Scheme m. Sc. Physics Nano–Science & Technology



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Nanotechnology: Introduction to nanoparticles, Metal nano clusters (various types), Properties of semi conducting nanoparticles, Methods of synthesis, Quantum well, Quantum wire and Quantum dots (in brief) and their fabrication. Carbon nanostructures and Energy bands in semiconductors: Carbon molecules, Carbon cluster, C60 (its crystals and superconductivity), Carbon nano tubes, their fabrication and properties, application of carbon nano tubes.

SECTION B


Optical processes: Optical reflectance, Kramers-Kronig relations, Electronic inter-band transitions, Excitons and its type, Raman Effect in crystals, Electron spectroscopy with X-rays, Energy loss of fast particles in solids.

Semiconductor Physics: Nearly free electron model, Bloch functions, Kronig-penny model, Wave equation of electrons in a periodic potential, Solution of the central equation, Solutions near a zone boundary, Number of Orbitals in a band, Metals and insulators.


Semiconductors and Fermi-surfaces in Metals: Band gap, Equation of motion, properties of holes, Effective mass of electrons (m*), m* in semiconductors, Band structure of Si Ge and GaAs, Intrinsic carrier concentration, Intrinsic and extrinsic conductivity, Thermoelectric Effects, Semimetals, Different zone schemes, Constructions of Fermi surfaces, Experimental methods in Fermi surface studies, Quantization of orbits in a magnetic field, De Haas-Van Alphen effect, Extremal orbits, Fermi surfaces for Cu and Au, Magnetic breakdown.
Text Books:

  1. Introduction to Solid State Physics; C. Kittel (7th Ed.) , Wiley Eastern, N. Delhi, 1995

  2. Introduction to Nano Technology: Charles P Poole, Jr. and Frank J.Owens, John Wiley & Sons Publications, 2003



NT 1.1.4 Elective Paper: Option (i) ANALOG ELECTRONICS

Maximum Marks: External 60 Time Allowed: 3 Hours

Internal 20 Total Teaching hours: 50

Total 80 Pass Marks: 35%


Out of 80 Marks, internal assessment (based on two mid-semester tests/ internal examinations, written assignment/project work etc. and attendance) carries 20 marks, and the final examination at the end of the semester carries 60 marks.
Instruction for the Paper Setter: The question paper will consist of three sections A, B and C. Each of sections A and B will have four questions from respective section of the syllabus. Section C will have 10 short answer type questions, which will cover the entire syllabus uniformly. Each question of sections A and B carries 10 marks. Section C will carry 20 marks.
Instruction for the candidates: The candidates are required to attempt two questions each from sections A and B, and the entire section C. Each question of sections A and B carries 10 marks and section C carries 20 marks.
Use of scientific calculator is allowed.

SECTION A



Two port network analysis: Active circuit model's equivalent circuit for BJT, Transconductance model: Common emitter. Common base. Common collector amplifiers. Equivalent circuit for FET. Common source amplifier. Source follower circuit (RR1)

Feedback in amplifiers: Stabilization of gain and reduction of non-linear distortion by negative feedback. Effect of feedback on input and output resistance. Voltage and current feedback (RR1)
Bias for transistor amplifier : Fixed bias circuit, Voltage feedback bias. Emitter feedback bias, Voltage divider bias method, Bias for FET (RR1)

Multistage amplifier: Direct coupled CE two stage amplifier. RC coupling and its analysis in mid- high-and low-frequency range. Effect of cascading on bandwidth. Darlington and cascade circuits (RR1)
Oscillators : Feedback and circuit requirements for oscillator, Basic oscillator analysis, Hartley, Colpitts, RC-oscillators and crystal oscillator (RR1)

SECTION-B



Band-pass amplifiers: Parallel resonant circuit and its bandwidth. Tuned primary and tuned secondary amplifiers (RR1)
Power amplifiers: Operating conditions, Power relations, Nonlinear distortion, Class A power amplifier, Push-pull principle, Class B Push pull amplifier (RR1)
Fundamentals of modulation: Frequency spectrum in amplitude modulation, Methods of amplitude modulation, Frequency modulation, Linear demodulation of AM signals, SSB system, AM and FM transmission, Receiving systems (RR1)
Operational amplifiers: Ideal operational amplifier. Inverting and non-inverting amplifiers. Differential amplifiers. CMMR. Internal circuit of operational amplifier. Examples of practical operational amplifier. Operational amplifier characteristics. DC and AC characteristics, slew rate (RR2)
Text Books:

  1. Electronics Fundamentals and Applications: John D. Ryder (5th Ed.), PHI, New Delhi

  2. Linear Integrated circuits: D.Roy Choudary and Shail B.Jain, New age international Publishers


NT1.1.4 Elective Paper: Option (ii) REMOTE SENSING
Maximum Marks: External 60 Time Allowed: 3 Hours

Internal 20 Total Teaching hours: 50

Total 80 Pass Marks: 35%
Out of 80 Marks, internal assessment (based on two mid-semester tests/ internal examination, written assignment/project work etc. and attendance) carries 20 marks, and the final examination at the end of the semester carries 60 marks.
Instruction for the Paper Setter: The question paper will consist of three sections A, B and C. Each of sections A and B will have four questions from respective sections of the syllabus. Section C will have 10 short answer type questions, which will cover the entire syllabus uniformly. Each question of sections A and B carry 10 marks. Section C will carry 20 marks.
Instruction for the candidates: The candidates are required to attempt two questions each from sections A and B, and the entire section C. Each question of sections A and B carries 10 marks and section C carries 20 marks.

Use of scientific calculators is allowed.


SECTION A
History and scope of remote sensing: Milestones in the history of remote sensing, overview of the remote sensing process, A specific example, Key concepts of remote sensing, career preparation and professional development.
Introduction: Definition of remote sensing, Electromagnetic radiation, Electromagnetic Spectrum, interaction with atmosphere, Radiation-Target, Passive vs. Active Sensing, Characteristic of Images.
Sensors: On the Ground, In the Air& in Space, Satellite characteristics, Pixel Size and Scale, Spectral Resolution, Radiometric Resolution, Temporal Resolution, Cameras and Aerial photography, Multispectral Scanning, thermal Imaging, Geometric Distortion, Weather Satellites, Land Observation Satellites, Marine Observation Satellites, Other Sensors, Data Reception.

SECTION B
Microwaves: Introduction, Radar Basics, Viewing Geometry & Spatial Resolution, Image Distortion, Target Interaction, Image Properties, Advanced Applications, Polarimetry, Airborne vs. Spaceborne, Airborne & Spaceborne Systems.
Image Analysis: Visual Interpretation, Digital processing, Preprocessing, Enhancement, Transformations, Classification, Integration.
Applications: Agriculture—Crop Type Mapping and Crop Monitoring; Forestry---Clear cut Mapping, Species identification and Burn Mapping; Geology---Structural Mapping & Geological Units; Hydrology-----Food Delineation & Soil Moisture; Sea Ice----Type & Concentration, Ice Motion; Land Cover----Rural/Urban Change, Biomass Mapping; Mapping-----Planimetry, DEMs, Topo Mapping; Oceans & Coastal-----Ocean features, Ocean Colour, Oil Spill Detection.
Text Books:

  1. Introduction to Remote Sensing : James B. Cambell

  2. Fundamentals of Remote Sensing: Natural Resources, Canada Centre of Remote Sensing.


NT 1.1.4 Elective Paper: Option (iii) MICROWAVE AND ITS PROPAGATION
Maximum Marks: External 60 Time Allowed: 3 Hours

Internal 20 Total Teaching hours: 50



Total 80 Pass Marks: 35%
Out of 80 Marks, internal assessment (based on two mid-semester tests/ internal examinations, written assignment/project work etc. and attendance) carries 20 marks, and the final examination at the end of the semester carries 60 marks.
Instruction for the Paper Setter: The question paper will consist of three sections A, B and C. Each of sections A and B will have four questions from respective section of the syllabus. Section C will have 10 short answer type questions, which will cover the entire syllabus uniformly. Each question of sections A and B carries 10 marks. Section C will carry 20 marks.
Instruction for the candidates: The candidates are required to attempt two questions each from sections A and B, and the entire section C. Each question of sections A and B carries 10 marks and section C carries 20 marks.
Use of scientific calculators is allowed.

SECTION A


Microwave linear beam tubes: Conventional vacuum tubes, Klystrons, resonant cavities, velocity modulation process, branching process, output power and beam loading; multi cavity klystron amplifiers, reflex klystrons, helix travelling wave tubes, slow wave structures.
Microwave crossed field tubes: Magnetron oscillators: cylindrical, linear and coaxial, forward wave crossed field amplifier, backward wave crossed field amplifier, backward wave crossed field oscillator, their principle of operation and characteristics.
Microwave transistor and tunnel diodes: Microwave bipolar transistors, physical structures, configurations, principles of operation, amplification phenomena, power-frequency limitations, heterojunction bipolar transistors, physical structures, operational mechanism and electronic applications, microwave tunnel diodes, principles of operation, microwave characteristics.
Microwave field effect transistors: Junction field effect transistors, metal semiconductor field effect transistors, high electron mobility transistors, metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors, physical structures, principle of operation and their characteristics. MOS transistor and memory devices: NMOS, CMOS and memories. Charged coupled devices: Operational mechanism, surface channel CCD's dynamic characteristics.

SECTION B


Transferred electron devices: Gunn effect diodes, Ridley-Walkins-Hilsum theory, modes of operation, LSA diodes, InP diodes, CdTe diodes, microwave generation and amplification.
Avalanche transit time devices: Read diode, IMPATT diodes, TRAPATT diodes, BARITT diodes, their physical structure, principle of operation and characteristics.
Microwave measurements: Measurement of impedance, attenuation, insertion loss, coupling and directivity, frequency, power and wavelength at microwave frequencies.
Microwave transmission lines: Transmission line equations and solutions, reflection coefficient and transmission coefficient, standing wave and standing wave ratio, line impedance and admittance, Smith chart, impedance matching. Microwave cavities, microwave hybrid circuits, directional couplers, circulators and isolators.
Text Books:

1. Microwave Devices and Circuits: Sameul Y. Liao, Pearson Education

2. Microwaves: K.C. Gupta, Wiley Eastern Limited.


NT 1.1.5

Lab Practice: Electronics

Maximum Marks: 120 Time allowed: 3 Hours

Pass Marks: 45% Total teaching hours: 125

Out of 120 Marks, internal assessment (based on seminar, viva-voce of experimental reports, number of experiments performed and attendance) carries 30 marks, and the final examination at the end of the semester carries 90 marks.

This laboratory comprises of experiments based on Electronics listed below:
ELECTRONICS EXPERIMENTS: (10 out of the followings)


  1. Study the gain frequency response of a given RC coupled BJT, CE amplifier.

  2. Study of Clipping & Clamping circuits.

  3. Study of shunt capacitor filter, inductor filter, LC filter and  filter using Bridge Rectifier.




  1. Find the energy gap of a given semi conductor by reverse bias junction method.




  1. To calculate the temperature coefficient of Thermistor.

  2. Verify De-Morgan’s law and various combinations of gates using Logic gates circuit.




  1. Study of various types of Flip-Flops.




  1. To study various Oscillators ( Hartley, Colpit, RC Phase shift etc.).

  2. To study Amplitude Modulation and De-Modulation and calculate modulation index.




  1. To study characteristics of FET and determine its various parameters.

  2. Study the characteristics of Tunnel Diode.

  3. To study 2 bit, 3 bit and 4 bit Adder & Subtractor.

  4. Study the characteristics of basic Thyristors (SCR, MOSFET, UJT, TRIAC etc.).



  1. Use of Transistor as a push pull amplifier (Class ‘A’, ‘B’ and ‘AB’).

  2. Application of transistor as a series voltage regulator.

  3. Study of biasing techniques of BJT.

  4. To study Frequency Modulation and Demodulation.

  5. Study of transistor as CE, CB and CC amplifier.

  6. Fourier series analysis of square, triangular and rectified wave signals.



NT 1.1.6

Computer Laboratory

Maximum Marks: 60 Time allowed: 3 Hours

Pass Marks: 45% Total teaching hours: 45
Out of 60 Marks, internal assessment (based on performance of the candidate in the computer lab and attendance) carries 15 marks, and the final examination at the end of the semester carries 45 marks.

This laboratory comprises of (any ten of the following) physics problems to be solved using computer.




  1. To print even and odd numbers between given limit

  2. To generate prime numbers between given limit.

  3. To construct Fibonacci series.

  4. To find maximum and minimum number among a given data.

  5. To find area of a triangle.

  6. To find factorial of a number.

  7. To find roots of a quadratic equation.

  8. To construct AP and GP series.

  9. To construct Sine and Cosine series.

  10. Conversion of temperature scale.

  11. Addition of two matrices.

  12. Motion of horizontally thrown projectile.

  13. Finding mean and standard deviation of a given data.

  14. To find perfect numbers.



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