INVEMAR, Santa Marta, Colombia

Arlo H. Hemphill, M.Sc. candidate, NSU Oceanographic Center, Florida, USA

Joanna Stockill, M.Sc., University of Newcastle - Dove Marine Laboratory, Newcastle, UK

Helen Fox, Ph.D., Hawaii Institute for Marine Biology, Hawaii, USA

Yaniv Levy, M.Sc. candidate, Israeli Sea Turtle Rescue Center, Mikhmoret, Israel

Peter Etnoyer, M.E.M., Scientific Consultant, California, USA

Vivienne Skyrme, M.Sc., University of Wales-Bangor, Bangor, UK

Ali Massey, M.Sc., University of Wales-Bangor, Bangor, UK

Nicola Foster, M.Sc., University of Exeter, Exeter, UK

Frankie Hobro, M.Sc., University of Wales-Bangor, Bangor, UK

John F. Weishampel, Ph.D., University of Central Florida, Florida, USA

Tracy Griffin, M.Sc., Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institution, Florida, USA

Barbara Whitman, M.Sc., Under the Sea Sealife Education Centre, Nevis, St. Kitts and Nevis

Peter McCarthy, Ph.D., Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institution, Florida, USA

Susan Daniels, Ph.D. candidate, Virginia Tech, Virginia, USA

David Addison, M.Sc., Conservancy of Southwest Florida, Florida, USA

John R. Cannon, Ph.D., University of Maryland at College Park, Maryland, USA

Amy Marr, Ph.D. candidate, University of British Columbia, British Columbia, Canada

Susanne Hauswaldt, M.S., University of South Carolina, South Carolina, USA

Daphne Pee, M.E.M., NOAA MPA Science Center, California, USA

Daryl J. Anderson, Ph. D., Lindenwood University, Missouri, USA

Nicholas Graham, M.App.Sc., University of Newcastle, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, UK

Dan DiResta, Ph.D., University of Miami, Florida, USA

Aaron J. Adams, Ph.D., Mote Marine Laboratory, Florida, USA

Anthony R. Picciolo, Ph.D., National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Maryland, USA

David W. Thieltges, Ph.D. candidate, Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Sylt, Germany

Sheila J. J. Heymans, Ph.D., Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia, British Columbia, Canada

Andrew Crowe, M.Res., University of York, York, UK

James Culter, M.Sc., Mote Marine Laboratory, Florida, USA

Jeffrey Levinton, Ph.D., Stony Brook University, New York, USA

Richard Zanre, M.Sc., Local Ocean Trust, Watamu, Kenya

David Cassis, M.Sc. candidate, University of British Columbia, British Columbia, Canada

Page V. Else, M.S., Sitka Conservation Society, Alaska, USA

Ellen Hines, Ph.D., San Francisco State University, California, USA

Gregory Jensen, Ph.D., University of Washington, Washington, USA

John C. Markham, Ph. D., Arch Cape Marine Laboratory, Oregon, USA

C. J. Beegle-Krause, Ph.D., NOAA/OR&R/HAZMAT, Washington, USA

Leandro Bugoni, M.Sc., Fundação Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Rio Grande, Brazil

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