2. Describe the following structures of the nose: root, bridge, tip.
3. Describe the following structures of the nasal cavity: external nares, nasal concha,
nasal septum, internal nares. What is the function of the nasal concha?
4. What are the 3 segments of the pharynx and where is each located? Which one is a passageway for air only? Which ones serve as a passageway for both food and air?
5. List the laryngeal cartilages. What is the function of the epiglottis? What is significant
about the thyroid cartilage and cricoid cartilage? Which ones are found in pairs?
6. What type of tissue lines the trachea? What type of tissue makes up the tracheal rings
and the majority of the larynx? What type of tissue makes up the epiglottis?
7. What is the function of the soft palate & uvula during swallowing?
8. List the parts of the respiratory tree in order from largest to smallest. How many
secondary bronchi are there on each side?
9. What is the diameter of a standard bronchiole? What is the diameter of a terminal bronchiole?
10. Where are the vocal folds (cords) located?
11. What is surfactant? Where is it located? What is its function?
12. Which muscles contract during inspiration? What does their contraction do to
intrapulmonary volume? What does it do to intrapulmonary pressure? At what point
during this change will air enter the lungs?
13. What causes normal, resting expiration? What muscles are involved with forceful
expiration? During both instances what changes are seen in intrapulmonary volume
14. What gas law tells us that as volume increases, pressure decreases? What gas law tells
us that each gas in a mixture exerts its own, independent pressure?
15. Define partial pressure.
16. List the 4 areas of the respiratory center. Where is each one located? What is the
function of each one?
17. In what 2 forms is oxygen transported in the blood? What percentage of O2 is
transported in each form? In what 3 forms is carbon dioxide transported in the blood?
What percentage of CO2 is transported in each form?
18. Write out the formula on the conversion of carbon dioxide to bicarbonate.
19. What is the purpose of the chloride shift?
20. What is the normal resting breathing pattern? What is the normal respiration rate?
21. Describe respiratory bronchioles, the alveolar duct and alveolar sac.
22. What is the function of alveoli? How many are typically found in each lung?
23. Match the breathing patterns with their correct description.
1) Eupnea a. higher than normal breathing rate
2) Apnea b. difficult, labored, or painful breathing
3) Dsypnea c. normal breathing
4) Hyperventilation d. transient cessation of breathing
5) Hypoventilation e. lower than normal breathing rate
24. Match the lung volumes/capacities with their correct description.