Results: The search identified 18 papers (reporting on ten primary studies) that met the inclusion criteria



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A sd = standard deviation, reported where available

B DIMFT: Decayed, Indicated for extraction, Missing, Filled permanent Teeth used in Schamschula et al. paper

C Fluoride was ≤0.02-0.26 ppm

D 50.4% water supplies exceed 1.5mg/L F

DMFT: decayed, missing and filled permanent teeth

F/NF: fluoridated/non-fluoridated water

nr: not reported

* calculated from % caries-free data
¥ All data reported in the table as it appears in the paper however this symbol indicates there is a clear error in the original publication regarding sample size (total does not correlate with total of individual sample numbers)

# Total caries prevalence extracted from paper (based on reported caries-free prevalence) is incorrect based on other data reported



Table 3: Periodontal prevalence and severity (based on CPI levels) for Aboriginal adults, by jurisdiction

Author, year

Year data collected

Jurisdictions

Location (rural/urban) and fluoridation status

n

Age (years)


% affected by periodontal disease

% with periodontal disease

% free of periodontal disease

CPI 1

Bleeding gums



CPI 2

Calculus present



CPI 3

Moderate pockets

4-5mm


CPI 4

Severe pockets 6+mm



CPI 3&4

Moderate-severe









Endean et al. 200426

1999- 2000

South Australia

Rural (Anangu Pitjantjatjara) F

289

15+

4.7%

63.9%

15.3%

14.9%

30.2%

98.8%

1.2%

Brennan et al. 200720

2001-2

All except ACT and Tasmania

Urban and rural


157

18+

nr

nr

nr

17.9%

nr

17.9%^**

82.1%^

Roberts-Thomson et al. 201414

-

-

Urban

251

15+

(51.2% aged 45+)



nr

nr

nr

11.9%

nr

11.9%^**

88.1%^

Smith et al. 200718

2004-5

Western Australia

Rural

960

18-85

5.3%

31.5%

37.7%

23.1%

60.8%

97.6%

2.4%




2004-5

Western Australia

Rural

176

18-24

13.1%

47.2%

31.8%

4.5%

36.3%

96.6%

3.4%




2004-5

Western Australia

Rural

473

25-44

2.5%

34.9%

43.6%

16.9%

60.5%

97.9%

2.1%




2004-5

Western Australia

Rural

254

45-64

2.0%

16.9%

37.4%

43.7%

81.2%

100.0%

0%




2004-5

Western Australia

Rural

57

65-85

1.8%

19.3%

24.6%

54.4%

79.0%

100.%

0%




2004-5

Western Australia

Rural (Carnarvon)

246

40.9 (16.2)

11.0%

31.8%

33.7%

19.7%

53.4%

96.2%

3.8%




2004-5

Western Australia

Rural (Geraldton)

250

39.1 (13.6)

3.4%

33.6%

44.2%

17.4%

61.6%

98.6%

1.5%




2004-5

Western Australia

Rural (Wiluna)

132

37.1 (13.7)

0.8%

41.4%

34.6%

21.8%

56.4%

98.6%

1.5%




2004-5

Western Australia

Rural (Kalgoorlie)

267

36.6 (13.3)

4.8%

28.9%

38.1%

25.3%

63.4%

97.1%

2.9%




2004-5

Western Australia

Rural (Roebourne)

65

45.4 (15.9)

1.5%

12.3%

32.3%

53.8%

86.1%

100%

0

Jamieson et al. 201024

2006-7

Northern Territory

Rural and urban

442

16-20

nr

nr

nr

nr

27.0%

27.0%**

73.1%

Kruger et al. 200816

2008

Western Australia

Rural

191

18-88

11.0%

46.1%

25.7%

13.6%

39.3%

96.4%

3.7%




2008

Western Australia

Rural

37

18-24

28.6%

51.4%

11.4%

0%

11.4%

91.4%

8.6%




2008

Western Australia

Rural

86

25-44

8.4%

54.2%

24.1%

10.8%

34.9%

97.5%

2.4%




2008

Western Australia

Rural

47

45-64

6.8%

40.9%

34.1%

15.9%

50.0%

97.7%

2.3%




2008

Western Australia

Rural

21

65-88

6.7%

10.0%

33.3%

53.3%

86.6%

≥100.0%#

6.7




2008

Western Australia

Rural (Bidyadanga)

58

41.0 (17.3)

5.2%

29.3%

43.1%

22.4%

65.5%

100%

0%




2008

Western Australia

Rural (Derby)

7

43.6 (16.8)

13.5%

52.7%

14.9%

13.5%

28.4%

94.6%

5.4%




2008

Western Australia

Rural (Jarlmadangah)

34

30.4 (13.8)

8.8%

58.8%

23.5%

2.9%

26.4%

94.0%

5.9%




2008

Western Australia

Rural (Pandanus Park)

25

34.6 (14.3)

20.0%

48.0%

20.0%

8.0%

28.0%

96.0%

4.0%

Kapellas et al. 201428

2010-12

Northern Territory

Rural and urban

312

22-73

nr

nr

nr

nr

87.5%

87.5%***

12.5%

^ Calculated from reported percentage free of periodontal disease or reported percentage with periodontal disease

**based on CPI 3 & 4

*** based on CPI 4

# total added up to more than 100%

nr: not reported


Table 4: Associations between risk factors and oral disease

Author, year

Risk factors

Associations#

Roberts-Thomson 201417

Smoking

Diabetes


Age (over 45 years)

Gender


Significant associations of risk factors with presence of severe periodontal disease, and extent of severe periodontal destruction. Being male was significantly associated with severe periodontal destruction.

Smith et al. 200718

Smoking

Dental hygiene



No association of risk factors with the presence of oral disease (periodontal disease or caries).

Endean et al. 200426

Diabetes

Significant associations between diabetes and higher levels of periodontal disease and missing teeth

Jamieson et al. 201030

Substance use

Dental service utilisation

Dental behaviours

Gender


Significant association between prevalence of moderate-severe periodontal disease and the following risk factors: male; tobacco use; marijuana use; petrol sniffing; and not owning a toothbrush.

Jamieson et al. 201023

Jamieson et al. 201333*



Soft drink/fruit juice/ cordial/ milk/ tea/ fruit /sweets/ sugar consumption

Socioeconomic factors



Higher mean DMFT associated with being female, drinking soft drink every day; having sugar in tea; consuming sweets every day; poor/moderate diet (compared to good diet); living more than 100 km from dental service or nearest hospital; inadequate community infrastructure (non-operational public toilets/flooding/non-working public toilets).

Kapellas et al. 201428 (ADJ)

Smoking

Diabetes
Age

Socioeconomic factors


Significant associations between severe periodontal disease and older age, male, and having diabetes.

Kruger et al. 200816

Diabetes

Significant association between diabetes and advanced (CPI 3 & 4) periodontal disease.

# Significance indicated by p value <0.05

*Another publication by Jamieson et al. examined the risk factors: socioeconomic factors, diet and dental behaviours but did not measure association with risk factors with clinical outcomes; examined association of risk factors with self-reported oral health (e.g. pain, appearance etc).

18 articles were included in the review

(10 primary and 8 associated studies)

Articles were excluded for the following reasons:


  • oral health data not captured in clinical examination

  • reported prevalence of oral disease in dental admission patients without reporting a wider population, or data within a clinical registry

  • review papers with no primary data

89 full text reviewed for eligibility

157 abstracts screened for eligibility

4,653 titles screened, and duplicates removed

4,653 records identified through search (includes duplicates)



Figure 1: Overview of search results



Figure 2: Estimated Indigenous population and number of primary studies reporting oral health of Indigenous adults in each jurisdiction (n=9)*.

*one primary study did not report the location of the study and could not be mapped.References

1. National Advisory Committee on Oral Health. Healthy Mouths Healthy Lives: Australia's National Oral Health Plan 2004-2013. South Australia South Australian Department of Health 2004.

2. Vanobbergen J, De Visschere L, Daems M, Ceuppens A, Van Emelen J. Sociodemographic Determinants for Oral Health Risk Profiles. International Journal of Dentistry. 2010;2010.

3. Watt RG, Sheiham A. Integrating the common risk factor approach into a social determinants framework. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology. 2012;40(4):289-96.

4. Gomes MS, Chagas P, Padilha DMP, Caramori P, Hugo FN, Schwanke CHA, et al. Association between self-reported oral health, tooth loss and atherosclerotic burden. Brazilian Oral Research. 2012;26(5):436-42.

5. Otomo-Corgel J, Pucher JJ, Rethman MP, Reynolds MA. State of the science: chronic periodontitis and systemic health. The journal of evidence-based dental practice. 2012;12(3 Suppl):20-8.

6. Pinho MM, Faria-Almeida R, Azevedo E, Conceição Manso M, Martins L. Periodontitis and atherosclerosis: an observational study. Journal of Periodontal Research. 2013;48(4):452-7.

7. Ramirez JH, Parra B, Gutierrez S, Arce RM, Jaramillo A, Ariza Y, et al. Biomarkers of cardiovascular disease are increased in untreated chronic periodontitis: a case control study. Australian Dental Journal. 2014(1):29.

8. Health UDo. An oral health strategy for England. London: 1994.

9. Australia's National Oral Health Plan 2015-2024, Healthy Mouths Healthy Lives. 2015.

10. Campbell TD GJ. Observations on the teeth of Australian Aborigines. Australian Dental Journal. 1936;40:290-5.

11. Harford J. SJ, Roberts-Thomson K. Oral health. In: Thomson N, editor. The health of Indigenous Australians. South Melbourne: Oxford University Press; 2003. p. 313-38.

12. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. The health and welfare of Australia's Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people 2015. Canberra: AIHW, 2015.

13. Slade GD SA, Roberts-Thomson KF, (Editors)., . Australia’s dental generations: the National Survey of Adult Oral Health2004–06. Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2007 Contract No.: AIHW cat. no. DEN 165. .

14. Roberts-Thomson KCARCfPOH. Oral health of Aboriginal Australians. Australian Dental Journal. 2004;49(3):151-3.

15. Amarasena N, Kapellas K, Skilton MR, Maple-Brown LJ, Brown A, O'Dea K, et al. Associations with dental caries experience among a convenience sample of Aboriginal Australian adults. Australian Dental Journal. 2014;75(2):126-33.

16. Kruger E, Smith K, Atkinson D, Tennant M. The oral health status and treatment needs of Indigenous adults in the Kimberley region of Western Australia. The Australian Journal Of Rural Health. 2008;16(5):283-9.

17. Roberts-Thomson KF, Do LG, Bartold PM, Daniels J, Grosse A, Meihubers S. Prevalence, extent and severity of severe periodontal destruction in an urban Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population. Australian Dental Journal. 2014(1):43.

18. Smith K, Kruger E, Dyson K, Tennant M. Oral health in rural and remote Western Australian indigenous communities: a two-year retrospective analysis of 999 people. International Dental Journal. 2007;57(2):93-9.

19. Slade GD SA, Roberts-Thomson KF. The National Survey of Adult Oral Health 2004-06. Canberra: Australian Institute of Health & Welfare, 2007 Contract No.: AIHW Cat. No. DEN 165.

20. Brennan DS, Roberts-Thomson KF, Spencer AJ. Oral health of Indigenous adult public dental patients in Australia. Australian Dental Journal. 2007; 52(4):328.

21. Kapellas K, Do LG, Mark Bartold P, Skilton MR, Maple-Brown LJ, O'Dea K, et al. Effects of full-mouth scaling on the periodontal health of Indigenous Australians: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Clinical Periodontology. 2013;40(11):1016-24.

22. Williams S, Jamieson LM, MacRae A, Gray C. Review of Indigenous Oral Health Australian Indigenous Health Info Net 2011 [updated 04/12/2014; cited 2015 10/06/2015]. Available from: http://www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au/other-health-conditions/oral/reviews/our-review

23. Jamieson LM, Roberts-Thomson KF, Sayers SM. Dental caries risk indicators among Australian Aboriginal young adults. Community Dentistry & Oral Epidemiology. 2010;38(3):213-21.

24. Jamieson LM, Sayers SM, Roberts-Thomson KF. Clinical oral health outcomes in young Australian Aboriginal adults compared with national-level counterparts. Medical Journal of Australia. 2010;192(10):561.

25. Australian Bureau of Statistics. Estimates of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians, June 2011 2011 [cited 2015 12/06/2015]. Available from: http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/mf/3238.0.55.001.

26. Endean C, Roberts-Thomson K, Wooley S. Anangu oral health: the status of the indigenous population of the Anangu Pitjantjatjara lands. Australian Journal of Rural Health. 2004;12(3):99-103.

27. Jamieson LM, Armfield JM, Roberts-Thomson KF, Sayers SM. A retrospective longitudinal study of caries development in an Australian aboriginal birth cohort. Caries Research. 2010;44(4):415-20.

28. Kapellas K, Skilton M, Maple-Brown L, Do L, Bartold P, O'Dea K, et al. Periodontal disease and dental caries among Indigenous Australians living in the Northern Territory, Australia. Australian Dental Journal. 2014;59(1):93-9.

29. Schamschula RG, Cooper MH, Wright MC, Agus HM, Un PS. Oral health of adolescent and adult Australian aborigines. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 1980;8(7):370-4.

30. Jamieson LM, Gunthorpe W, Cairney SJ, Sayers SM, Roberts-Thomson KF, Slade GD. Substance use and periodontal disease among Australian Aboriginal young adults. Addiction. 2010;105(4):719-26.

31. Jamieson LM, Roberts-Thomson KF, Sayers SM. Risk indicators for severe impaired oral health among indigenous Australian young adults. BMC Oral Health. 2010;10.

32. Jamieson LM, Sayers SM, Roberts-Thomson KF. Associations between oral health and height in an Indigenous Australian birth cohort. Community dental health. 2013;30(1):58-64.

33. Jamieson LMD, L.G.; Bailie, R.S.; Sayers, S.M.; Turrell G. Associations between area-level disadvantage and DMFT among a birth cohort of Indigenous Australians. Australian Dental Journal. 2013;58:75-81.

34. Kapellas K, Jamieson LM, Do LG, Bartold PM, Wang H, Maple-Brown LJ, et al. Associations between periodontal disease and cardiovascular surrogate measures among Indigenous Australians. International Journal of Cardiology. 2014;173(2):196.

35. Kapellas K, Maple-Brown LJ, Jamieson LM, Do LG, O'Dea K, Brown A, et al. Effect of Periodontal Therapy on Arterial Structure and Function Among Aboriginal Australians. Hypertension 2014;64(4):702-8.

36. Schamschula RG, Cooper MH, Adkins BL, Barmes DE, Agus HM. Oral conditions in Australian children of Aboriginal and Caucasian descent. Community Dentistry & Oral Epidemiology. 1980;8(7):365.

37. de Silva AM, Martin-Kerry JM, Geale A, Cole D. Flying blind: trying to find solutions to Indigenous oral health. Australian Health Review. 2015.

38. Australian Indigenous Health Info Net. Overview of Australian Indigenous Health Status 2014. Australian Indigenous Health Info Net, 2015 2015. Report No.

39. Do LG, Roberts-Thomson KF. Dental caries experience in the Australian adult population. Australian Dental Journal. 2007;52(3):249-51.

40. Australian Research Centre for Population Oral Health TUoASA. Periodontal diseases in the Australian adult population. Aust Dent J. 2009;54(4):390-3.

41. Casanova L, Hughes FJ, Preshaw PM. Diabetes and periodontal disease: a two-way relationship. British Dental Journal. 2014;217(8):433-7.

42. Taylor JJ, Preshaw PM, Lalla E. A review of the evidence for pathogenic mechanisms that may link periodontitis and diabetes. Journal of periodontology. 2013;84(4 Suppl):S113-34.



43. Simpson TC, Weldon JC, Worthington HV, Needleman I, Wild SH, Moles DR, et al. Treatment of periodontal disease for glycaemic control in people with diabetes mellitus. The Cochrane database of systematic reviews. 2015;11:CD004714.

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