Report from the Investigation Commission appointed by Rikshospitalet – Radiumhospitalet mc and the University of Oslo January 18, 2006



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Annex 2: Evolvement of the authorship criteria





1997

International Committee of

Medical Journal Editors.

Uniform requirements for

manuscripts submitted to

biomedical journals. N Engl J

Med. 1997 Jan

23;336(4):309-15.







Authorship
All persons designated as authors should qualify for authorship. Each author should

have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for the

content.

Authorship credit should be based only on substantial contributions to

(a) conception and design, or analysis and interpretation of data; and to

(b) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content; and on

(c) final approval of the version to be published. Conditions (a), (b), and (c) must all

be met.

Participation solely in the acquisition of funding or the collection of data does not

justify authorship. General supervision of the research group is not sufficient for

authorship. Any part of an article critical to its main conclusions must be the



responsibility of at least one author. Editors may ask authors to describe what

each contributed; this information may be published.

Increasingly, multicenter trials are attributed to a corporate author. All members of the

group who are named as authors, either in the authorship position below the title or in

a footnote, should fully meet the above criteria for authorship. Group members who do

not meet these criteria should be listed, with their permission, in the

Acknowledgments or in an appendix (see Acknowledgments). The order of authorship

should be a joint decision of the coauthors. Because the order is assigned in different

ways, its meaning cannot be inferred accurately unless it is stated by the authors.

Authors may wish to explain the order of authorship in a footnote. In deciding on

the order, authors should be aware that many journals limit the number of authors

listed in the table of contents and that the National Library of Medicine lists in

MEDLINE only the first 24 plus the last author when there are more than 25 authors.




2003

Davidoff F, Godlee F, Hoey

Glass R, Overbeke J, Utiger

R, Nicholls MG, Horton R,

Nylenna M, Hojgaard L,

Kotzin S; International

Committee of Medical Journal

Editors.


Uniform requirements for

manuscripts submitted to

biomedical journals. J Am

Osteopath Assoc. 2003

Mar;103(3):137-49.





Authorship

All persons designated as authors should qualify for authorship, and all those who

qualify should be listed. Each author should have participated sufficiently in the

work to take public responsibility for appropriate portions of the content. One

or more authors should take responsibility for the integrity of the work as a

whole, from inception to published article. Authorship credit should be based only

on

(1) substantial contributions to conception and design, or acquisition of data, or



analysis and interpretation of data;

(2) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content; and

(3) final approval of the version to be published.

Conditions 1, 2, and 3 must all be met. Acquisition of funding, the collection of data,

or general supervision of the research group, by themselves, do not justify authorship.

Authors should provide a description of what each contributed, and editors should

publish that information. All others who contributed to the work who are not authors

should be named in the Acknowledgments, and what they did should be described










(see Acknowledgments, page 140). Increasingly, authorship of multicenter trials is

attributed to a group. All members of the group who are named as authors should fully

meet the above criteria for authorship. Group members who do not meet these criteria

should be listed, with their permission, in the Acknowledgments or in an appendix

(see Acknowledgments, page 140). The order of authorship on the byline should

be a joint decision of the coauthors. Authors should be prepared to explain the

order in which authors are listed.




2006

Uniform Requirements

Manuscripts Submitted

Biomedical Journals: Writing

and Editing for Biomedical

Publication.


Updated February 2006
www.icmje.org





II.A Authorship and Contributorship

II.A.1. Byline Authors

An “author” is generally considered to be someone who has made substantive

intellectual contributions to a published study, and biomedical authorship

continues to have important academic, social, and financial implications. (1) In

the past, readers were rarely provided with information about contributions to studies

from those listed as authors and in acknowledgments. (2) Some journals now request

and publish information about the contributions of each person named as having

participated in a submitted study, at least for original research. Editors are strongly

encouraged to develop and implement a contributorship policy, as well as a policy on

identifying who is responsible for the integrity of the work as a whole. While

contributorship and guarantorship policies obviously remove much of the ambiguity

surrounding contributions, it leaves unresolved the question of the quantity and quality

of contribution that qualify for authorship. The International Committee of Medical

Journal Editors has recommended the following criteria for authorship; these criteria

are still appropriate for those journals that distinguish authors from other contributors.

Authorship credit should be based on

1) substantial contributions to conception and design, or acquisition of data, or

analysis and interpretation of data;



2) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content; and

3) final approval of the version to be published.

Authors should meet conditions 1, 2, and 3.

When a large, multi-center group has conducted the work, the group should identify

the individuals who accept direct responsibility for the manuscript (3). These

individuals should fully meet the criteria for authorship defined above and editors will

ask these individuals to complete journal-specific author and conflict of interest

disclosure forms. When submitting a group author manuscript, the corresponding

author should clearly indicate the preferred citation and should clearly identify all

individual authors as well as the group name. Journals will generally list other

members of the group in the acknowledgements. The National Library of Medicine

indexes the group name and the names of individuals the group has identified as

being directly responsible for the manuscript.

• Acquisition of funding, collection of data, or general supervision of the research

group, alone, does not justify authorship.

• All persons designated as authors should qualify for authorship, and all those who

qualify should be listed.

Each author should have participated sufficiently in the work to take public



responsibility for appropriate portions of the content. Some journals now also

request that one or more authors, referred to as “guarantors,” be identified as

the persons who take responsibility for the integrity of the work as a whole,

from inception to published article, and publish that information. Increasingly,

authorship of multi-center trials is attributed to a group. All members of the group who

are named as authors should fully meet the above criteria for authorship. The order of

authorship on the byline should be a joint decision of the coauthors. Authors should



be prepared to explain the order in which authors are listed.



1997

International

Committee of Medical

Journal Editors.

Uniform requirements

for manuscripts

submitted to

biomedical journals.

N Engl J Med. 1997

Jan 23;336(4):309-

15.

.





Acknowledgments

At an appropriate place in the article (the title-page footnote or an appendix to the text; see

the journal’s requirements) one or more statements should specify (a) contributions that

need acknowledging but do not justify authorship, such as general support by a

departmental chair; (b) acknowledgments of technical help; (c) acknowledgments of

financial and material support, which should specify the nature of the support; and (d)

relationships that may pose a conflict of interest. Persons who have contributed

intellectually to the paper but whose contributions do not justify authorship may be named

and their function or contribution described — for example, “scientific advisor,” “critical

review of study proposal,” “data collection,” or “participation in clinical trial.” Such persons

must have given their permission to be named. Authors are responsible for obtaining

written permission from persons acknowledged by name, because readers may infer

their endorsement of the data and conclusions. Technical help should be

acknowledged in a paragraph separate from those acknowledging other contributions



2003

Davidoff F, Godlee F,

Hoey J, Glass R,

Overbeke J, Utiger R,

Nicholls MG, Horton

R, Nylenna M,

Hojgaard L, Kotzin S;

International

Committee of Medical

Journal Editors.

Uniform requirements

for manuscripts

submitted to

biomedical journals. J

Am Osteopath Assoc.

2003 Mar;103(3):137-

49.





Acknowledgments

List all contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship, such as a person who

provided purely technical help, writing assistance, or a department chair who provided only

general support. Financial and material support should also be acknowledged. Groups of

persons who have contributed materially to the paper but whose contributions do not justify

authorship may be listed under a heading such as "clinical investigators" or "participating

investigators," and their function or contribution should be described-for example, "served

as scientific advisors," "critically reviewed the study proposal," "collected data," or

"provided and cared for study patients." Because readers may infer their endorsement

of the data and conclusions, all persons must have given written permission to be

acknowledged.




2006

Uniform


Requirements for

Manuscripts

Submitted to

Biomedical Journals:

Writing and Editing

for Biomedical

Publication
Updated February

2006
www.icmje.org







II.A.2. Contributors Listed in Acknowledgments

All contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed in an

acknowledgments section. Examples of those who might be acknowledged include a

person who provided purely technical help, writing assistance, or a department chair who

provided only general support. Editors should ask authors to disclose whether they had

writing assistance and to identify the entity that paid for this assistance. Financial and

material support should also be acknowledged. Groups of persons who have contributed

materially to the paper but whose contributions do not justify authorship may be listed

under a heading such as “clinical investigators” or “participating investigators,” and their

function or contribution should be described—for example, “served as scientific advisors,”

“critically reviewed the study proposal,” “collected data,” or “provided and cared for study

patients.” Because readers may infer their endorsement of the data and conclusions,



all persons must give written permission to be acknowledged.



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