Report itu-r bt. 2160-2 (10/2011)

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Annex 9

A preliminary set of possible performance requirements

for a 3DTV broadcasting service

This Annex is a collation of candidate performance requirements for a 3DTV broadcasting service that have been identified in contributions submitted to WP 6C since October 2008. As far as possible, each is presented in the form in which it appeared in the original contribution, and the source contribution is indicated. They are listed in order of the contributions in which they are mentioned.

It should not be assumed that this list is comprehensive, or that each would necessarily be applicable to all possible types of 3DTV services.

a) The goal of the 3DTV viewing experience should be to create the illusion of a real environment, which can be watched for an indefinite period of time by an audience with normal visual acuity (Document 6C/128).

b) The quality of the 3DTV service should be established by two principal parameters: sensation of reality and comfortableness or ease of viewing (Document 6C/128).

c) In the case of a 3DTV emission system that is intended to allow for the compatible reception of conventional SDTV, EDTV or HDTV digital signals, no perceptible degradation of the conventional television presentation should be caused by the additional signal coding required to convey the extra information needed for 3DTV (Document 6C/128).

d) The viewing experience provided by a new 3DTV service should represent a major improvement as compared to the experience provided by HDTV broadcasting at its best quality level (Document 6C/155).

e) A new 3DTV service should be implemented in a way to match the viewing habits that will likely be typical of television audiences at the time when the service will be introduced (Document 6C/155).

f) A single set of image and sound specifications should be recommended for the new 3DTV service, unless it is essential to choose more than one set of specifications in order to reflect unavoidable regional constraints (Document 6C/298).

g) It would be desirable, albeit not imperative, to preserve a certain degree of backward compatibility of the new 3DTV service with existing consumer receivers (Document 6C/298).

h) The image and sound system parameters of each new television broadcasting application should be optimized on the basis of the performance requirements specific to the 3DTV service, even if this requires departing from technical solutions adopted for other applications (Document 6C/298).

j) Specifications should be recommended for a new 3DTV broadcasting service after it has been demonstrated through life-size simulations and tests that it offers new attractive features, and that broadcasting audiences that have been exposed to it, have appreciated its features and have expressed their interest to gain access to it, purchasing the necessary consumer equipment (Document 6C/298).

k) The issue of visual fatigue and other possible health hazards related to extended viewing of 3DTV programmes based on presentation methods currently available or proposed, should be resolved prior to developing Recommendations on technical specifications for a future 3DTV broadcasting service (Document 6C/299).


1Digital (3DTV) broadcasting is a television system that is designed to convey by broadcast transmission a more natural impression of depth to the scene that is being portrayed, by rendering spatially different views to each eye. In its simplest form, the viewer is presented with a fixed or “static” stereoscopic view of the scene, while a more complex form of 3DTV enables the viewer to change the perspective of what is seen in discrete steps, by means of head movement. In its ultimate form, “holographic” three dimensional presentation would enable the viewer to change perspective through head movement in a continuous way that is comparable to natural sight in real life.

2A Blu-ray 3D specification has been introduced that encodes 3D video using the ‘Stereo High’ profile defined by Multiview Video Coding (MVC), an extension to the ITU-T H.264 Advanced Video Coding (AVC). This is able to provide full 1080p resolution per eye, and can offer backward compatibility with existing 2D Blu-ray Disc players.

3See for instance: K. Ukai & P.A. Howarth “Visual fatigue caused by viewing stereoscopic motion images: background, theories and observations” – Elsevier B:V., 2007, which states, inter alia, “Viewers should be careful to avoid viewing stereoscopic images for extended durations because visual fatigue might be accumulated. They should be ready to stop immediately if fusion difficulties are experienced.

Hardware/software manufacturer should avoid unnatural image presentations, such as images that diverge further than infinity, large binocular disparity in the central visual field or around the objects that are the centre of the viewer’s attention, difference of size and colour, unequal distortion between binocular images since they may cause fusion difficulty”.

4Masaki Emoto, Takahiro Niida, and Fumio Okano - “Repeated Vergence Adaptation Causes the Decline of Visual Functions in Watching Stereoscopic Television”, Journal of Display Technology, Vol. 1, No. 2, December 2005.

5 YAMANOUE, H., OKUI, M. and OKANO, F., “Geometrical Analysis of Puppet Theater and Cardboard Effects in Stereoscopic HDTV Images”, IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, Vol. 16, No. 6, p. 744-752, 2006.

6 SPOTTISWOODE, R., SPOTTISWOODE, N. L. and SMITH, C., “Basic principles of the three‑dimensional film”, SMPTE J., Vol. 59, p. 249-286, 1952.

7 MACADAM, D. L., “Stereoscopic perceptions of size shape distance and directions”, SMPTE J., Vol. 62, p. 271-289, 1954.

8 YAMANOUE, H., “The Relation between Size Distortion and Shooting Conditions for Stereoscopic Images”, SMPTE Journal, Vol. 106, No. 4, p. 225-232, 1997.

9 HERMAN, S., “Principles of binocular 3D displays with application to television”, SMPTE J., Vol. 80, p. 539-544, 1971.

10 YAMANOUE, H., OKUI, M. and YUYAMA, I., “A study on the relationship between shooting conditions and cardboard effect of stereoscopic images”, IEEE Trans. Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, Vol. 10, No. 3, p. 411-416, 2000.

11 NOJIRI, Y., YAMANOUE, H., HANAZATO, A. and OKANO, F., “Measurement of parallax distribution, and its application to the analysis of visual comfort for stereoscopic HDTV”, Proc. SPIE, Vol. 5006, p. 195-205, 2003.

12 M. Emoto, Y. Nojiri, and F. Okano, “Changes in fusional vergence limit and its hysteresis after viewing stereoscopic TV, ” Displays 25, pp. 67-76, 2004.

13 M. Emoto, T. Niida, and F Okano, “Repeated Vergence Adaptation Causes the Decline of Visual Functions in Watching Stereoscopic Television,” Journal of Display Technology, Vol. 1, No. 2, pp. 328‑340, December 2005.

14 S. Yano, S. Ide, T. Mitsuhashi, and H. Thwaites, “A study of visual fatigue and visual comfort for 3D HDTV/HDTV images,” Displays, Vol. 23, pp. 191-201 (2002).

15 S. Yano, M. Eomoto, and T. Mitsuhashi, “Two factors in visual fatigue caused by stereoscopic HDTV images,” DISPLAYS Vol. 25, pp. 141-150 (2004).

16 DPA (The Association for the Promotion of Digital Broadcasting) is an organization of Japanese broadcasters and manufacturers associated with digital TV.
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