Review of a structure of the respiratory system organs. Anatomy of the nasal cavity, larynx, trachea



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1. Review of a structure of the respiratory system organs. Anatomy of the nasal cavity, larynx, trachea.


  1. Nasal cavity (external nose, walls of nasal cavity, nasal conches and nasal meatuses, communications of nasal cavity).

  2. Paranasal sinuses. Communications of nasal meatuses with paranasal sinuses and nasolacrimal canal.

  3. Laryngeal structure (form, parts, etc.). Laryngeal cartilages, their structure.

  4. Laryngeal cavity (laryngeal vestibule, glottis, laryngeal ventricles, infraglottic cavity), its communications.

  5. Laryngeal connections (syndesmosis and diarthrosis).

  6. Laryngeal muscles:

    1. The muscles changing size of a glottis (dilators and constrictors);

    2. The muscles changing degree of a tension of vocal ligaments (straining and weakening).

  7. Topography of the larynx (skeletotopia, sintopia).

  8. Structure and topography of the trachea and main bronchus.

2. Lungs. The bronchial and alveolar tree. Anatomy of the pleura and a mediastinum.

  1. External structure of the lungs (base, apex, borders, surfaces, hilum, fissures, lobes, cardiac notch).

  2. Elements of the hilum of the lungs, their interposition on the right and the left.

  3. Structural units of a lung (lobes, segments, lobules, acinus) and bronchi them ventilating.

  4. Segmentary structure of lungs.

  5. Elements of a bronchial tree (lobar, segmental, intrasegmental and lobular bronchi, terminal bronchioles).

  6. Elements of an alveolar tree (respiratory bronchioles, alveolar meatuses, alveolar sacs, alveolae).

  7. Topography of the lungs (skeletotopia, sintopia, golotopia);

  8. Concept about serous coat and cavities. Structure of a serous coat. Pleura (parietal and visceral). Elements of the structure parietal pleura.

  9. Skeletotopia of pleura. Pleural cavity, pleural recesses.

  10. Concept of a mediastinum. It’s structure. Division into an anterior mediastinum and a posterior mediastinum, and them making organs.

3. Review of the digestive system organs. Mouth, oral cavity, major salivary glands, teeth, tongue, pharynx, soft palate, esophagus, stomach.
1. List organs of the digestive system.

2. The oral cavity. Walls of the vestibule and the oral cavity proper.

3. Structure of the cheeks, lips.


  1. Structure of the floor of oral cavity (muscles and organs).

  1. Structure of the hard palate, soft palate.

6. Muscles of the soft palate.

7. Fauces, its boundaries.

8. Teeth, parts of the tooth. Structure of the teeth. Baby teeth erupt and the timing of their loss. Permanent teeth.

9. Tongue: its division into parts, structure of tongue tonsil, lingual papillae. Functions of the tongue.

10. Tongue muscles.

11. Large salivary glands: parotid, submandibular, sublingual. Structure, topography, ducts and places of its opening.

12. Pharynx:

а) parts of the pharynx and their connections with other cavities,



b) walls of the nasopharynx (lateral, anterior, posterior). Pharyngeal and tubal tonsils, pharyngeal opening of auditory tube.

c) structure of wall layers,

d) the pharyngeal tonsils (Pirogov - Waldeyer's tonsillar ring),

e) topography of pharynx (skeletotopiya, sintopiya),



f) The act of swallowing.

13. The esophagus. Departments; constrictions of the esophagus, its practical value. The structure of the wall layers. Topography (skeletotopiya, sintopiya).
14. Stomach. Departments, the wall layers, curvatures. Topography (skeletotopiya, sintopiya).
To show:

1.On the base of the skull
a) the composition of the palate;
b) dental alveoli;
b) origin and insertion of muscles of the soft palate, tongue, and flour of oral cavity.
2. On the skeleton:
a) skeletopy of the pharynx;
b) skeletopy of the departments and narrowings of the esophagus;
c) skeletopy of the stomach;
3. On the medial surface of the sagittal cutting head:
a) parts of the oral cavity, their walls;
b) the floor of the oral cavity (mylohyoid muscle anterior belly of digastric muscle, geniohyoid muscle);
c) the lips, cheeks, teeth;
d) departments of the tongue (the apex, body, root, dorsum);
e) lingual tonsil
f) the muscles of the tongue (genioglossus, hyoglossus, styloglossus, superior longitudinal muscle, inferior longitudinal muscle, transverse, vertical);
g) sublingual salivary gland and place of opening its duct (sublingual papilla);

h) hard palate;
i) soft palate, uvula, arches, palatine tonsil;
j) the pharynx;
k) the larynx;
l) connections of the pharynx with other cavities:
- nasal cavity (choanae);
- tympanic cavity (the pharyngeal opening of auditory tube);
- oral cavity (fauces);
- cavity and larynx (the entrance to the larynx);
- cavity and esophagus (the entrance into the esophagus);
m) the elements of the lymphoepithelial ring Pirogov-Waldeyer.
4. On the preparation of the tongue:
a) the median and the terminal grooves;
b) parts(the apex, the body, root);
c) papillae of tongue (filiform, fungiform, vallate, foliate);
d) lingual tonsil.
5. On the set of teeth:
a) different kinds of teeth (incisor, canine, premolar, molar, wisdom)
b) parts of the tooth (the crown, the cervix, the root, pulp cavity, a root canal).
6. On the preparation of the pharynx:
a) choanae;
b) the pharyngeal opening of auditory tube;
c) soft palate;
d) fauces and its boundaries;
e) the root of the tongue;
f) the epiglottis;
g) the entrance to the larynx.

7. On the the chest cavity of the cadaver:
a) the esophagus;
b) organs, adjoining with the esophagus (the trachea with major bronchi,
the aorta, the diaphragm, the heart).
8. On the separate organs:
a) longitudinal folds of mucous membrane of the esophagus;
b) longitudinal muscles of the esophagus;
c) adventitia of the esophagus;
d) departments, curvatures and walls of the stomach;
e) orientation of the folds of mucous membrane of the stomach into the different
departments;
f) pyloric sphincter.
9. On the abdominal cavity of the cadaver:
a) the abdominal esophagus and organs in contact with him (left
lobe of hepar, spleen);
b) departments, walls, and curvatures of the stomach.
4. Small and large intestine. Liver. Pancreas. Spleen. Bile ducts. Topography of the digestive system organs. Areas of an anterior abdomen wall.
1. The parts of the small intestine.

2. Duodenum:

a) parts, the flexures, the confluence of the common bile duct, the pancreastic duct, the accessory pancreatic duct);

b) the structure of the layers of the wall of the duodenum:

- mucosa and submucosa (orientation of folds, major and minor duodenal papillae,

glands, single lymphoid nodules);

- muscle layer;

- adventitia and serosa (variants of cover);

b) topography of the duodenum (skeletotopia, syntopia, golotopia),


3. Jejunum and ileum:

a) differences between the jejunum and ileum (diameter, the severity of folds, mucosa-associated lymphoid apparatus);

b) structure of the layers of jejunum and ileum
- mucosa and submucosa (severity and orientstion of the folds, the intestinal villi and their bloodstream, solitary and aggregated lymphoid nodules);

- muscular layer;

- serosa (cover version of peritoneum);

b) topography of the jejunum and ileum (skeletotopia, syntopia, golotopia).


4. The departments of the large intestine (the cecum, colon, rectum).

5. Caecum and appendix:

a) the external structure of the cecum and the appendix (ileocecal corner, the place of discharge, and its variants of the position);

b) the cavity of the caecum and her messages (ileal orifice,


ileocecal valve, orifice of the vermiform appendix);

c) topography of the cecum and the appendix (skeletotopia, syntopia, golotopia).


6. The colon:

a) the departments and the curvatures of the colon;

b) teniae coli, haustra, epiploic appendages

c) topography of the colon (skeletotopia, syntopia, golotopia).

d) the structure of layers of cecum, colon and appendix:

- mucosa and submucosa (orientation and structure of folds, the severity of submucosa and muscle plate, solitary lymphoid nodules, lymphoid tissue of the appendix


- muscular layer, forming the teniae coli the point of their convergence);

- adventitia and serous membranes (coatings peritoneum departments of the colon);

7. The rectum:

a) the departments and curvatures of rectum;

b) the structure of the wall:

- mucosa and submucosa for the departments of the rectum (folds of ampulla and their structure, anal columnes and sinuses, anorectal line, glands, solitary lymphoid nodules);

- muscle layer;

- adventitia and serosa (peculiarities of coverage peritoneum along the rectum);

c) the sphincter muscles of the anus (internal, external);
d) the topography of the rectum in male and female pelvis (skeletotopia, syntopia, golotopia).

8. Liver:

a) the external structure of liver (surfaces and the lower edge, lobes, deepening

on visceral surface and their contents, the porta of the liver with its contents);

b) the internal structure of the liver (fibrous capsule, the notion of an segmental structure of the liver, hepatic lobule, vascular system of the liver);

c) skeletotopia, syntopia, golotopia of the liver, covering of the peritoneum;

d) extrahepatic bile ducts (right and left hepatic ducts, common hepatic duct, cystic duct and its sphincter, common bile duct and its sphincter);

e) the gallbladder (fundus, body and neck, cystic duct and its sphincter,


layers of wall, skeletotopia, syntopia, golotopia, covering of the peritoneum);

9. The pancreas:

a) the external structure of the pancreas (the parts, surfaces, margins);

b) the internal structure of the pancreas (excretory and endocrine parts, excretory ducts of the pancreas and the place of their opening);

c) skeletotopia, syntopia, golotopia of the liver, covering of the peritoneum;

10. The relationship of excretion of bile and pancreatic juice

11. The spleen (an organ of the immune and blood system):

a) external structure (surfaces, margins, ends, hilus);

b) skeletotopia, syntopia, golotopia of the liver, covering of the peritoneum;
To show:

1. On the complex “Liver, stomach,duodenum, pancreas:



  1. parts, the flexures of duodenum

  2. the relief of the mucous membrane (circular and longitudinal folds, major duodenal papilla, single lymphoid nodules),

  3. the confluence of the common bile duct, the pancreastic duct, the accessory pancreatic duct);

  4. diaphragmatic and visceral surface and the inferior margin of the liver)

  5. the ligaments of the liver (coronary, falciform, round, venosum, hepatoduodenal, hepatogastric);

  6. lobes of the liver on the diaphragmatic and visceral surfaces (right, left, quadrate, caudate);

  7. deepenings of visceral surface of liver (fossa for gallbladder,
    groove for vena cava, fissures for round and venosum ligaments) and their contents;

  8. the porta of the liver, the relationships between hepatic duct,own hepatic artery, the portal vein;

  9. the foramens of the hepatic veins on the anterior wall of the inferior vena
    cava;

  10. extrahepatic bile ducts (right and left hepatic ducts, common hepatic duct, cystic duct, common bile duct), gallbladder;

  11. papilla on the longitudinal fold of mucous membrane of the medial
    wall of the descending part of the duodenum;

  12. parts of the pancreas (head, neck, body and tail);

  13. the gallbladder (bottom, body, neck, cystic duct)

2. On «The jejunum and ileum»:



  1. the relief of the mucous membrane of the jejunum (circular folds, solitary lymphoid nodules);

  2. the relief of the mucous membrane of the ileum (circular folds, solitary and aggregated lymphoid nodules);

  3. differences in the structure of the jejunum and ileum;

3. At «The ileocecal angle»:



  1. the ileum, cecum, appendix, mesoappendix;

  2. ileocecal foramen and baffle (Bauhinia);

  3. the orifice of the appendix;

  4. the beginning of the colon tenia;

  5. semilunar folds

4. On sagittal cuts of the pelvis:

a) syntopia and sceletotopia of rectum in female pelvis;

b) syntopia and sceletotopia of rectum in male pelvis;

c)the departments of the rectum (part above ampulla, ampulla, anal canal), anus;
d) fissures of the rectum (the sacral and lateral);

e) the relief of the mucous membrane of the rectum (folds, anal columnes, anal sinuses, hemorrhoid area, anocutaneons line);


5. On the abdominal cavity:

  1. the duodenum (parts, fissures, covering the peritoneum);

  2. jejunum and ileum, covering the peritoneum;

  3. ileocecal angle, vermiform appendix, covering their peritoneum

  4. the colon (departments, curvatures, covering the peritoneum, teniae coli, haustra, epiploic appendages);

  5. the rectum, covering the peritoneum;

5. PERITONEUM.





  1. The concept of serous membranes, their morphological peculiarities, functional and clinical significance.

  2. The peritoneum, its parietal and visceral portions.

  3. The concept of the abdominal and peritoneal cavities. Peritoneal cavity, its

  4. sexual features.

  5. Types of coverage of peritoneum all organs of the abdominal cavity (intra-, meso-, extraperitoneal).

  6. The notion of derivatives peritoneum: ligaments, mesentery, omentum.

  7. The course of peritoneum in the abdomen. The formation of lesser and greater omentum, mesentery. The contents of the hepato-duodenal ligament.

  8. The division of the peritoneal cavity on 3 floors, their boundaries.

  9. The topographo-anatomic structures of the peritoneal cavity of the floors:

Upper floor:

a) omental bursa (walls, content);

b) pregastric bursa (walls, content);

c) hepatic bursa (walls, departments, content);

Middle floor:

a) the right and left side channels (border, messages);

b) the right and left mesenteric sinuses (border, messages);

c) the recesses of the middle floor of the abdomen;

Lower floor:

a) peritoneal deepening of the small pelvis (sexual features).

10. Folds and fossae in the anterior abdominal wall.
To show:


  1. the parietal and visceral sheets of the peritoneum, the peritoneal cavity;

  2. the course of the peritoneum on the floors of the abdomen;

  3. in the upper floor of the abdomen
    -ligaments of diaphragmatic surface of the liver (coronary, falciform);
    - lesser omentum (hepatoduodenal, hepatogastric, and diaphragmogastric ligaments);
    - ligaments of spleen (diaphragmosplenic, gastrosplenic and colonosplenic );

  • gastrocolic ligament;

  • hepatic bursa (walls, content, above and subhepatic space);

  • pregastric bursa (walls, content);

  • omental bursa, its foramen,

  1. on the middle floor of the abdomen:

- a greater omentum;

- mesentery of small intestine

- the mesentery of the transverse colon, sigmoid intestine and the appendix;
- right and left mesenteric sinuses and its borders

- the right and left side channels and its borders;

- recesses;

- folds and fossa of peritoneum on the anterolateral wall of the abdomen (median, medial and lateral umbilical folds, supravesical fossa, medial and lateral inguinal fossae).

j)in the lower floor of the male abdomen – recto-vesical pouch;
k) in the lower floor of the female abdomen recto-uterine and vesico-uterine

pouches.
6. Anatomy of the urinary system organs. Adrenal glands. Retroperitoneal space.




  1. Kidneys: external structure (poles, surfaces, borders, hilum).

  2. Kidneys: internal structure (renal cortex, renal medulla, sinus, major and minor calices, renal pelvis).

  3. The renal coats, the fixing apparatus.

  4. Topography of the kidneys (skeletotopiya, sintopiya, golotopiya), relation to a peritoneum.

  5. Structure of the nephron.

  6. Features of the blood supply of the kidneys (intrarenal branches of a renal artery, arterial "magic network").

  7. Ureter (departments, places of constriction; wall structure, lymphoid device (single lymphoid nodes).

  8. Topography of the ureter (skeletotopiya, sintopiya, golotopiya), relation to a peritoneum.

  9. Urinary bladder: external structure (apex, body, fundus, neck); wall structure, internal urethral sphincter.

  10. Topography of the urinary bladder (skeletotopiya, sintopiya, golotopiya) in male and female, the relation to a peritoneum in the filled and emptied state.

  11. Female urethra (internal and external openings, wall structure, voluntary external sphincter).

  12. Retroperitoneal space (borders, organs).

  13. Renal fascia (prerenal and postrenal layers).

  14. Cellulose spaces: ascendens and descendens paracolon , paranephros, tectus cellulosus retroperitonealis.


To show:


  1. Elements of a renal leg

  2. Ureter and places of its constrictions

  3. Urinary bladder, its departments

  4. Right and left kidneys

  5. Poles and surfaces of the kidney

  6. Hilum of the kidney

  7. Renal cortex and medulla

  8. Renal pyramids and papillae

  9. Renal columns

  10. Renal pelvis

  11. Renal artery, vein and ureter

  12. Urethral orifice of the urinary bladder

  13. Trigone of the urinary bladder

7. Anatomy of the female genital system. Cellular spaces and fasciae of a lesser pelvic. Perineum.




  1. The division of the female genital organs for internal and external.

  2. Ovary: the external structure (ends, borders, surfaces).

  3. The ligaments of the ovaries (the proper ovarian ligament, the suspensory ligament of the ovary, the mesovarium); topography of the ovary, an attitude to the peritoneum.

  4. Ovary: the internal structure (cortex and medulla, germinal (ovarian) epithelium, tunica albuginea).

  5. Fallopian tubes: departments, ostiums, structure of the wall, topography, an attitude to the peritoneum.

  6. Uterus: the external structure: parts (fundus, body, cervix and supravaginal part of the cervix); surfaces (anterior and posterior), borders, the uterine cavity, the ostium of the fallopian tubes, cervical canal, internal os, external os.

  7. The internal structure of the uterus.

  8. Support of the uterus (the round ligament, the broad ligament, cardinal ligament), position tipped "anteversio" and "retroversio", position of fundus "anteflexio" and "retroflexio".

  9. Topography of the uterus and an attitude to the peritoneum. Parametrium.

  10. Vagina (external structure, structure of the wall, lymphoid apparatus, topography (syntopia), an attitude to the peritoneum.

  11. External genitalia.

  12. Vestibule of the vagina (borders, organs and ducts of the glands, opening in it).

  13. Greater vestibular glands (glands of Bartholin).

  14. Perineum: structure, division.

  15. Pelvic diaphragm (borders, organs, that pass through it, the muscles and fasciae, ischio-anal fossa, paraproktos).

  16. Urogenital diaphragm (borders, organs, that pass through it, the muscles and fasciae).

  17. Fiber spaces of the pelvis and perineum.


To show :


  1. Broad ligament of the uterus

  2. Round ligament of the uterus

  3. Uterine cavity

  4. Openings of the fallopian tubes

  5. Cervical canal, internal ostium and external ostium

  6. Fornices of the vagina

  7. Ends of the ovary

  8. Borders of the ovary

  9. Surfaces of the ovary

  10. Proper ovarian ligament

  11. Mesovarium

  12. Ampulla of the fallopian tube

  13. Isthmus of the fallopian tube

  14. Infundibulum of the fallopian tube

  15. Mesosalpinx

  16. Fundus of the uterus

  17. Body of the uterus

  18. Supravaginal and vaginal portions of the cervix

  19. Labia majora (the anterior and posterior comissurae)

  20. Pudendal cleft

  21. Labia minora

  22. Clitoris (glans, foreskin)

  23. Vestibule of the vagina (external opening of the uretra, opening of the vagina)



№ 8. Anatomy of the male genital system.


  1. The division of the organs of male reproductive system into two groups: internal and external.

  2. Testis, epididymis: the external structure of the testis (ends, surfaces, margines).

  3. The internal structure of the testis - lobules, mediastinum, convoluted and direct seminiferous tubules, rete testis, efferent ductules).

  4. The external structure of the epididymis (head, body, tail, sinus); the internal structure of the epididymis (efferent ductules, ductus epididymidis).

  5. The coats of the testes, their structure and compliance with the layers of the anterior abdominal wall.

  6. Ductus deferens. Parts (scrotal, funicular, inguinal, pelvic) and their topography; the structure of the wall.

  7. Spermatic cord (the elements, parts and their topography).

  8. Seminal vesicles (external structure, structure of the wall, duct, syntopiya).

  9. Prostate gland: the external structure (basis and apex, surfaces, lobes, isthmus).

  10. The internal structure of the prostate gland (glandular parenchyma, smooth muscles, the capsule, prostate part of the urethra, ejaculatory duct).

  11. Penis: the root, body, glans penis, external urethral orifice, the corona of the glans penis, the foreskin (prepuce), frenulum of the prepuce, the cavity of the foreskin, the corpus spongiosum (bulb of the penis, body, head, internal structure, spongy part of the urethra); the corpora cavernosa, crura of the penis and their internal structure.

  12. Male urethra: parts; constrictions , dilatations, wall layers, lymphoid apparatus, ducts, that open in the male urethra, involuntary and voluntary sphincters.

  13. The bulbourethral (Cowper's) glands, their position, place of opening its ducts.

  14. The sperm liquid.


To show :

  1. Spermatic cord

  2. Ductus deferens and its parts

  3. Seminal vesicles

  4. Prostate gland

  5. Parts of the penis

  6. Openings (external and internal) of the male urethra

  7. Parts of the male urethra

  8. Constrictions of the male urethra

  9. Dilatations of the male urethra

  10. Right and left testis

  11. Ends, surfaces, margines of the testis

  12. Epididymis, parts (head, body, tail)

  13. Sinus of the testis

  14. Lobules of testicular parenchyma

  15. Mediastinum of testis

  16. Ductus deferens

9. Vessels of a greater (systemic) and lesser (pulmonary) circles of the blood circulation. External and internal structure of a heart. The heart blood supply.




  1. Circles of blood circulation: the pulmonary circle and the systemic circle.

  2. The direction of blood flow inside the heart and great vessels.

  3. External structure of the heart (shape, axis, basis, apex, surfaces margins, sulci).

  4. Chambers of the heart, their boundaries, structure and connections of each chamber.

  5. Heart valves: cuspid and semilunar, their structure, location, functional significance.

  6. The structure of the walls of the heart: endocardium, myocardium, epicardium.

  7. The heart’s conducting system (sinoatrial node, atrioventricular node, bundle of His, Purkinje fibers). Structure and functions.


To show :


  1. Basis of the heart

  2. Apex of the heart

  3. Sternocostal, diaphragmatic and pulmonary surfaces of the heart

  4. Coronary sulcus

  5. Anterior interventricular sulcus

  6. Posterior interventricular sulcus

  7. Auricles of the heart

  8. Superior cava vein

  9. Inferior cava vein

  10. Coronary sinus

  11. Pulmonary veins

  12. Right atrium

  13. Right atrioventricular opening

  14. Oval fossa

  15. Right ventricle

10. The heart topography (borders and places of listening of valves). Pericardium. Mediastinum. The fetal blood circulation.




  1. Heart topography. Projection of the heart boundaries and the heart valves on the anterior wall of the chest.

  2. The places of the heart valves auscultation.

  3. Coronary circulation. Coronary arteries and veins.

  4. Embryonal blood circulation.

  5. Rentgenology of the heart.


To show :


  1. Tricuspid valve

  2. Pulmonary trunk

  3. Semilunar valve of the pulmonary trunk

  4. Left atrium

  5. Left atrioventricular opening

  6. Left ventricle

  7. Mitral valve

  8. Aortic semilunar valve

  9. Openings of the coronary arteries

  10. Right coronary artery

  11. Left coronary artery



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