Quiz 1: Anterior belly of digastrics



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Quiz 1:

Anterior belly of digastrics: Suprahyoid muscle

Insertion – internal surface of the mandible

Innervation – nerve to the mylohyoid off inferior alveolar nerve

Thyrohyoid – Infrahyoid (strap muscles)

Origin – thyroid cartilage

Insertion – hyoid bone

Innervation – C1-C2 via hypoglossal nerve



Trapezius

Innervation – spinal accessory nerve



Obicularis Oris:

Closes mouth



Procerus: VII

Risorius:

Retracts angle of mouth



Pterygomandibular Raphe:

Origin of Buccinator and Superior Pharyngeal Constrictor

Attached to hamulus and mandible

Philtrum:

Vertical groove from upper lip to nasal septum



Vestibule:

Area of oral cavity between teeth and cheeks



Mylohyoid Nerve:

Innervates the mylohyoid (CN V)



Facial Nerve: VII

Innervates – Posterior belly of digastrics, stylohyoid, platysma



Lingual Nerve: V

Passes between the mylohyoid and hypoglossal muscles



Vagus Nerve:

In carotid sheath with internal jugular vein and common carotid

Branches: Superior Laryngeal nerve – External branch innervates cricothyroid

Internal Branch – Through thyrohyoid membrane – Sensory to Laryngeal mucosa above true vocal cords

Pharyngeal Branch – Motor to pharyngeal muscles, sensory to pharyngeal mucus membranes

Recurrent Laryngeal Branch – Motor to vocal muscles, sensory to mucus membrane below true vocal cords



Hypoglossal Nerve: VII

Carries branches of C1-C2 to ansa cervicalis – thyrohyoid muscle, geniohyoid



Trigeminal Nerve: Sensory to face

Opthalmic Division V1 – Frontal: Supraorbital, supratrochlear; lacrimal, infratrochlear, external nasal

Maxillary Division V2 – Infraorbital, zygomaticotemporal, zygomaticofacial

Mandibular Division V3 – Auriculotemporal, buccal, mental – off inferior alveolar, supplies chin and lip



Ansa Cervicalis:

Innervates Infrahyoid muscles: sternohyoid, sternothyroid, thryohyoid, omohyoid

Loop on anterior surface of internal jugular: Decendens Hypoglossi (C1-C2) superior root (with hypoglossal nerve), Descendens Cervicalis (C2-C3) inferior root

Glassopharyngeal Nerve: IX

Carotid sinus and body



Anterior Primary Rami of C2-C3:

Lesser occipital and Greater Auricular Nerves



Common Carotid:

In carotid sheath with internal jugular vein and vagus nerve

Upper level of thyroid divides into: Internal and External carotids

-Carotid body: O2 levels, to medulla via glassopharyngeal and vagus nerves

-Carotid sinus: Blood pressure, to medulla via glassopharyngeal

Quiz 2:

Mastoid process: temporal bone

Condylar process: mandible

Posterior border of infratemporal fossa

Insertion of Lateral Pterygoid muscle

Acromion process:

Foramen Ovale:

Mandibular Foramen:

Inferior alveolar nerve passes through



Foramen Rotundum:

Medial Pterygoid:

Origin – medial surface of lateral pterygoid plate

Insertion – medial surface of ramus and angle of mandible

Innervation – Main trunk mandibular division (V3) trigeminal nerve

Action – Closes mouth

Masseter:

Origin – zygomatic arch

Insertion – lateral surface of ramus and angle of mandible

Action – closes mouth



Temporalis:

Origin – temporal fossa

Insertion – coronoid process of mandible

Action – closes mouth



Chorda Tympani: submandibular ganglion

In infratemporal fossa joins (?) lingual nerve

Preganglionic parasympathetic fibers and taste fibers for anterior 2/3 of tongue

Greater Petrosal Nerve:

Auriculotemporal Nerve:

Posterior division of Mandibular (V3) branch Trigeminal Nerve

1-4 roots; if two they will encircle the middle meningeal artery

Receives postganglionic parasympathetic fibers from Otic Ganglion (to Parotid Gland)



Lingual Nerve:

Receives the chorda tympani nerve – preganglionic parasympathetic – Geniculate Ganglion



Inferior Alveolar Nerve:

Gives off nerve to mylohyoid

Sensory to lower teeth and skin on chin via mental nerve

Sella turcica:

Diaphragma sellae forms the roof



Petrous Layer:

Arachnoid granulations:

Project into dural sinuses to return CSF to blood



Cavernous Sinus:

Each side of sella turcica. Flows into inferior petrosal sinus to jugular vein



Sigmoid Sinus:

Connects transverse sinuses with internal jugular vein



Falx cerebelli:

Between cerebral hemispheres



Tentorium Cerebelli:

Separates occipital lobes of cerebrum from cerebellum



Mesensephalon:

Midbrain. CN 3 and 4



Metencephalon:

Pons and cerebellum. CN 5-8



Myelencephalon:

Medulla. CN 9-12



Vertebral Arteries:

Enter cranium through foramen magnum.

Form basilar artery

Middle Cerebral Arteries:

Largest of two terminal branches of the internal carotid artery



Anterior Cerebral Arteries:

Smaller of two terminal branches of the internal carotid artery.

Anterior communicating artery

Quiz 3:

Optic: II

Sensory – exits through optic foramen

Sensory – three branches

Lacrimal: through superior orbital fissure outside of tendinous ring; receives postganglionic parasympathetic fibers from zygomatic nerve

Frontal: largest; through superior orbital fissure outside of tendinous ring; Divides into supraorbital and supratrochlear nerves

Nasociliary: though sof and outside ring; Long and short ciliary terminal branches; post and ant ethmoidal and infratrochlear.



Ciliary Ganglion:

Parasympathetic preganglionic fibers from CN III

Postganglionic pass from ganglion as postganglionic (short ciliary Nerves) - - -MOTOR (constrict pupil)

Long ciliary nerves – pass through ganglion without synapsing (sympathetic vasomotor)



Occulomotor Nerve: III

Enters through superior orbital division and through common tendinous ring.

Superior division: SR and levator palpebrae superioris

Inferior division: MR, IR, IO, ciliary ganglion



Lacrimal Papillae:

Medial angle of eye



Nasolacrimal duct:

Opening in inferior meatus of nasal cavity - - tears drain through



Lacrimal Duct:

Drain the lacrimal gland



Canthus:

Medial or lateral angle of palpebral fissure



Piriform Recesses:

Situated on both sides of the larynx



Stylopharyngeus:

Origin: styloid process

Enters pharynx between superior and middle constrictors

Innervation: glossopharyngeal nerve

Superior Laryngeal Nerve:

Internal branch – pierces thyrohyoid membrane; sensory and parasymp to supraglottic mucosa



External branch – motor to cricothyroid and inferior pharyngeal constrictors


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