SECTION B
Carbon Nanostructures: New carbon structures, Carbon clusters, Carbon nanotubes.
Quantum wells, wires & dots, Semiconductor nanocrystals: Energy levels & density of states in reduced dimension systems, electronic structure & electronic properties, optical properties, catalytic properties, Coulombic explosion, Photofragmentation, Superconductivity & quantum structures.
Nanostructured ferromagnetism: Effect of bulk nanostructuring on magnetic properties, Dynamics of nanomagnets, Nanocarbon ferromagnets, Giant & colossal magneto resistance, Ferrofluids.
Nanomachines & Nanodevices: Microelectromechanical systems(MEMSs), Nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMSs), Molecular mimics; Molecular & supramolecular switches.
Applications of nanomaterials: Quantum dot lasers & light emitting diodes, Photovoltaic solar cells, Optical filters, Phosphors, High density optical data storage devices, Batteries, Smart textile, Nanophotocatalyst, Nanosensors, Insulation materials, Strong & light machine tools, motor vehicles & aircrafts, High power magnets, Medical implants, Drug delivery systems, Nanogenerators, Nanolubricants, Nanopaints.
NT 1.2.3 INTRODUCTION TO NANOTECHNOLOGY
Text Books:
1. Introduction to Nanotechnology by C P Poole Jr. and F J Owens, Published by Wiley Interscience
2. Nanocrystalline Materials by A I Gusev and A A Rempel, Published by Cambridge International Science Publishing.
3. Nanotechnology: Basic Science and Emerging Technologies by M.Wilson,K K G Smith, M Simmons and B Raguse, Published by Chapman & Hall/CRC
4. Springer Handbook of Nanotechnology Edited by Bharat Bhushan, Published by Springer.
NT 1.2.4 Elective Paper: Option (i) APPLIED OPTICS
Maximum Marks: External 60 Time Allowed: 3 Hours
Internal 20 Total Teaching hours: 50
Total 80 Pass Marks: 35%
Out of 80 Marks, internal assessment (based on two midsemester tests/ internal examinations, written assignment/project work etc. and attendance) carries 20 marks, and the final examination at the end of the semester carries 60 marks.
Instruction for the Paper Setter: The question paper will consist of three sections A, B and C. Each of sections A and B will have four questions from respective section of the syllabus. Section C will have 10 short answer type questions, which will cover the entire syllabus uniformly. Each question of sections A and B carries 10 marks. Section C will carry 20 marks.
Instruction for the candidates: The candidates are required to attempt two questions each from sections A and B, and the entire section C. Each question of sections A and B carries 10 marks and section C carries 20 marks.
Use of scientific calculators is allowed.
SECTION A
Fourier Optics: Maxwell's equations and the statement of the diffraction problem in terms of the transmission function. Simple HuygenFresnel theory to explain diffraction. Different regions of the diffraction. Fresnel and Fraunhofer approximations. Concept of spatial frequency. Importance of Fourier transformation in optics and its physical interpretation. Physical interpretation of convolution and delta function transform theorems. (RR1)
Use of the Fourier transform to explain Fraunhofer diffraction at a circular aperture. Fraunhofer diffraction at rectangular aperture under various situations. Fresnel diffraction at rectangular aperture and straight edge. Fresnel diffraction and lens. Limitation of geometrical optics. Free space propagation of waves. Phase transmission functions and lens. (RR1)
SECTION B
Polarization: Polarization and double refraction. Explanation of double refraction. Polarization devices: Nicol, Glan, GlanThompson, Wollaston, Rochon and Severmont prisms. Wave propagation in anisotropic media. Spatial frequency filtering: The Fourier transforming property of a thin lens. Applications of spatial frequency filtering: Low pass, High pass, Band pass filters. Phase contrast microscope. Image debluring (RR1 & RR2)
Holography: Basic principles, Coherence requirements. Resolution. Gabor holography and distinction with offaxis holography. Fourier transform holograms. Lensless Fourier transform holograms. Computer generated holograms. Volume holograms.
Applications of holography: Microscopy, Interferometry, Character recognition. Holography in optical signal processing. Vander Lugt filter based on MachZender and Rayleigh interferometers. Matched filtering and Fourier transform hologram (RR2)
Text Books:

Lasers and Optical Engineering: P. Das, Narosa Publishing House, 1992

Optical Electronics: A.K. Ghatak and K. Thyagrajan, Cambridge univ. Press, 1989
NT 1.2.4 Elective Paper: Option (ii) MATHEMATICAL PHYSICS AND CLASSICAL MECHANICS
Maximum Marks: External 60 Time Allowed: 3 Hours
Internal 20 Total Teaching hours: 50
Total 80 Pass Marks: 35 %
Out of 80 Marks, internal assessment (based on two midsemester tests/ internal examinations, written assignment/project work etc. and attendance) carries 20 marks, and the final examination at the end of the semester carries 60 marks.
Instruction for the Paper Setter: The question paper will consist of three sections A, B and C. Each of sections A and B will have four questions from respective section of the syllabus. Section C will have 10 short answer type questions, which will cover the entire syllabus uniformly. Each question of sections A and B carries 10 marks. Section C will carry 20 marks.
Instruction for the candidates: The candidates are required to attempt two questions each from sections A and B, and the entire section C. Each question of sections A and B carries 10 marks and section C carries 20 marks.
Use of scientific calculators is allowed.
SECTION A
Cartesian Tensors: Coordinate transformations. Three dimensional rotations. Transformation of vector components under three dimensional rotations. Direct product of two vectors. Tensors of higher rank. Symmetric and antisymmetric tensors. Kronecker and alternating tensors and their isotropy property. Contraction of tensors and differentiation of tensor fields. Expressions for gradient divergence and curl in tensor notation. Vector formulae in tensor notation.
Linear Vector Spaces: Definition, linear independence of vectors, basis and dimensionality. Scalar products of vectors. Orthonormal basis. Gram Schmidt orthogonalization process. Matrix representation of vectors and linear operators. Infinite dimensional vector spaces. Hilbert spaces.
Complex Variables: Complex numbers and variables. Polar form of complex numbers. Functions of complex variables. Cauchy Riemann differential equations. Singularities and their classification. Cauchry integral theorem and formulae. Taylor and Laurent's series, The Cauchy residue theorem and its application to evaluation of real integrals.
SECTION B
Rigid body dynamics: Angular momentum and kinetic energy of rotating rigid body about a fixed point, inertia tensor, Eigen values of inertia tensor, Principal moments and principal axes transformation.
Special Theory of relativity: Lorentz transformation, Covariant formulation of Minkowski space. Invariance of spacetime interval. Four vectors, Force, momentum and energy equation in relativistic mechanics. Lagrangian formulation of relativistic mechanics. Relativsitic motion of a particle under a constant force. Relativistic one dimensional harmonic oscillator.
Continuous systems and fields: Transition from discrete to continuous systems. Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formalisms, Stressenergy tensor and conservation laws. Scalar and Dirac fields (only definitions).
Text Books:
1. Cartesian Tensors: Harold Jefferies, Combridge University, Press
2. Linear Vector Spaces: John Dettman (Hilderbrand)
3. Complex Variables: Murrey R. Speigel, Schaum Series, Mc Graw Hill Publication
4. Classical Mechanics: H. Goldstein, Narosa Publishing House, New Delhi.
NT 1.2.4 Elective Paper: Option (iii) COMPUTER FUNDAMENTALS AND PROGRAMMING WITH C++
Maximum Marks: External 60 Time Allowed: 3 Hours
Internal 20 Total Teaching hours: 50
Total 80 Pass Marks: 35%
Out of 80 Marks, internal assessment (based on two midsemester tests/ internal examinations, written assignment/project work etc. and attendance) carries 20 marks, and the final examination at the end of the semester carries 60 marks.
Instruction for the Paper Setter: The question paper will consist of three sections A, B and C. Each of sections A and B will have four questions from respective section of the syllabus. Section C will have 10 short answer type questions, which will cover the entire syllabus uniformly. Each question of sections A and B carries 10 marks. Section C will carry 20 marks.
Instruction for the candidates: The candidates are required to attempt two questions each from sections A and B, and the entire section C. Each question of sections A and B carries 10 marks and section C carries 20 marks.
Use of scientific calculators is allowed.
SECTION A
Computer organization: Hardware, Memory, Control unit, Arithmetic and logic unit, Input and output devices, software, Programing languages with special reference to C and C++, Assembler, Interpreter and compiler, Application software.
Problem solving with a computer: Problem analysis, Algorithm development, The quality of algorithm, Flowcharts, Program coding, Compilation and execution.
Data types and statements: Identifiers and keywords, Constants, String constants, Numeric constants, Character constants, C++ operators, Arithmetic operators, Assignment operators, Comparison and logic operators, Bitwise logic operators, Special operators, Type conversion.
Writing a programme in C++: Declaration of variables, Statements, Simple C++ programs, Features and iostream.h, Keyword and screen I/O, Manipulation functions, Predefined manipulators, Input and output (I/O) stream flags.
SECTION B
Control statements: Conditional expressions, If statement, If else statement, Switch statement, Loop statements, for loop, While loop, do while loop, Breaking control statements, Break statement, Continue statement and goto statement.
Functions and program structures: Defining a function, Return statement, Types of functions, Actual and formal arguments, Local and global variables, Default arguments, Multifunction program, Storage class specifiers, Automatic variables, Register variables, Static variables, External variables.
Arrays: Array notation, Array declaration and array initialization, Processing with array, Arrays and functions, Multidimensional arrays, Character array.
Pointers: Pointer declaration, Pointer operator, Address operator, Pointer expressions, Pointer arithmetic, Pointer and functions, Call by value, Call by reference.
Structures, unions and bit fields: Declaration of structures, Initialization of structures, Functions of structures, Unions, The union tag, Processing with union, Initialization of unions, Idea of bit fields.
Text Books:

Programming with C++: D. Ravichandran (2^{nd} Ed.), Tata Mc GrawHill Pub. Co. Ltd.

Objectoriented Programming with C++: R. Balaguruswamy, Tata Mc GrawHill Pub. Co. Ltd.
NT 1.2.4 Elective Paper: Option (iv) ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR SPECTROSCOPY
Maximum Marks: External 60 Time Allowed: 3 Hours
Internal 20 Total Teaching hours: 50
Total 80 Pass Marks: 35%
Out of 80 Marks, internal assessment (based on two midsemester tests/ internal examinations, written assignment/project work etc. and attendance) carries 20 marks, and the final examination at the end of the semester carries 60 marks.
Instruction for the Paper Setter: The question paper will consist of three sections A, B and C. Each of sections A and B will have four questions from respective section of the syllabus. Section C will have 10 short answer type questions, which will cover the entire syllabus uniformly. Each question of sections A and B carries 10 marks. Section C will carry 20 marks.
Instruction for the candidates: The candidates are required to attempt two questions each from sections A and B, and the entire section C. Each question of sections A and B carries 10 marks and section C carries 20 marks.
Use of scientific calculators is allowed.
Section A
Hydrogen and Hydrogenlike ions: Series in hydrogen, circular motion, nuclear mass effect, elliptical orbits, energy levels. Fine structure: basic facts and Sommerfeld theory, electron spin and spinorbit coupling, relativistic correction and Lamb shift (qualitative).
Alkalilike Spectra: General features, doublet structure, Larmor’s theorem and magnetic levels, elementary theory of weak and strong magnetic fields, Zeeman effect in doublet spectra: anomalous Zeeman effect and the anomalous gvalue.
Pauli’s principle and shell structure: Systems with several electrons and spin functions.
Complex Spectra: LSCoupling scheme, normal triplets, basic assumptions of the theory, identification of terms, selection rules, jj coupling (Qualitative).
Section B
Infrared and Raman Spectra: Rigid rotator, energy levels, spectrum (no derivation of selection rules), Harmonic oscillator: energy levels, eigenfunctions, spectrum, comparison with observed spectrum, Raman effect, Quantum theory of Raman effect, Rotational and Vibrational Raman spectrum. Anharmonic oscillator: energy levels, Infrared and Raman Spectrum, Vibrational frequency and force constants. Nonrigid rotator: energy levels, spectrum, Vibratingrotator energy levels, Infrared and Raman spectrum (no derivation of Dunham coefficients), Symmetry properties of rotational levels, influence of nuclear spin.
Electronic Spectra: Electronic energy and potential curves, resolution of total energy, Vibrational Structure of Electronic transitions. General formulae, Deslandre’s table, absorption sequences (qualitative) and Vibrational analysis, Rotational Structure of Electronic bands: General relations, branches of a band, bandhead formation, Intensity distribution in a vibrational band system. FranckCondon Principle and its wave mechanical formulation. Classification of electronic states: Orbital angular momentum, Spin, total angular momentum of electrons, Symmetry properties of electronic eigenfunctions.
Text Books:
1. Atomic Spectra: H. Kuhn (Longman Green) 1969.
2. Molecular Spectra and Molecular Structure I: G. Herzberg (VanNostrand Reinhold), 1950.
3. Atomic Spectra: H.E. White (McGraw Hill) 1934.
4. Fundamentals of Molecular spectroscopy: Banwell and McCash (Tata McGraw Hill), 1994.
5. Molecular Spectroscopy: S. Chandra (Narosa), 2009.
6. Atomic, Molecular and Photons, Wolfgang Damtrodes (Springer), 2010.
NT 1.2.5

Lab Practice: Laser  Optics

Maximum Marks: 120 Time allowed: 3 Hours
Pass Marks: 45% Total teaching hours: 125
Out of 120 Marks, internal assessment (based on seminar, vivavoce of experimental reports, number of experiments performed and attendance) carries 30 marks, and the final examination at the end of the semester carries 90 marks.
This laboratory comprises of experiments based on Laser & Optics listed below:
LASERS AND OPTICS EXPERIMENTS: (10 out of the followings)

To study the optical bench model of microscope and to determine the numerical aperture of the microscope.

To study the optical bench model of telescope and to determine the angular field of view and magnifying power by entrance and exit pupil method.

To study the characteristics of solar cell.

To study the magnetostriction in an iron rod using Michelson interferometer.

To study the optical thickness of mica sheet using channel spectrum interferometry.

To determine the Planck’s constant using photovoltaic cell.

To obtain the coherence matrix and stokes parameters for (i) unpolarized light (ii) polarized light and hence to determine their degree of polarization.

To study the aberrations of a convex lens.

To study the electrooptic effect in LiNbO_{3 }crystal using HeNe laser._{ }

To study BH curve.

To study the characteristics of optoelectronic devices (LED, Photodiode, Photodiode, Phototransistor, LDR).

To study the diffraction pattern by pin hole, single slit, double slit and grating and to calculate the wavelength of HeNe laser.

To study microwave optics system for reflection, refraction, polarization phenomena.

To calibrate the prism spectrometer using mercury lamp and to determine the refractive index of material of the prism for a given wavelength of light.

Measurement of Brewster angle and refractive index of materials like glass and fused silica (with HeNe laser) with a specially designed spectrometer.

Particle size determination by diode laser

Study of optical fiber communication kit.
NT 1.2.6

Computer Laboratory

Maximum Marks: 60 Time allowed: 3 Hours
Pass Marks: 45% Total teaching hours: 45
Out of 60 Marks, internal assessment (based on performance of the candidate in the computer lab and attendance) carries 15 marks, and the final examination at the end of the semester carries 45 marks.
This laboratory comprises of any ten of the following physics problems to be solved using computer.
1. To generate Frequency Distribution Table.
2. Solution of a differential equation by RK2 method.
3. To find area under a curve by Trapezoidal Rule and Simpson’s Rule
4. Gauss elimination method.
5. Multiplication of Two Matrices.
6. Motion of Projectile thrown at an Angle.
7. Numerical Solution of Equation of Motion.
8. Simulation of planetary motion.
9. Root of an equation by Newton Raphson method.
10. Sorting numbers by selection sort.
11. Solution of a differential equation by RK4 method.
12. Fitting straight line through given data points.
13. Roots of an equation by secant method.
14. Newton interpolation.
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