Laryngeal connections (syndesmosis and diarthrosis).
The muscles changing size of a glottis (dilators and constrictors);
The muscles changing degree of a tension of vocal ligaments (straining and weakening).
Topography of the larynx (skeletotopia, sintopia).
Structure and topography of the trachea and main bronchus.
№2. Lungs. The bronchial and alveolar tree. Anatomy of the pleura and a mediastinum. External structure of the lungs (base, apex, borders, surfaces, hilum, fissures, lobes, cardiac notch).
Elements of the hilum of the lungs, their interposition on the right and the left.
Structural units of a lung (lobes, segments, lobules, acinus) and bronchi them ventilating.
Segmentary structure of lungs.
Elements of a bronchial tree (lobar, segmental, intrasegmental and lobular bronchi, terminal bronchioles).
Elements of an alveolar tree (respiratory bronchioles, alveolar meatuses, alveolar sacs, alveolae).
Topography of the lungs (skeletotopia, sintopia, golotopia);
Concept about serous coat and cavities. Structure of a serous coat. Pleura (parietal and visceral). Elements of the structure parietal pleura.
Skeletotopia of pleura. Pleural cavity, pleural recesses.
Concept of a mediastinum. It’s structure. Division into an anterior mediastinum and a posterior mediastinum, and them making organs.
№3. Review of the digestive system organs. Mouth, oral cavity, major salivary glands, teeth, tongue, pharynx, soft palate, esophagus, stomach. 1. List organs of the digestive system.
2. The oral cavity. Walls of the vestibule and the oral cavity proper.
3. Structure of the cheeks, lips.
Structure of the floor of oral cavity (muscles and organs).
Structure of the hard palate, soft palate.
6. Muscles of the soft palate.
7. Fauces, its boundaries.
8. Teeth, parts of the tooth. Structure of the teeth. Baby teeth erupt and the timing of their loss. Permanent teeth.
9. Tongue: its division into parts, structure of tongue tonsil, lingual papillae. Functions of the tongue.
10. Tongue muscles.
11. Large salivary glands: parotid, submandibular, sublingual. Structure, topography, ducts and places of its opening.
а) parts of the pharynx and their connections with other cavities,
b) walls of the nasopharynx (lateral, anterior, posterior). Pharyngeal and tubal tonsils, pharyngeal opening of auditory tube.
c) structure of wall layers,
d) the pharyngeal tonsils (Pirogov - Waldeyer's tonsillar ring),
e) topography of pharynx (skeletotopiya, sintopiya),
f) The act of swallowing.
13. The esophagus. Departments; constrictions of the esophagus, its practical value. The structure of the wall layers. Topography (skeletotopiya, sintopiya). 14. Stomach. Departments, the wall layers, curvatures. Topography (skeletotopiya, sintopiya). To show:
1.On the base of the skull a) the composition of the palate; b) dental alveoli;
b) origin and insertion of muscles of the soft palate, tongue, and flour of oral cavity. 2. On the skeleton: a) skeletopy of the pharynx; b) skeletopy of the departments and narrowings of the esophagus; c) skeletopy of the stomach; 3. On the medial surface of the sagittal cutting head: a) parts of the oral cavity, their walls; b) the floor of the oral cavity (mylohyoid muscle anterior belly of digastric muscle, geniohyoid muscle); c) the lips, cheeks, teeth; d) departments of the tongue (the apex, body, root, dorsum); e) lingual tonsil
f) the muscles of the tongue (genioglossus, hyoglossus, styloglossus, superior longitudinal muscle, inferior longitudinal muscle, transverse, vertical); g) sublingual salivary gland and place of opening its duct (sublingual papilla);
h) hard palate; i) soft palate, uvula, arches, palatine tonsil;
j) the pharynx; k) the larynx; l) connections of the pharynx with other cavities: - nasal cavity (choanae); - tympanic cavity (the pharyngeal opening of auditory tube); - oral cavity (fauces); - cavity and larynx (the entrance to the larynx); - cavity and esophagus (the entrance into the esophagus); m) the elements of the lymphoepithelial ring Pirogov-Waldeyer.
4. On the preparation of the tongue: a) the median and the terminal grooves; b) parts(the apex, the body, root); c) papillae of tongue (filiform, fungiform, vallate, foliate); d) lingual tonsil.
5. On the set of teeth: a) different kinds of teeth (incisor, canine, premolar, molar, wisdom)
b) parts of the tooth (the crown, the cervix, the root, pulp cavity, a root canal). 6. On the preparation of the pharynx: a) choanae; b) the pharyngeal opening of auditory tube; c) soft palate; d) fauces and its boundaries; e) the root of the tongue; f) the epiglottis; g) the entrance to the larynx.
7. On the the chest cavity of the cadaver: a) the esophagus; b) organs, adjoining with the esophagus (the trachea with major bronchi, the aorta, the diaphragm, the heart). 8. On the separate organs: a) longitudinal folds of mucous membrane of the esophagus; b) longitudinal muscles of the esophagus; c) adventitia of the esophagus; d) departments, curvatures and walls of the stomach; e) orientation of the folds of mucous membrane of the stomach into the different departments; f) pyloric sphincter. 9. On the abdominal cavity of the cadaver: a) the abdominal esophagus and organs in contact with him (left lobe of hepar, spleen); b) departments, walls, and curvatures of the stomach. № 4. Small and large intestine. Liver. Pancreas. Spleen. Bile ducts. Topography of the digestive system organs. Areas of an anterior abdomen wall. 1. The parts of the small intestine.
a) parts, the flexures, the confluence of the common bile duct, the pancreastic duct, the accessory pancreatic duct);
b) the structure of the layers of the wall of the duodenum:
- mucosa and submucosa (orientation of folds, major and minor duodenal papillae,
glands, single lymphoid nodules);
- muscle layer;
- adventitia and serosa (variants of cover);
b) topography of the duodenum (skeletotopia, syntopia, golotopia),
3. Jejunum and ileum:
a) differences between the jejunum and ileum (diameter, the severity of folds, mucosa-associated lymphoid apparatus);
b) structure of the layers of jejunum and ileum
- mucosa and submucosa (severity and orientstion of the folds, the intestinal villi and their bloodstream, solitary and aggregated lymphoid nodules);
- muscular layer;
- serosa (cover version of peritoneum);
b) topography of the jejunum and ileum (skeletotopia, syntopia, golotopia).
4. The departments of the large intestine (the cecum, colon, rectum).
5. Caecum and appendix:
a) the external structure of the cecum and the appendix (ileocecal corner, the place of discharge, and its variants of the position);
b) the cavity of the caecum and her messages (ileal orifice,
ileocecal valve, orifice of the vermiform appendix);
c) topography of the cecum and the appendix (skeletotopia, syntopia, golotopia).
6. The colon:
a) the departments and the curvatures of the colon;
b) teniae coli, haustra, epiploic appendages
c) topography of the colon (skeletotopia, syntopia, golotopia).
d) the structure of layers of cecum, colon and appendix:
- mucosa and submucosa (orientation and structure of folds, the severity of submucosa and muscle plate, solitary lymphoid nodules, lymphoid tissue of the appendix
- muscular layer, forming the teniae coli the point of their convergence);
- adventitia and serous membranes (coatings peritoneum departments of the colon);
The division of the peritoneal cavity on 3 floors, their boundaries.
The topographo-anatomic structures of the peritoneal cavity of the floors:
a) omental bursa (walls, content);
b) pregastric bursa (walls, content);
c) hepatic bursa (walls, departments, content);
a) the right and left side channels (border, messages);
b) the right and left mesenteric sinuses (border, messages);
c) the recesses of the middle floor of the abdomen;
a) peritoneal deepening of the small pelvis (sexual features).
10. Folds and fossae in the anterior abdominal wall.
the parietal and visceral sheets of the peritoneum, the peritoneal cavity;
the course of the peritoneum on the floors of the abdomen;
in the upper floor of the abdomen
-ligaments of diaphragmatic surface of the liver (coronary, falciform);
- lesser omentum (hepatoduodenal, hepatogastric, and diaphragmogastric ligaments);
- ligaments of spleen (diaphragmosplenic, gastrosplenic and colonosplenic );
hepatic bursa (walls, content, above and subhepatic space);
pregastric bursa (walls, content);
omental bursa, its foramen,
on the middle floor of the abdomen:
- a greater omentum;
- mesentery of small intestine
- the mesentery of the transverse colon, sigmoid intestine and the appendix;
- right and left mesenteric sinuses and its borders
- the right and left side channels and its borders;
- folds and fossa of peritoneum on the anterolateral wall of the abdomen (median, medial and lateral umbilical folds, supravesical fossa, medial and lateral inguinal fossae).
j)in the lower floor of the male abdomen – recto-vesical pouch;
k) in the lower floor of the female abdomen recto-uterine and vesico-uterine
№ 6.Anatomy of the urinary system organs. Adrenal glands. Retroperitoneal space.
№ 7. Anatomy of the female genital system. Cellular spaces and fasciae of a lesser pelvic. Perineum.
The division of the female genital organs for internal and external.
Ovary: the external structure (ends, borders, surfaces).
The ligaments of the ovaries (the proper ovarian ligament, the suspensory ligament of the ovary, the mesovarium); topography of the ovary, an attitude to the peritoneum.
Ovary: the internal structure (cortex and medulla, germinal (ovarian) epithelium, tunica albuginea).
Fallopian tubes: departments, ostiums, structure of the wall, topography, an attitude to the peritoneum.
Uterus: the external structure: parts (fundus, body, cervix and supravaginal part of the cervix); surfaces (anterior and posterior), borders, the uterine cavity, the ostium of the fallopian tubes, cervical canal, internal os, external os.
The internal structure of the uterus.
Support of the uterus (the round ligament, the broad ligament, cardinal ligament), position tipped "anteversio" and "retroversio", position of fundus "anteflexio" and "retroflexio".
Topography of the uterus and an attitude to the peritoneum. Parametrium.
Vagina (external structure, structure of the wall, lymphoid apparatus, topography (syntopia), an attitude to the peritoneum.
Vestibule of the vagina (borders, organs and ducts of the glands, opening in it).
Urogenital diaphragm (borders, organs, that pass through it, the muscles and fasciae).
Fiber spaces of the pelvis and perineum.
To show :
Broad ligament of the uterus
Round ligament of the uterus
Openings of the fallopian tubes
Cervical canal, internal ostium and external ostium
Fornices of the vagina
Ends of the ovary
Borders of the ovary
Surfaces of the ovary
Proper ovarian ligament
Ampulla of the fallopian tube
Isthmus of the fallopian tube
Infundibulum of the fallopian tube
Fundus of the uterus
Body of the uterus
Supravaginal and vaginal portions of the cervix
Labia majora (the anterior and posterior comissurae)
Clitoris (glans, foreskin)
Vestibule of the vagina (external opening of the uretra, opening of the vagina)
№ 8. Anatomy of the male genital system.
The division of the organs of male reproductive system into two groups: internal and external.
Testis, epididymis: the external structure of the testis (ends, surfaces, margines).
The internal structure of the testis - lobules, mediastinum, convoluted and direct seminiferous tubules, rete testis, efferent ductules).
The external structure of the epididymis (head, body, tail, sinus); the internal structure of the epididymis (efferent ductules, ductus epididymidis).
The coats of the testes, their structure and compliance with the layers of the anterior abdominal wall.
Ductus deferens. Parts (scrotal, funicular, inguinal, pelvic) and their topography; the structure of the wall.
Spermatic cord (the elements, parts and their topography).
Seminal vesicles (external structure, structure of the wall, duct, syntopiya).
Prostate gland: the external structure (basis and apex, surfaces, lobes, isthmus).
The internal structure of the prostate gland (glandular parenchyma, smooth muscles, the capsule, prostate part of the urethra, ejaculatory duct).
Penis: the root, body, glans penis, external urethral orifice, the corona of the glans penis, the foreskin (prepuce), frenulum of the prepuce, the cavity of the foreskin, the corpus spongiosum (bulb of the penis, body, head, internal structure, spongy part of the urethra); the corpora cavernosa, crura of the penis and their internal structure.
Male urethra: parts; constrictions , dilatations, wall layers, lymphoid apparatus, ducts, that open in the male urethra, involuntary and voluntary sphincters.
The bulbourethral (Cowper's) glands, their position, place of opening its ducts.
The sperm liquid.
To show : Spermatic cord
Ductus deferens and its parts
Parts of the penis
Openings (external and internal) of the male urethra
Parts of the male urethra
Constrictions of the male urethra
Dilatations of the male urethra
Right and left testis
Ends, surfaces, margines of the testis
Epididymis, parts (head, body, tail)
Sinus of the testis
Lobules of testicular parenchyma
Mediastinum of testis
№ 9. Vessels of a greater (systemic) and lesser (pulmonary) circles of the blood circulation. External and internal structure of a heart. The heart blood supply.
Circles of blood circulation: the pulmonary circle and the systemic circle.