Reference List of Included rcts (n=101)



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Reference List of Included RCTs (n=101).

  1. Abdelnaby YL, Nassar EA (2010). Chin cup effects using two different force magnitudes in the management of Class III malocclusions. Angle Orthod 80: 957–962.

  2. Alessandri Bonetti G, Zanarini M, Incerti Parenti S, Marini I, Gatto MR (2011). Preventive treatment of ectopically erupting maxillary permanent canines by extraction of deciduous canines and first molars: A randomized clinical trial. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 139: 316–323.

  3. Altug-Atac AT, Erdem D, Arat ZM (2008). Three-dimensional bimetric maxillary distalization arches compared with a modified Begg intraoral distalization system. Eur J Orthod 30: 73–79.

  4. Arici S, Alkan A, Arici N (2007). Comparison of different toothbrushing protocols in poor-toothbrushing orthodontic patients. Eur J Orthod 29: 488–492.

  5. Armi P, Cozza P, Baccetti T (2011). Effect of RME and headgear treatment on the eruption of palatally displaced canines: a randomized clinical study. Angle Orthod 81: 370–374.

  6. Baccetti T, Leonardi M, Armi P (2008). A randomized clinical study of two interceptive approaches to palatally displaced canines. Eur J Orthod 30: 381–385.

  7. Baccetti T, Mucedero M, Leonardi M, Cozza P (2009). Interceptive treatment of palatal impaction of maxillary canines with rapid maxillary expansion: a randomized clinical trial. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 136: 657–661.

  8. Baeshen HA, Lingström P, Birkhed D (2011). Effect of fluoridated chewing sticks (Miswaks) on white spot lesions in postorthodontic patients. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 140: 291–297.

  9. Ballard DJ, Jones AS, Petocz P, Darendeliler MA (2009). Physical properties of root cementum: part 11. Continuous vs intermittent controlled orthodontic forces on root resorption. A microcomputed-tomography study. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 136: 8.e1–8; discussion 8–9.

  10. Banks P, Macfarlane TV (2007). Bonded versus banded first molar attachments: a randomized controlled clinical trial. J Orthod 34: 128–136; discussion 111–112.

  11. Banks P, Thiruvenkatachari B (2007). Long-term clinical evaluation of bracket failure with a self-etching primer: a randomized controlled trial. J Orthod 34: 243–251.

  12. Benham AW, Campbell PM, Buschang PH (2009). Effectiveness of pit and fissure sealants in reducing white spot lesions during orthodontic treatment. A pilot study. Angle Orthod 79: 338–345.

  13. Burrow SJ (2010). Canine retraction rate with self-ligating brackets vs conventional edgewise brackets. Angle Orthod 80: 438–445.

  14. Cal-Neto JP e, Quintão CA, Almeida MA de O, Miguel JAM (2009). Bond failure rates with a self-etching primer: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 135: 782–786.

  15. Cooke ME, Battagel JM (2006). A thermoplastic mandibular advancement device for the management of non-apnoeic snoring: a randomized controlled trial. Eur J Orthod 28: 327–338.

  16. Costa MR, Silva VC, Miqui MN, Sakima T, Spolidorio DMP, Cirelli JA (2007). Efficacy of ultrasonic, electric and manual toothbrushes in patients with fixed orthodontic appliances. Angle Orthod 77: 361–366.

  17. DiBiase AT, Nasr IH, Scott P, Cobourne MT (2011). Duration of treatment and occlusal outcome using Damon3 self-ligated and conventional orthodontic bracket systems in extraction patients: a prospective randomized clinical trial. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 139: e111–116.

  18. Dixon V, Read MJF, O’Brien KD, Worthington HV, Mandall NA (2002). A randomized clinical trial to compare three methods of orthodontic space closure. J Orthod 29: 31–36.

  19. Edman Tynelius G, Bondemark L, Lilja-Karlander E (2010). Evaluation of orthodontic treatment after 1 year of retention--a randomized controlled trial. Eur J Orthod 32: 542–547.

  20. Elekdag-Turk S, Isci D, Turk T, Cakmak F (2008). Six-month bracket failure rate evaluation of a self-etching primer. Eur J Orthod 30: 211–216.

  21. Erbe C, Klukowska M, Tsaknaki I, Timm H, Grender J, Wehrbein H (2013). Efficacy of 3 toothbrush treatments on plaque removal in orthodontic patients assessed with digital plaque imaging: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 143: 760–766.

  22. Farzanegan F, Zebarjad SM, Alizadeh S, Ahrari F (2012). Pain reduction after initial archwire placement in orthodontic patients: a randomized clinical trial. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 141: 169–173.

  23. Fleming PS, DiBiase AT, Lee RT (2010). Randomized clinical trial of orthodontic treatment efficiency with self-ligating and conventional fixed orthodontic appliances. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 137: 738–742.

  24. Fleming PS, Dibiase AT, Sarri G, Lee RT (2009). Pain experience during initial alignment with a self-ligating and a conventional fixed orthodontic appliance system. A randomized controlled clinical trial. Angle Orthod 79: 46–50.

  25. Fleming PS, DiBiase AT, Sarri G, Lee RT (2009a). Efficiency of mandibular arch alignment with 2 preadjusted edgewise appliances. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 135: 597–602.

  26. Fleming PS, DiBiase AT, Sarri G, Lee RT (2009b). Comparison of mandibular arch changes during alignment and leveling with 2 preadjusted edgewise appliances. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 136: 340–347.

  27. Fleming PS, Lee RT, Marinho V, Johal A (2013). Comparison of maxillary arch dimensional changes with passive and active self-ligation and conventional brackets in the permanent dentition: a multicenter, randomized controlled trial. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 144: 185–193.

  28. Ge YS, Liu J, Chen L, Han JL, Guo X (2012). Dentofacial effects of two facemask therapies for maxillary protraction. Angle Orthod 82: 1083–1091.

  29. Godoy F, Godoy-Bezerra J, Rosenblatt A (2011). Treatment of posterior crossbite comparing 2 appliances: a community-based trial. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 139: e45–52.

  30. Hichens L, Rowland H, Williams A, et al (2007). Cost-effectiveness and patient satisfaction: Hawley and vacuum-formed retainers. Eur J Orthod 29: 372–378.

  31. House K, Ireland AJ, Sherriff M (2006). An investigation into the use of a single component self-etching primer adhesive system for orthodontic bonding: a randomized controlled clinical trial. J Orthod 33: 38–44; discussion 28.

  32. Huang GJ, Roloff-Chiang B, Mills BE, et al (2013). Effectiveness of MI Paste Plus and PreviDent fluoride varnish for treatment of white spot lesions: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 143: 31–41.

  33. Irvine R, Power S, McDonald F (2004). The effectiveness of laceback ligatures: a randomized controlled clinical trial. J Orthod 31: 303–311; discussion 300.

  34. Jolley CJ, Huang GJ, Greenlee GM, Spiekerman C, Kiyak HA, King GJ (2010). Dental effects of interceptive orthodontic treatment in a Medicaid population: interim results from a randomized clinical trial. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 137: 324–333.

  35. Kau CH, Durning P, Richmond S, Miotti FA, Harzer W (2004). Extractions as a form of interception in the developing dentition: a randomized controlled trial. J Orthod 31: 107–114.

  36. Keng F-Y, Quick AN, Swain MV, Herbison P (2012). A comparison of space closure rates between preactivated nickel-titanium and titanium-molybdenum alloy T-loops: a randomized controlled clinical trial. Eur J Orthod 34: 33–38.

  37. Kiliç N, Kiki A, Oktay H (2008). A comparison of dentoalveolar inclination treated by two palatal expanders. Eur J Orthod 30: 67–72.

  38. Kirveskari P, Jämsä T (2009). Health risk from occlusal interferences in females. Eur J Orthod 31: 490–495.

  39. Knösel M, Attin R, Becker K, Attin T (2007). External bleaching effect on the color and luminosity of inactive white-spot lesions after fixed orthodontic appliances. Angle Orthod 77: 646–652.

  40. Knösel M, Eckstein A, Helms H-J (2013). Durability of esthetic improvement following Icon resin infiltration of multibracket-induced white spot lesions compared with no therapy over 6 months: a single-center, split-mouth, randomized clinical trial. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 144: 86–96.

  41. Krusinskiene V, Kiuttu P, Julku J, Silvola A-S, Kantomaa T, Pirttiniemi P (2008). A randomized controlled study of early headgear treatment on occlusal stability--a 13 year follow-up. Eur J Orthod 30: 418–424.

  42. Lagravère MO, Carey J, Heo G, Toogood RW, Major PW (2010). Transverse, vertical, and anteroposterior changes from bone-anchored maxillary expansion vs traditional rapid maxillary expansion: a randomized clinical trial. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 137: 304.e1–12; discussion 304–305.

  43. Mandall N, DiBiase A, Littlewood S, et al (2010). Is early Class III protraction facemask treatment effective? A multicentre, randomized, controlled trial: 15-month follow-up. J Orthod 37: 149–161.

  44. Mandall N, Lowe C, Worthington H, et al (2006). Which orthodontic archwire sequence? A randomized clinical trial. Eur J Orthod 28: 561–566.

  45. Mangnall LAR, Dietrich T, Scholey JM (2013). A randomized controlled trial to assess the pain associated with the debond of orthodontic fixed appliances. J Orthod 40: 188–196.

  46. Manning N, Chadwick SM, Plunkett D, Macfarlane TV (2006). A randomized clinical trial comparing ‘one-step’ and ‘two-step’ orthodontic bonding systems. J Orthod 33: 276–283; discussion 256–257.

  47. Matos de Souza R, Macedo de Menezes L (2008). Nickel, chromium and iron levels in the saliva of patients with simulated fixed orthodontic appliances. Angle Orthod 78: 345–350.

  48. Mattick CR, Mitchell L, Chadwick SM, Wright J (2001). Fluoride-releasing elastomeric modules reduce decalcification: a randomized controlled trial. J Orthod 28: 217–219.

  49. McGorray SP, Dolce C, Kramer S, Stewart D, Wheeler TT (2012). A randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial on the effects of recombinant human relaxin on tooth movement and short-term stability. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 141: 196–203.

  50. McNally MR, Spary DJ, Rock WP (2005). A randomized controlled trial comparing the quadhelix and the expansion arch for the correction of crossbite. J Orthod 32: 29–35.

  51. Mezomo M, de Lima ES, de Menezes LM, Weissheimer A, Allgayer S (2011). Maxillary canine retraction with self-ligating and conventional brackets. Angle Orthod 81: 292–297.

  52. Minor V, Marris CK, McGorray SP, et al (2009). Effects of preoperative ibuprofen on pain after separator placement. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 136: 510–517.

  53. Mirabella D, Spena R, Scognamiglio G, Luca L, Gracco A, Siciliani G (2008). LED vs halogen light-curing of adhesive-precoated brackets. Angle Orthod 78: 935–940.

  54. Montasser MA, Drummond JL, Evans CA (2008). Rebonding of orthodontic brackets. Part I, a laboratory and clinical study. Angle Orthod 78: 531–536.

  55. Al Mulla AH, Kharsa SA, Birkhed D (2010). Modified fluoride toothpaste technique reduces caries in orthodontic patients: A longitudinal, randomized clinical trial. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 138: 285–291.

  56. Murdock S, Phillips C, Khondker Z, Hershey HG (2010). Treatment of pain after initial archwire placement: a noninferiority randomized clinical trial comparing over-the-counter analgesics and bite-wafer use. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 137: 316–323.

  57. Murfitt PG, Quick AN, Swain MV, Herbison GP (2006). A randomised clinical trial to investigate bond failure rates using a self-etching primer. Eur J Orthod 28: 444–449.

  58. Nazir M, Walsh T, Mandall NA, Matthew S, Fox D (2011). Banding versus bonding of first permanent molars: a multi-centre randomized controlled trial. J Orthod 38: 81–89.

  59. O’Brien K, Wright J, Conboy F, et al (2009). Early treatment for Class II Division 1 malocclusion with the Twin-block appliance: a multi-center, randomized, controlled trial. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 135: 573–579.

  60. Øgaard B, Alm AA, Larsson E, Adolfsson U (2006). A prospective, randomized clinical study on the effects of an amine fluoride/stannous fluoride toothpaste/mouthrinse on plaque, gingivitis and initial caries lesion development in orthodontic patients. Eur J Orthod 28: 8–12.

  61. Oltramari-Navarro PVP, Titarelli JM, Marsicano JA, et al (2009). Effectiveness of 0.50% and 0.75% chlorhexidine dentifrices in orthodontic patients: a double-blind and randomized controlled trial. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 136: 651–656.

  62. Ong E, Ho C, Miles P (2011). Alignment efficiency and discomfort of three orthodontic archwire sequences: a randomized clinical trial. J Orthod 38: 32–39.

  63. Owais AI, Rousan ME, Badran SA, Abu Alhaija ES (2011). Effectiveness of a lower lingual arch as a space holding device. Eur J Orthod 33: 37–42.

  64. Pandis N, Fleming PS, Kloukos D, Polychronopoulou A, Katsaros C, Eliades T (2013). Survival of bonded lingual retainers with chemical or photo polymerization over a 2-year period: a single-center, randomized controlled clinical trial. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 144: 169–175.

  65. Pandis N, Papaioannou W, Kontou E, Nakou M, Makou M, Eliades T (2010). Salivary Streptococcus mutans levels in patients with conventional and self-ligating brackets. Eur J Orthod 32: 94–99.

  66. Pandis N, Polychronopoulou A, Eliades T (2009). Alleviation of mandibular anterior crowding with copper-nickel-titanium vs nickel-titanium wires: a double-blind randomized control trial. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 136: 152.e1–7;discussion 152–153.

  67. Pandis N, Polychronopoulou A, Eliades T (2010). Active or passive self-ligating brackets? A randomized controlled trial of comparative efficiency in resolving maxillary anterior crowding in adolescents. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 137: 12.e1–6; discussion 12–13.

  68. Pandis N, Polychronopoulou A, Katsaros C, Eliades T (2011). Comparative assessment of conventional and self-ligating appliances on the effect of mandibular intermolar distance in adolescent nonextraction patients: a single-center randomized controlled trial. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 140: e99–e105.

  69. Papadopoulos MA, Melkos AB, Athanasiou AE (2010). Noncompliance maxillary molar distalization with the first class appliance: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 137: 586.e1–586.e13; discussion 586–587.

  70. Parkin NA, Milner RS, Deery C, et al (2013). Periodontal health of palatally displaced canines treated with open or closed surgical technique: a multicenter, randomized controlled trial. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 144: 176–184.

  71. Paschos E, Kurochkina N, Huth KC, Hansson CS, Rudzki-Janson I (2009). Failure rate of brackets bonded with antimicrobial and fluoride-releasing, self-etching primer and the effect on prevention of enamel demineralization. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 135: 613–620.

  72. Paschos E, Limbach M, Teichmann M, et al (2008). Orthodontic attachments and chlorhexidine-containing varnish effects on gingival health. Angle Orthod 78: 908–916.

  73. Pellegrini P, Sauerwein R, Finlayson T, et al (2009). Plaque retention by self-ligating vs elastomeric orthodontic brackets: quantitative comparison of oral bacteria and detection with adenosine triphosphate-driven bioluminescence. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 135: 426.e1–9; discussion 426–427.

  74. Petrén S, Bjerklin K, Bondemark L (2011). Stability of unilateral posterior crossbite correction in the mixed dentition: a randomized clinical trial with a 3-year follow-up. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 139: e73–81.

  75. Polat-Ozsoy O, Gokcelik A, Güngör-Acar A, Kircelli BH (2008). Soft tissue profile after distal molar movement with a pendulum K-loop appliance versus cervical headgear. Angle Orthod 78: 317–323.

  76. Pringle AM, Petrie A, Cunningham SJ, McKnight M (2009). Prospective randomized clinical trial to compare pain levels associated with 2 orthodontic fixed bracket systems. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 136: 160–167.

  77. Russell JS, Littlewood SJ, Blance A, Mitchell L (2008). The efficacy of a plasma arc light in orthodontic bonding: a randomized controlled clinical trial. J Orthod 35: 202–209; discussion 175.

  78. Sahoo N, Kailasam V, Padmanabhan S, Chitharanjan AB (2011). In-vivo evaluation of salivary nickel and chromium levels in conventional and self-ligating brackets. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 140: 340–345.

  79. Scott P, Sherriff M, Dibiase AT, Cobourne MT (2008). Perception of discomfort during initial orthodontic tooth alignment using a self-ligating or conventional bracket system: a randomized clinical trial. Eur J Orthod 30: 227–232.

  80. Sharma M, Sharma V, Khanna B (2012). Mini-screw implant or transpalatal arch-mediated anchorage reinforcement during canine retraction: a randomized clinical trial. J Orthod 39: 102–110.

  81. Shawesh M, Bhatti B, Usmani T, Mandall N (2010). Hawley retainers full- or part-time? A randomized clinical trial. Eur J Orthod 32: 165–170.

  82. Silvola A-S, Arvonen P, Julku J, Lähdesmäki R, Kantomaa T, Pirttiniemi P (2009). Early headgear effects on the eruption pattern of the maxillary canines. Angle Orthod 79: 540–545.

  83. Stivaros N, Lowe C, Dandy N, Doherty B, Mandall NA (2010). A randomized clinical trial to compare the Goshgarian and Nance palatal arch. Eur J Orthod 32: 171–176.

  84. Sueri MY, Turk T (2006). Effectiveness of laceback ligatures on maxillary canine retraction. Angle Orthod 76: 1010–1014.

  85. Tecco S, Caputi S, Festa F (2007). Evaluation of cervical posture following palatal expansion: a 12-month follow-up controlled study. Eur J Orthod 29: 45–51.

  86. Thiyagarajah S, Spary DJ, Rock WP (2006). A clinical comparison of bracket bond failures in association with direct and indirect bonding. J Orthod 33: 198–204.

  87. Torres F, Almeida RR, de Almeida MR, Almeida-Pedrin RR, Pedrin F, Henriques JFC (2006). Anterior open bite treated with a palatal crib and high-pull chin cup therapy. A prospective randomized study. Eur J Orthod 28: 610–617.

  88. Tortamano A, Lenzi DC, Haddad ACSS, Bottino MC, Dominguez GC, Vigorito JW (2009). Low-level laser therapy for pain caused by placement of the first orthodontic archwire: a randomized clinical trial. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 136: 662–667.

  89. Trenouth MJ, Desmond S (2012). A randomized clinical trial of two alternative designs of Twin-block appliance. J Orthod 39: 17–24.

  90. Ueda H, Almeida FR, Chen H, Lowe AA (2009). Effect of 2 jaw exercises on occlusal function in patients with obstructive sleep apnea during oral appliance therapy: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 135: 430.e1–7; discussion 430–431.

  91. Usmani T, O’Brien KD, Worthington HV, et al (2002). A randomized clinical trial to compare the effectiveness of canine lacebacks with reference to canine tip. J Orthod 29: 281–286; discussion 277.

  92. Varlik SK, Gültan A, Tümer N (2008). Comparison of the effects of Twin Block and activator treatment on the soft tissue profile. Eur J Orthod 30: 128–134.

  93. Virkkula T, Kantomaa T, Julku J, Pirttiniemi P (2009). Long-term soft-tissue response to orthodontic treatment with early cervical headgear--a randomized study. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 135: 586–596.

  94. Weissheimer A, de Menezes LM, Mezomo M, Dias DM, de Lima EMS, Rizzatto SMD (2011). Immediate effects of rapid maxillary expansion with Haas-type and hyrax-type expanders: a randomized clinical trial. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 140: 366–376.

  95. Wenger NA, Deacon S, Harradine NWT (2008). A randomized control clinical trial investigating orthodontic bond failure rates when using Orthosolo universal bond enhancer compared to a conventional bonding primer. J Orthod 35: 27–32.

  96. Willmot DR (2004). White lesions after orthodontic treatment: does low fluoride make a difference? J Orthod 31: 235–242; discussion 202.

  97. Wong H, Collins J, Tinsley D, Sandler J, Benson P (2013). Does the bracket-ligature combination affect the amount of orthodontic space closure over three months? A randomized controlled trial. J Orthod 40: 155–162.

  98. Wong M, Power S (2003). A prospective randomized clinical trial to compare pre-coated and non-pre-coated brackets. J Orthod 30: 155–158; discussion 128.

  99. Wright NS, Fleming PS, Sharma PK, Battagel J (2010). Influence of supplemental written information on adolescent anxiety, motivation and compliance in early orthodontic treatment. Angle Orthod 80: 329–335.

  100. Xu T-M, Zhang X, Oh HS, Boyd RL, Korn EL, Baumrind S (2010). Randomized clinical trial comparing control of maxillary anchorage with 2 retraction techniques. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 138: 544.e1–9; discussion 544–545.

  101. Yaqoob O, Dibiase AT, Fleming PS, Cobourne MT (2012). Use of the Clark Twin Block functional appliance with and without an upper labial bow: a randomized controlled trial. Angle Orthod 82: 363–369.


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