_________________________(Structurally/Functionally), the respiratory system can be divided into the conducting zone and the respiratory zone. The _______________________(respiratory/conducting) zone conditions, cleans, and conducts the air; the __________________________________ (respiratory/conducting) zone conditions, cleans, and conducts the air and is the site of gasexchange.
_________________________(Structurally/Functionally), the respiratory system can be divided into the upper & lower respiratory tracts.
List the organs that belong to the upper respiratory tract:
List three functions common to organs in the upper respiratory tract:
To which zone do upper respiratory structures belong, the conducting zone or the respiratory zone?
List the organs that belong to the lower respiratory tract, their functions, and to which zone they belong:
The trachea extends from the _______________________ to the _______________________________ ____________________________.
What structures reinforce the trachea, but allow for the posteriorly located esophagus to pass food down to the stomach?
List the fours layers of the tracheal wall from the inner lumen to the outer surface:
The trachea branches inferiorly into two ______________________ (primary/secondary/tertiary) bronchi, which condition air and conduct air to the lungs. The (primary/secondary/tertiary) bronchi condition air & conduct to the lung lobes. The ______________________ (primary/secondary/tertiary) bronchi condition air & conduct to different segments of the lungs.
VII. Histological Differences in Lower Respiratory Tract
As the conducting zone of the lower respiratory tract branches into smaller passageways, the following changes in histology occur.
Hyaline Cartilage connective tissue
Cartilage reinforces respiratory passageways preventing collapse during __________________________ (inhalation/exhalation). A complete ring of cartilage (cricoid cartilage) is found in the _________________ (larynx/trachea/bronchial tree). Incomplete rings of cartilage are found in the ______________________ (larynx/trachea/bronchial tree). The rings are replaced by irregular plates of cartilage in the ____________________ (larynx/trachea/bronchial tree), which become smaller and scattered as the bronchi reach their smallest size. Cartilage disappears completely in terminal and respiratory ____________________________.
Most inhaled particulates that aren’t filtered out by nose hairs become trapped in ___________________ secreted onto the free surface of the epithelium lining respiratory passageways. Cilia move the mucous up to the ___________________. There is no ciliated epithelium in the terminal bronchioles, so removal of inhaled particulates like dust can’t be managed with mucous & ciliary action. Instead, phagocytic cells called ______________________________ engulf and remove small articulates like dust from alveoli.
As cartilage becomes less prominant along the respiratory tract and eventually disappears, _________________ (smooth/skeletal/cardiac) muscle fibers generally become more numerous and able to change the diameter of the bronchioles.
Match the description or characteristics in the right column to the correct respiratory structure/location in the left column. Each respiratory structure/location may have more than one correct answer.
The respiratory zone is the site of ____________ exchange, and includes any structure in which _____________________ are found. The epithelial tissue here is as _______________________(thin/thick) as possible to maximize gas exchange by ___________________________. The respiratory membrane is the structure across which respiratory gasses must diffuse and consists of the wall of the ________________________ plus the wall of the pulmonary _________________________ with a thin layer of connective tissue between.
Ventilation is the mechanics of moving ___________ (air/blood) in and out of the _______________(lungs/heart). Ventilation depends on differences in ___________________________. According to ___________________’s Law, gas moves from an area of _______________ (low/high) pressure to an area of ______________________(low/high) pressure.
During quiet ____________________(inspiration/expiration) the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles contract, pressure _______________ (decreases/increases) as the size of the thoracic cavity ________________________ (increase/decreases), and air flows ________(in/out).
During quiet ____________________(inspiration/expiration) the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles relax, pressure __________________ (decreases/increases) as the size of the thoracic cavity ________________________ (increase/decreases), and air flows ________(in/out).
Match the definition to the correct volume or capacity.
____residual volume (RV)
____tidal volume (TV)
____inspiratory reserve volume(IRV)
____vital capacity (VC)
____expiratory reserve volume (ERV)
amount of air forcible exhaled after tidal volume
amount that always remains in lungs
amount moved in a single, relaxed breath
amount forcibly taken in after tidal volume
maximum amount of air that can be moved into or out of the lungs (TV + IRV + ERV)
Respiration refers to _____________ exchange. ________________________ (External/Internal) respiration occurs between alveoli and __________________ (pulmonary/systemic) capillaries, and involves the diffusion of O2 _________ (into/out of) the blood and CO2 ___________ (into/out of) the blood.
________________________ (External/Internal) respiration occurs between the interstitial fluid in interstitial spaces and __________________ (pulmonary/systemic) capillaries, and involves the diffusion of O2 _________ (into/out of) the blood and CO2 ___________ (into/out of) the blood.
Most CO2 is transported as ___________________ ions after reacting with water to form _______________________ acid. Some CO2 is carried by RBCs bound to hemoglobin. A smaller amount of CO2 dissolves in ____________.
XIII. Control of Ventilation
The basic rate & rhythm of breathing is set by the _______________________________ (medulla oblongata/pons). The basic pattern is then smoothed out by the _______________________________ (medulla oblongata/pons). _______________________(Central/Peripheral) chemoreceptors located in the medulla oblongata detect changes in the concentration of _____________(O2/CO2) and ___________________________ ions in the CSF. Other chemoreceptors called _______________________ (central/peripheral) chemoreceptors located in the aorta and carotid arteries detect changes in the concentration of _____________(O2/CO2) in the blood.