Reference Manual Acknowledgements VII Preface IX General orders 1

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State of Alaska

Model Standing Orders


Treatment Protocols


EMT-1, EMT-2, EMT-3 and MICP

Second Edition

November, 2003

Reference Manual

Acknowledgements vii

Preface ix

General ORDERS 1

Patient Assessment 3

I.Scene size-up/ assessment 3

II.Initial assessment 3

III.Focused history and physical exam - medical patients 5

IV.Focused history and physical exam - trauma patients 6

V.Detailed physical exam 7

VI.On-Going Assessment 8

VII.Special notes 9


Pediatric Patient Assessment 11

I.Introduction 11

II.Assessment 11

III.General Impression 12

IV.Communicate and Transport 12

Death in the Field (DNR/DOA) 13

I.General Points 13

II.Withholding Resuscitation: 13

III.Terminating resuscitation: 13

IV.Pronouncement of Death: 14

V.Documentation: 14

VI.NAEMSP Trauma Cardiac Arrest Guidelines 15

Delayed Transport 17

I.General Points 17

II.Assessment 17

Documentation 21

I.General Points 21

II.Use The Soap Format 21

III.Special Considerations 21

Reporting Requirements 23

I.AS 47.17.010-Reporting Child Abuse and Neglect 23

II.AS 47.24.010-Reports of Harm 23

III.AS 08.64.369-Health Care Professionals to Report Certain Injuries 23

Shock 25

I.General Points 25

II.Assessment 25

III.Management 27

IV.Transport 29


Abdominal Pain - Nontraumatic 32

I.General Points 32

II.Assessment 32

III.Management 32

IV.Special Considerations 33

Allergic Reaction/Anaphylaxis 35

I.General Points 35

II.Assessment 35

III.Management 35

Altered Mental Status 37

I.General Points 37

II.Assessment 37

III.Management 37

IV.Special Considerations 39

Asthma/COPD 41

I.General Points 41

II.Assessment 41

III.Management 41

IV.Special considerations 42

Behavioral Emergencies 45

I.General Points 45

II.Assessment 45

III.Management 45

Cardiac Arrest 47

I.General Points 47

II.Assessment 47

III.General Management 47

IV.Ventricular Fibrillation and Pulseless Ventricular Tachycardia-EMT-3 48

V.Pediatric Ventricular Fibrillation and Pulseless Ventricular Tachycardia-EMT-3 49

VI.Pulseless Electrical Activity (PEA)-EMT-3 49

VII.Asystole-EMT-3 50

VIII.Post-Arrest-EMT-3 50

IX.Ventricular Fibrillation and Pulseless Ventricular Tachycardia-MICP 51

X.Pediatric Ventricular Fibrillation and Pulseless Ventricular Tachycardia-MICP 51

XI.Pulseless Electrical Activity (PEA) -MICP 52

XII.Asystole-MICP 53

XIII.Post-Arrest-MICP 53

XIV.Transport-All Levels 54

Chest Pain 55

I.General Points 55

II.Assessment 55

III.Management 55

IV.Transport 56

Diabetes 59

I.General Points 59

II.Assessment 59

III.Management 59

IV.Transport 60

Dysrhythmias 61

I.General Points 61

II.Assessment 61 61

IV.Pediatric Bradycardia 61

V.Bradycardia-EMT-3 62

VI.Pediatric Bradycardia-EMT-3 62

VII.Pediatric Tachycardia-EMT-3 62

VIII.Premature Ventricular Complexes (PVC’s) -EMT-3 63

IX.Supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) -EMT-3 63

X.Wide complex tachycardia-uncertain type (WCT) -EMT-3 63

XI.Ventricular tachycardia with a pulse-EMT-3 63

XII.Bradycardia-MICP 64

XIII.Pediatric Bradycardia-MICP 64

XIV.Pediatric Tachycardia-MICP 64

XV.Premature Ventricular Complexes (PVC’s)-MICP 66

XVI.Supraventricular tachycardia (SVT)-MICP 66

XVII.Wide complex tachycardia-uncertain type (WCT)-MICP 67

XVIII.Ventricular tachycardia with a pulse-MICP 67

XIX.Transport 68

Gastrointestinal Bleeding 69

I.General Points 69

II.Assessment 69

III.Management 69

Hypertension 71

I.General Points 71

II.Assessment 71

III.Management 71

IV.Transport 72

Hyperventilation 73

I.General Points 73

II.Assessment 73

III.Management 73

Neonatal Resuscitation 75

I.General Points 75

II.Assessment 75

III.Management 75

Obstetric/Gynecologic 77

I.General Points 77

II.Assessment 77

III.Management 79

Obstructed Airway 81

I.General Points 81

II.Assessment 81

III.Management-Adequate air exchange 81

IV.Management-Poor air exchange 82

V.Cautions 83

Poisoning/Overdose 85

I.General Points 85

II.Assessment 85

III.Management 85

Pulmonary Edema 89

I.General Points 89

II.Assessment 89

III.Management 89

IV.Transport 90

Seizures 91

I.General Points 91

II.Assessment 91

III.Management 91

IV.Special Considerations 93

Stroke 95

I.General Points 95

II.Assessment 95

III.Management 95

IV.Transport 96

V.Special Considerations 96

Vaginal Bleeding 97

I.General Points 97

II.Assessment 97

III.Management 97

Trauma 99

Major Trauma 101

I.General Points 101

II.Assessment: 101

III.Management 102

IV.Transport 104

Abdominal Trauma 105

I.General Points 105

II.Assessment 105

III.Management 105

IV.Transport 106

V.Special Considerations 106

Chest Trauma 109

I.General Points 109

II.Assessment 109

III.Management 110

IV.Special Considerations 112

Dislocations-Delayed Transport 113

I.General points 113

II.General Treatment 113

III.Shoulder 114

IV.Patella 116

V.Digits 117

Extremity Trauma 119

I.General Points 119

II.Assessment 119

III.Management 119

IV.Transport 121

Head Trauma 123

I.General Points 123

II.Assessment 123

III.Management 124

IV.Transport 125

Soft Tissue Trauma 127

I.General Points 127

II.Assessment 127

III.Management 127

IV.Transport 130

V.Special Considerations 130


AVALANCHE Burial 135


II.Evaluation and treatment 135


I.General Points 137

II.Evaluation and Treatment 137


I.General Points 139

II.Assessment 139

III.General Treatment 139

IV.Management-Acutely Sick Dive Emergency Patients 139

V.Management-Stable Dive Emergency Patients 140

VI.Special Considerations: 140


I.General Points 141

II.Assessment 141

III.Management 142

IV.Special Considerations 142


I.General Points 145

II.Assessment 145

III.Management 146

IV.Special Considerations 148


I.General Points 149

II.Assessment 150


ProcedureS 155

Basic Airway Management 156

I.Introduction 156

II.Objectives 156

III.Recognition 156

IV.Manual Maneuvers: 157

V.Basic Mechanical Adjuncts: 159

VI.Ventilation: 162

VII.Suctioning: 165

VIII.Table of Treatment Adjuncts: 167

Advanced Airway management 168

I.General Points 168

II.Dual lumen airway device 168

III.Laryngeal Mask Airway (LMA) 169

IV.Endotracheal Intubation: 170

V.Rapid sequence Intubation (RSI) (MICP Level Only) 177

VI.Retrograde intubation 179


VIII.Table of Treatment adjuncts: 181

IX.medications that can be administered By trachea: 181

Failed Airway Algorithm 182

Automated External Defibrillation (AED) 183

I.General points: 183

II.Objectives: 183

III.Recognition: 183

IV.Procedure: 183

Assisting With Medications 187

I.General Points 187

Chest Decompression 189

I.General Points 189

II.Recognition 189

III.Procedure 190

IV.Cautions 191

Gastric Intubation 193

I.General Points 193

II.Contraindications 193

III.Equipment 193

IV.Procedure 193

V.Complications 194

Foley Catheter Insertion 195

I.General Points 195

II.Indications 195

III.Equipment 195

IV.Procedure: 195

V.Complications: 197

Intraosseous Access 198

I.General Points 198

II.Indications 198

III.Sites 198

IV.Procedure 198

V.Complications 199

Intravenous Access 201

I.General Points 201

II.Equipment 201

III.Procedure 201

IV.complications 202

injected Medication Administration 203

I.General Points 203

II.Prepare dose 203

III.Subcutaneous Administration (SQ) 204

IV.Intramuscular Administration (IM) 204

V.IV Bolus Administration 204

VI.IV Infusion Administration 204

Pneumatic Anti Shock Garment (P.A.S.G) Guidelines 207

I.Indications 207

II.Contraindications 207

III.Procedure 207

IV.Special Points 207

Pulse Oximetry 209

I.General points 209






Restraint 211

I.general orders 211



IV.assessment 212

V.Risk Management 212

VI.cautions 213

spinal immobilization 215

I.General Points: 215

II.The Spinal Assessment tool: 215

III.Assessment: 216

IV.Documentation: 217

V.Cautions: 218

Reference 219

Celsius to Farenheit conversions 221

Glasgow coma Scale 222

Pediatric Vital signs 223

Telephone numbers 224

rule of nines 225

Abbreviation list 227

This document was prepared by Robert Janik, MICP, as an employee of Southeast Region EMS Council, Inc. SEREMS was awarded grants to create and revise model prehospital emergency medical standing orders from the State of Alaska, Department of Public Health, Division of Community Health and EMS, through the Rural Hospital Flexibility Program Grant.
The following persons served as reviewers of this document. The work involved in reviewing this document is an example of their dedication to EMS in Alaska. Their comments shaped the final version.
Second Edition reviewers:

  • Matt Anderson, EMS Unit Manager, State of Alaska

  • Ken Brown, MD, Bartlett Regional Hospital

  • Gil Dickie, MD, SREMS

  • Don Hudson, DO, Alaska Regional Hospital

  • David Hull, MICP/EMT-3, Ketchikan Fire Department

  • William Kriegsman, MD

  • David McCandless, MD, Medical Director SEREMS

  • Kathy McLeron, PA-C/MICP, CHEMS

  • Bill O'Brien, EMT-3, Yukon Kuskokwim Region

  • Karen O’Neil, Norton Sound Health Corporation

  • Dave Potashnick, MICP/PA-C, North Slope Borough Fire Department

  • Danny Robinette, MD, IREMS

  • David Rockney, MICP, IREMS

  • Charles Trull, NREMT-P, Northwest Arctic Borough Region

  • Ken Zafren, MD, Alaska Native Medical Center, Stanford University, State EMS Medical Director

First Edition reviewers:

  • Matt Anderson, EMS Unit Manager, State of Alaska

  • Ken Brown, MD, Bartlett Regional Hospital

  • Jerry Dzugan, EMT-1, AMSEA

  • Don Hudson, DO, Alaska Regional Hospital

  • David Hull, MICP/EMT-3, Ketchikan Fire Department

  • Bobbi Leichty, MICP, Southeast Region EMS Council Inc.

  • Mike Motti, EMT-3, SEARHC EMS

  • Bill O'Brien, EMT-3, Yukon Kuskokwim Region

  • David Rockney, MICP, IREMS

  • Jon Thomas, EMT-3, Alaska Fire Service

  • Charles Trull, NREMT-P, Northwest Arctic Borough Region

  • Ken Zafren, MD, Alaska Native Medical Center, Providence Alaska Medical Center

  • The late Scott Dull, MD, State EMS Medical Director

As is the case with most protocols, this set of model standing orders was developed through consultation of many resources. The State of Alaska treatment guidelines for Burns, Cold Water Near Drowning, Delayed Transport, Diving Emergencies, Hypothermia, Frostbite, and Trauma were incorporated with little change. Other significant resources were:

  • Alaska Medevac Manual

  • Alaska EMS Skill Sheets

  • American College of Surgeons ATLS Course Manual

  • American Heart Association – ECC Guidelines 2000

  • Anchorage Fire Department Medical Operations Manual

  • Capital City Fire/Rescue EMS Treatment Guidelines

  • City of Cleveland Out-of-Hospital Patient Care Protocols

  • Interior Region EMS Council Regional Standing Orders

  • Ketchikan Fire Department Standing Orders

  • NAEMSP Guidelines for Withholding or Termination of Resuscitation in Prehospital Traumatic Cardiac Arrest

  • RSI protocol - Rick Janik, BSN

  • Southeast Region EMS Council BLS Treatment Guidelines

  • Southern Region EMS Council Regional Standing Orders

  • U.S. Department of Transportation National Standard Curricula for EMS

  • Wilderness Medical Associate's Wilderness EMT Curriculum

  • State of Alaska EMS Office-Responding to Behavioral Emergencies Guidelines

  • Ken Zafren Draft Avalanche Rescue Guidelines


To the Administrator:

These protocols were designed to serve as a model for those services wanting to adopt written protocols or those that need revised protocols. They are model guidelines and are not intended to be interpreted as strict orders. Services may modify this document to meet local needs. Treatments and procedures listed herein follow the State of Alaska curricula with few exceptions. The BLS portion of this protocol may be incorporated into your service immediately. The advanced life support orders in this document must be reviewed and approved by a physician medical director before EMTs and MICPs may perform advanced life support.

To the Physician Medical Director:

These protocols were developed to assist EMS agencies in establishing written standing orders. They are designed as a model set of medical standing orders. This document was peer reviewed by emergency physicians, mobile intensive care paramedics, and EMTs. The Medical Director approving this set of protocols should be familiar with their content and with the skill level of the providers expected to use them.

The orders are meant to be followed as guidelines for patient care. The Medical Director must decide which orders within will be standing orders and which will require on-line direction. As a general style within the text, the items prefaced by "consider" or "anticipate" should be interpreted as requiring on-line medical direction.

Medical Directors are encouraged to modify this document to meet local needs. Any deviations from the EMT scope of practice must be arranged through the provisions of 7 AAC 26.670. These arrangements must include a written request to the State EMS Office, a plan for training and evaluation and a list of authorized individuals who have completed the training. For example, EMT-3s may be trained and authorized to administer nebulized albuterol for asthma which is not listed in the scope of certified activities (scope of practice) for an EMT-3 (7 AAC 26.040.)


These model standing orders present guidelines for management of common pre-hospital emergencies. As with any protocol, they are not all encompassing. Nor are they meant to be strict "cookbook" orders. It is recognized that patients do not present in textbook fashion and techniques and procedures should be modified to meet the demands of field rescues.

These protocols are fairly liberal. They do not require contacting medical control for many orders. This is in recognition of the communication difficulties in this state. As a general style within the text, the items prefaced by "consider" or "anticipate" should be interpreted as requiring on-line medical direction. It is recommended, however, that medical control be contacted by voice when possible for every patient contact.

The management section presents sequential instructions. Every provider should follow the BLS section. EMT-2 providers should follow the BLS section and the EMT-2 section. EMT-3 providers should follow the BLS, EMT-2 and EMT-3 sections. MICPs should provide the care listed for all levels plus MICP. The Cardiac Arrest and Dysrhythmias protocols are exceptions to the sequencing. EMT-3 and MICP directions are separate. EMT-3s and MICPs should follow the BLS and EMT-2 orders and then progress directly to the EMT-3 or MICP orders.

Treatments and procedures listed herein follow the State of Alaska curricula with few exceptions. You may perform the BLS portion of this protocol. ALS treatments/procedures may only be performed under the direction of a physician, either by direct verbal communications or through physician signed standing orders.

General ORDERS

Patient Assessment

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