Record and Log book



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Record and Log book: The candidate should be given credit for his/ her records based on the scores obtained in the record book. The marks obtained in first appearance can be carried over to subsequent appearances.

Scheme of clinical and practical examination: The specific scheme of clinical and practical examination, the type of clinical procedures/ experiments to be performed and marks allotted for each are to be discussed and finalised by Chairman and other examiners and it is to be published prior to the conduct of the examinations along with the publication of time table for the practical examinations. This scheme should be brought to the notice of external examiners as and when the examiners report. The practical examination should be evaluated by two examiners of which one shall be external appointed by the university preferably outside the state. Each candidate should be evaluated independently and marks computed at the end of the examination.

Viva Voce: It is an excellent mode of assessment. It should be conducted independently by each examiner and questions can be preformulated before administering them to the student. 20 marks are exclusively allotted for viva voce and can be equally divided amongst the examiners i.e. 10 marks per examiner.

Marks distribution:

Theory : 100

University written examination: 70

Viva voce 20

Internal assessment (written) 10

Practical/ Clinical : 100

University examination 90

Internal assessment (written) 10

Criteria for a pass: For declaration of pass in a subject, a candidate shall secure 50% marks in university exams both in theory and practical separately. This includes internal assessment also.
MINIMUM WORKING HOURS FOR ORTHODONTICS (BDS COURSE)


Subject

Lecture hours

Practical Hours

Clinical hours

Total hours

Orthodontics(3rd & 4th year)

50

-

200

250

3rd Year

20

-

70

90

4th Year

30

-

130

160

There should be a minimum of 240 teaching days every academic year consisting of 8 working hours including one hour of lunch break.

Recommended Reference Books for ORTHODONTICS for BDS Course:

Contemporary Orthodontics- Proffit

Orthodontics for dental students- White and Gardiner

Handbook of Orthodontics- Moyers

Orthodontics principles and practise- Graber

Design, construction and use of removable orthodontic appliances- Adams

Clinical orthodontics vol.1 and vol.2- Salzmann
SYLLABUS OF ORTHODONTICS FOR BDS COURSE:


  1. Introduction, Definition, Historical background, aims and Objectives of Orthodontics and Need for Orthodontic care.

  2. Growth and Development: in general

Definition

Growth spurts and Differential growth

Factors influencing growth and development

Methods of measuring growth

Growth theories (genetic, Sicher, Moss, Petrovic, Multifactorial)

Genetic and epigenetic factors in growth

Cephalocaudal gradient in growth


  1. Morphologic Development of Craniofacial structures

Methods of bone growth

Prenatal growth of craniofacial structures

Postnatal growth and development of cranial base, maxilla, mandible, dental arches and occlusion.


  1. Functional Development of Dental arches and Occlusion

Factors influencing functional development of dental arches and occlusion

Forces of occlusion

Wolfe law of transformation of bone

Trajectories of forces



  1. Clinical Application of Growth and Development

  2. Malocclusion- in general

Concept of normal occlusion

Definition of malocclusion

Description of different types of dental, skeletal and functional malocclusion.


  1. Classification of Malocclusion

Principle, description, advantages and disadvantages of classification of malocclusion by Angle, Simon, Lischer, Ackerman and Proffit.

  1. Normal and Abnormal function of Stomatognathic System

  2. Aetiology of Malocclusion

Definition, importance, classification, local and general aetiological factors

Etiology of following different types of malocclusion:



  1. Midline diastema

  2. Spacing

  3. Crowding

  4. Crossbite: anterior/ posterior

  5. Class 111 malocclusion

  6. Class 11 malocclusion

  7. Deepbite

  8. Openbite

  1. Diagnosis and Diagnostic Aids

Definition, importance and classification of diagnostic aids

Importance of case history and clinical examination in orthodontics

Study models: - importance and uses- preparation and preservation of study models

Importance of intraoral x-rays in orthodontics

Panoramic radiographs: - principles, advantages, disadvantages and uses

Cephalometrics:- advantages and disadvantages



  1. Definition

  2. Description and use of cephalostat

  3. Description and uses of anatomical landmarks , lines and angles used in cephalometric analysis

  4. Analyses:- Steiner, Down, Tweed, Ricket E- line

Electromyography and its use in orthodontics

Hand and Wrist x- rays and its importance



  1. General principles in Orthodontic treatment planning of dental and skeletal malocclusions

  2. Anchorage in Orthodontics- Definition, classification, types and stability of anchorage

  3. Biomechanical principles in OTM

Different types of tooth movements

Tissue response to orthodontic force application

Age factor in orthodontic tooth movement


  1. Preventive Orthodontics

Definition

Different procedures undertaken in preventive orthodontics and their limitations



  1. Interceptive Orthodontics

Definition

Different procedures undertaken in interceptive orthodontics

Serial extractions: definition, indications, contraindications, technique, advantages, disadvantages

Role of muscle exercises as an interceptive procedure



  1. Corrective Orthodontics

Definition, factors to be considered during treatment planning

Model analysis: Ponts, Ashley Howe, Bolton, Carey’s, Moyer’s mixed dentition analysis

Methods of gaining space in arch: indications, relative merits and demerits of proximal stripping, arch expansion and extractions

Extractions in orthodontics: indications and selection of teeth for extraction



  1. Orthodontic Appliances: General

Requisites for orthodontic appliances

Classification, indications of removable and functional appliances

Methods of force application

Materials used in construction of various orthodontic appliances- use of stainless steel, technical considerations in curing of acrylic, principles of welding and soldering, fluxes and antifluxes

Preliminary knowledge of acid etching and direct bonding

Removable Orthodontic Appliances


  1. Components of removable appliances

  2. Different types of clasps and their use

  3. Different types of labial bows and their use

  4. Different types of springs and their use

  5. Expansion appliances

Principles

Indications for arch expansion

Description of expansion appliances and different types of expansion devices and their uses

RME


Fixed Orthodontic Appliances

  1. Definition, indications, contraindications

  2. Component part and their uses

  3. Basic principles of different techniques: Edgewise, Beggs, Straight wire appliance

Extraoral Appliances

  1. Headgears

  2. Chincups

  3. Reverse pull Headgear

Myofunctional Appliances

  1. Definition and principles

b) Muscle exercises and their uses in orthodontics

c) Functional appliances:

Activator, Oral screen, Frankel FR, Bionator, Twinblock, Lipbumper

Inclined planes: upper and lower



  1. Orthodontic management of Cleft Lip and Palate

  2. Principles of Surgical Orthodontics

  1. Brief knowledge of correction of:

Mandibular prognathism and retrognathism

Maxillary prognathism and retrognathism

Anterior openbite and deepbite

Crossbite



  1. Principles, Differential diagnosis & methods of treatment of:

Midline diastema

Crossbite

Openbite

Deepbite


Spacing

Crowding


Class 11 div 1, div 2

Class 111 malocclusion- true and pseudo class 111



  1. Retention and Relapse- Definition, need of retention, causes of relapse, methods of retention, different types of retention devices, duration of retention, theories of retention

CLINICAL and PRACTICALS IN ORTHODONTICS

BDS 3rd Year:

Basic wire bending exercises (22 gauges)

Straightening of wires (4 nos.)

Bending of equilateral triangles

Bending of a rectangle

Bending of a square

Bending of a circle

Bending of U and V

Construction of clasps (u/l, 22 gauge)

¾ clasp


Full clasp

Adam clasp

Triangular clasp

Construction of springs (upper both sides)

Finger spring

Single cantilever spring, Double cantilever spring

T-spring on premolars

Construction of canine retractors (23 gauge)

U-loop canine retractor (u/l both sides)

Helical canine retractors (u/l both sides)

Buccal canine retractors

Palatal canine retractor

Labial bow (22 gauge, u/l both sides)

BDS IVth Year:

U/l alginate impression making

Study model preparation

Model analysis

Pont’s

Ashley Howe



Carey’s

Bolton


Moyer’s mixed dentition analysis

Case history taking

Case discussion

Discussion on a given topic

Cephalometric tracing

Down’s


Steiner’s

Tweed’s


Appliance construction in Acrylic

U/L Hawley appliance

Upper Hawley with anterior bite plane

Upper habit breaking appliance

Upper Hawley with posterior bite plane with Z- spring

Activator



Lower inclined plane/ Catalan appliance

Upper expansion appliance with expansion screw


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