Questions for written work to the final module control "Childhood infectious diseases" for students 6 courses The first question



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for written work to the final module control

"Childhood infectious diseases"

for students 6 courses
The first question:

1. Differential diagnosis of measles and rubella.

2. Differential diagnosis of chicken pox and herpes zoster and simplex.

3. Differential diagnosis of scarlet fever and pseudotuberculosis.

4. Differential diagnosis of meningococcemia and toxic flu.

5. Differential diagnosis of meningococcemia and hemorrhagic vasculitis, thrombocytopenia.

6. Differential diagnosis of streptococcal tonsillitis and diphtheria oropharynx.

7. Differential diagnosis of toxic diphtheria oropharynx and mumps of various forms of epidemic parotitis (mumps, submaxillitis).

8. Differential diagnosis of the true (diphtheritic) and false croup.

9. Differential diagnosis of influenza and parainfluenza.

10. Differential diagnosis of adenovirus infection and infectious mononucleosis

11. Differential diagnosis of respiratory syncytial virus infection and pertussis.

12. Differential diagnosis of serous and purulent meningitis.

13. Differential diagnosis of meningitis and encephalitis.

14. Differential diagnosis of dysentery and salmonellosis

15. Differential diagnosis of E.coli infection and rotavirus infection.

16. Differential diagnosis of invasive and secretory diarrhea.

17. Differential diagnosis of hepatitis A, B and C.


The second question:
Emergency aid:

1. Diphtheria croup.

2. Apnea in pertussis.

3. Infectious-toxic shock in meningococcal infection.

4. Edema-swelling of the brain in meningitis and encephalitis.

5. Toxico-eksycosis acute intestinal infections.

6. Neurotoksicosis in acute intestinal infections.

7. Acute liver failure in viral hepatitis.

8. Acute stenotic laryngotracheitis in ARVI.

9. Syndrome of hyperthermia in flu.

10. Febrile convulsions in flu.

11. Anaphylactic shock on vaccination.
Immunization:

Tuberculosis, hepatitis B, diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, poliomyelitis, haemophilus influenzae, measles-rubella, mumps infection.


Prevention (isolation, quarantine) at:

scarlet fever, pseudotuberculosis, measles, rubella, chicken pox, meningococcal disease, infectious mononucleosis, mumps infection, diphtheria, pertussis, acute respiratory infections, intestinal infections, polio, viral hepatitis.



The third question:

Task 1

Helen K., 6 years old, fell sick acutely: the temperature rose to 38,2°С, vomited two times, had a stomach-ache. During 2 next days a stomach-ache increased, vomiting repeated 3 times a day. The child renounces food, temperature is 38,5оС. During hospitalization (on 3rd day): status of patient is medium-heavy, temperature is 38,5оС, skin is pale, there is a spotted-papular rash on hands and feet, a tongue is covered with a grey patch, fauces is hyperemic. Heart tones are weak, pulse - 90 in 1 minute.

A stomach at palpation is painful in right inguinal area and around umbilicus, the symptoms of irritation are present. A liver is not expanded. Urine is light. Defecating is 3 times a day, watery, without pathological admixtures. It is known that the child visits preschool, where there were registered 6 cases of alike diseases during last 5 days, and there are mise in back rooms.

1 Diagnose the illness.

2 What laboratory researches is it necessary to appoint for confirmation of diagnosis?

3 Prescribe treatment.


Task 2

Patient A., 9 years old, hospitalized on the 7th day of illness with complaints on the icteritiousness of skin and scleras, dark urine, single vomiting, bad appetite, temperature of 38оС during 2 days.

Objectively: languid, temperature is 36,8оС, skin and scleras are icteric, heart tones are muffled, 68 in 1 minute, a liver overflows the rib on 3 sm., sensible at palpation, softly-elastic, spleen is not determined by palpation. Urine is dark. Excrements are acholic.

1 Specify leading syndromes.

2 Formulate a provisional diagnosis.

3 What basic laboratory researches must be conducted?


Task 3

The child, 3 months old, is ill for 8 days. A disease begun with a cough. Temperature is 36,5оС. After 5 days from the beginning of disease was examined by a doctor with a diagnosis of AVRI. A cough increased at night. The prescribed treatment is uneffective. It is known from anamnesis, that the father of child coughs during a month.

On 10-11th day a cough became paroxysmal, 15 times a day, during the cough a child blushed, a tongue during a cough was put out, cyanosys of nasolabial triangle was present. A child took the enforced position. A watering was present. A viscid sputum had been secreted after the coughing. At one of such attacks a child turned blue, stopped breathing. There is the hard breathing in lungs, wheezes are not present. Heart tones are rhythmic, tachycardia is present.

The patient has a brother, 6 years old, who visits kindergarten. He is vaccinated, revaccinated. Neighbours have a child of five months.

1 Diagnose the patient.

2 Prescribe treatment to the patient.

3 What antiepidemic measures must be conducted?
Task 4

Sasha M., 6 years old, became ill acutely. A disease begun with a rise in temperature to 39,70С, pharyngalgias and pain in joints, head-ache, double vomiting. The next day a rash appeared on a skin. Objectively: on the second day of illness the status of patient is heavy, he is in consciousness, has an expressed pale nasolabial triangle. On the skin of forehead, cheeks, neck, inguinal fossulas, at the bottom of stomach, elbow, popliteal fossulas there is punctulated bright pink rash, located on the hyperemic skin, a rash is miliary in some places. The fauces is hyperemic, amygdales are edematous, friable, a pus is present in lacunas. A tongue is covered by a white patch, submandibular lymphatic nodes are expanded to 2,5 sm., dense, painful. Heart tones are rhythmic. A pulse is tense - 122 in a minute. On a 5th day of illnesses there appeared a bradycardia, muffled tones, tender systole noise on the apex of heart.

Clinical blood analysis: Er. - 3,5х1012/l; Hb - 110g/l;

L-16x109/l, e-5%, stab n.-5%, segmented n.-67%, l-20%, m-3%, ESR-20 mm/h.

1 Formulate a clinical diagnosis.

2 Name possible complications.

3 What prophylactic measures must be conducted?
Task 5

The child of 3 years old became ill acutely. A disease begun with a rise in temperature to 380С. A temperature stayed on this level 3 days, then indisposition appeared, mucous excretions from a nose, pain during swallowing, absence of motion in the left leg. A child was hospitalized on 7 day of illness.

Objectively it is present the decrease of tone and force of muscles of the left shin, tendon reflexes on the left, a child pulls the left leg at walking. There are the catarrhal phenomena in a pharynx, on the mucous membrane of soft palate and uvula there are vesicles 2х3 mm in size. On the apex of heart there is a systole noise.

After prescription of treatment the status of patient got better gradually, the body temperature normalized. Complete renewal of muscle force came on a 15th day. A diagnosis is confirmed serologicaly.

1 What diseases could it be?

2 What additional information must interest you?

3 What laboratory researches must be conducted for establishment of diagnosis?
Task 6

A child 6 years was hospitalized in 18 hours after the beginning of disease. Became ill acutely, when the body temperature rose to 39,90С, vomited, had a stomach-ache, convulsions of clonico-tonic character appeared, lost consciousness. A child got first-aid in a clinic.

Objectively: the status of patient is heavy. In consciousness, body temperature 39,5oС. A skin is pale, a tongue is covered by a grey patch. There is the vesicular breathing in lungs. Heart tones are muffled, rhythmic. Pulse - 110 in a minute, rhythmic. A stomach is soft, sunken. A liver and spleen can’t be palpated. Sigmoid bowel is spasmated, sensible. Defecating is rare with mucus and blood, by small portions.

Blood test: Er.- 3,7х1012/l, Hb - 120 g/l, L. - 7,6х109/l,

e-2%, stab n.-16%, segmented n.-24%, l-50%, m-8%, ESR-4 mm/h.

Feces analysis: undigested cellulose, mucus, leucocytes - 10-15 in FOV.

1 Urgent therapy at a convulsive syndrome.

2 Your provisional diagnosis.

3 Estimate the blood and coprologic test.
Task 7

The doctor of ambulance examines a child of 9 years old. He complains about great head-ache, vomiting, rise of temperature to 39,30C. He is sick for 4 days, a disease began with the slight swelling in the area of parotid salivary glands, pain at mastication and opening of mouth. He did not treat oneself. At examination the status of patient is heavy. A skin is pale. The slight swelling in parotid area is present, a skin above the slight swelling is not changed, the muscles of the back of head are rigid, there are positive symptoms of Kernig, Brudzinskiy. Heartbeat - 120 in a minute. The orifice of incisive canal is hyperemic during the examination of fauces. A stomach is soft, painless. Defecating and urinations are without changes.

1 Formulate a provisional diagnosis.

2 What must be tactic of doctor of ambulance?

3 Work out a plan of antiepidemic measures.
Task 8

A district doctor examined a sick child of 6 years old. He Complains about a rise of temperature to 38,20С, bad appetite, rash. He is ill during 3 days. At examination a child is languid. A skin is pale, on hairy part of head, face, trunks, extremities there is a polymorphic rash: red spots, papulae, vesicles 3 - 5 mm. in diameter, filled with a transparent liquid. Vesicles are located on the not infiltrated foundation. Other pathological signs of illness are not exposed. A child visited kindergarten before the disease.

1 Formulate a diagnosis of the sick child.

2 Specify possible complications at this pathology.

3 What measures must be carried out with the purpose of warning of disease transmission?
Task 9

Boy M., 1 year and 4 months old, is hospitalized by an ambulance car with complaints about a rise of temperature, hoarseness of voice, frequent “barking” cough, shortness of breath. Became ill acutely at night, when the the rough coughing, hoarseness of voice, appeared during a sleep. In two hours the body temperature rose to 380С, the shortness of breath increased and the child was brought to the hospital.

At examination the status of patient is heavy. Body temperature is 38,80С. Skin is pale, clean, considerable periorbital and периоральный cyanosys is present. There is a hyperemia in a pharynx. Voice is hoarse, a cough is rough, looks like ”barking”. Breathing whistling is heard in the distance, an auxiliary musculature takes part in the act of breathing, expressed indrawing of яремной fossula. Respiration rate 60 in 1 min. During percussion no changes in the lungs are found. During auscultation: there are dry wheezes on either side on a background of weak breathing. Tones of heart are muffled. Heart rate 140 in a minute.

1 Diagnose.

2 Why do similar attacks develop more frequent at night?

3 What rules of hospitalization must be maintained at this disease?


Task 10

Child, 5,5 years old, is ill the first day. A temperature is 37,3oС, there is a small spotted rash of pinky color on face, trunk, extension surfaces of hands, expanded cervical and neck lymphatic nodes are palpated. Mucous membrane of pharynx is mildly hyperemic.

1 What is the most likely disease?

2 Name the basic directions in treatment of patient.

3 Work out a plan of antiepidemic measures.
Task 11

At a child of 4 years old, who visits kindergarten, the body temperature rose to 390С, a cough, cold, conjunctivitis appeared. A temperature remained high for three days, the catarrhal phenomena grew. On the 4th day of illness at examination a conjunctivitis, blepharospasm are present, on the mucous membrane of cavity of mouth there is a rash, spots of Bel'skiy-Filatov-Koplik are present. On the skin of face, behind the ears there is a spotted-papular rash.

1 Formulate the clinical diagnosis.

2 What examinations must be appointed?

3 Prescribe treatment and work out a plan of antiepidemic measures in kindergarten?
Task 12

A child is 7 months old, on the artificial feeding, became ill acutely 6 days ago. The body temperature rose to 38,30С, vomiting appeared. Objectively: there is a languor, retraction of prefontanel, the features are acute, deficit of mass of body is about 10%, a stomach is swollen, defecating is watery, volumetric, to 15 times per day, hot-yellow colored with the admixture of transparent mucus, without the admixtures of blood.

The mother of child had dyspeptic disorders a week ago.

1 What disease is the most probable in this case?

2 What additional examinations must be conducted for clarification of etiology of disease?

3 Name basic directions in treatment of child.


Task 13

A mother with a girl 3,5 years old appealed to the reception of the district paediatrician with complaints on high temperature (to 37,20С) in the first day of disease, frequent cough, which during 5 days increased gradually. Paroxysms of coughing are without reprises, do not have spasmodic character.

Objectively: the general status of patient is satisfactory, a temperature is normal, in lungs there is a hard breathing, wheezes are absent.

In kindergarten in a girl‘s group four children also cough.

1 Make a provisional diagnosis.

2 What information will help you to confirm a diagnosis?

3 Is it necessary to prescribe antibacterial therapy at this disease?

4 Is it necessary to conduct final disinfection in the pesthole?


Task 14

A boy 10 years old, became ill 2 days ago, when he began to complain about the stuffiness in nose, difficulty of the nasal breathing without the signs of cold, head-ache, weakness, enhanced perspiration, pharyngalgia. Objectively: status of patient is medium-heavy. Body temperature is 38,70С. At palpation submandibular, postotic, neck and cervical lymphatic nodes are not soldered between each other and surrounding fabrics, symmetricaly expanded. At examination the mucous membrane of pharynx is hyperemic, the edema of amygdales and the back wall of gullet is present. On the amygdales there is a white patch which is easily taken off.

In a blood test: leucocytes 15х109/l, erythrocytes 3х1012/l, eosinophiles - 3%, stab neutrophiles - 2%, segmented neutrophiles - 15%, lymphocytes - 45%, monocytes - 15%, mononucleares - 20%, ESR - 18 mm/h

1 Formulate a provisional diagnosis.

2 What additional methods of research must be conducted?

3 What complications can be at this disease?


Task 15

A child 6 years old became ill acutely. The body temperature was 380С, was restless at night, complains about head-ache, pharyngalgia, cold, increased perspiration. In the morning, at an attempt to sit down, a pain in a spine, feet and flabbiness appeared. On a 4th day a temperature went down, muscular spasms, cramps appeared. A child was hospitalized. Objectively: body temperature is 37,40С, catarrhal phenomenon in a pharynx, tone of muscles is decreased, tendon reflexes are decreased, positive syndrome of Brudzinskiy, nystagmus, heart tones are weak, systole noise on the apex of heart is.

At infancy a vaccination against diphtheria, whooping-cough, stupor and poliomyelitis was not done to the child.

1 What is the provisional diagnosis?

2 What researches must be conducted for confirmation of diagnosis?

3 What diseases is it necessary to conduct a differential diagnosis with?




Task 16

The mother of boy, 4,5 years old, appealed to the district paediatrician with complaints about irritability, parahypnosiss, itch in area of anus, perineum, privy parts.

1 Formulate provisional diagnosis.

2 What must be done for confirmation of diagnosis?

3 What medicines are appointed for treatment? Their doses.
Task 17

A grandmother of a boy, 7 years old, who during last 3 weeks suffers from paroxysms of the spasmodic coughing with reprises, in the morning after the next paroxysm of coughing saw the picture presented on a figure. No vaccinations were introduced to the child due to the parent’s refuse. CBA: leucocytes 29х109/l, lymphocytes - 68%. Give answers for the followings questions:


  1. What is the most credible disease?

  2. Describe changes on the face of child, represented on a figure. What complications develop at this disease?

  3. How long is latent period at this disease?


Task 18

A 13-years-old boy became ill acutely, body temperature is 38,4°С, tonsillitis, increase of neck lymphatic nodes (figure), splenomegalia and moderate hepatomegalia. CBA: leucocytes 16х109/l, mononucleares - 50%.

Give answers for questions:


  1. What is the most credible disease?

  2. What is the etiology of this disease?

  3. What treatment will you prescribe?


Task 19

A boy, 2 years old, has a body temperature 39,2°С. Became ill acutely. A hemorragic asymmetrical rash is present on a skin. Gramme-negative diplococcuses were found in blood. There are signs of intoxication, in a coagulogram there are signs of syndrome of the disseminated inopexi. Give answers for questions:

1. What is the most credible disease?

2. Describe a rash at this disease, represented on a picture.

3. Specify the latent period of this disease.
Task 20

Child, 10 months old, became ill acutely: febrile fever, hemorragic rash on buttocks and thighs (figure) On the 2nd day of illness has a considerable anxiety, bulging of fontanel, double vomiting, positive meningeal symptoms. Because of a grave condition lumbar punction was not conducted, later in blood gramme-negative diplococcuses were found.

Give answers for questions:

1. What is the most credible disease?



  1. Describe changes on a skin of a sick child, represented on a picture.

  2. Name a calendar of prophylactic vaccinations against this illness.


Task 21

The mother of a boy, 3 years old, appealed to the doctor after four days from the beginning of disease with complaints about a rise in temperature to 40°С, dry cough, cold, redness of eyes. One day ago a spotted-papular rash appeared on the unchanged background of skin behind ears and on face. Later a rash spread to a neck, skin of shoulder girdle. In the common analysis of blood - leucocytes 2,5 х109/l

It is known from anamnesis, that a boy 10 days ago was in contact with a patient which after a rash on a skin had pigmentation.

Give answers for questions:

1. What is the most credible disease?

2. What specific prophylaxis is conducted at this disease?

3. Principles of treatment of this disease.
Task 22

On a 11th day after a contact with an ill person, the girl’s body temperature rose to 39,7°С, a cold, redness of eyes, photophobia, hoarse voice, dry cough appeared; after 4-5 days from the beginning of disease stage-by-stage a spotted-papular rash appeared on the unchanged background of skin behind ears and on face, later - on a neck and trunk, then on lower extremities. A disease was complicated by pneumonia. Give answers for questions:


  1. What is the most credible disease?

  2. What pathognomonic changes on the mucous membrane of mouth are characteristic for this disease in a catarrhal period?

  3. Describe changes on the mucous membrane of mouth cavity of a child, presented on a picture.


Task 23

On a 10th day after a contact with an ill person, a girl’s body temperature rose to 40°С, a dry cough, cold, redness of eyes appeared. After four days from the beginning of disease stage-by-stage a spotted-papular rash appeared on the unchanged background of skin behind ears and on face, later - on a neck and trunk (figure), then on extremities. After a rash during 1,5 weeks there was pigmentation, and then a branny desquamation.

Give answers for questions:

1 What is the most credible disease?

2 How long does a quarantine lasts for children, who were in contact with a patient?

3 Describe changes on a skin of a child on the 2nd day of rash (figure)
Task 24

Mother of a child 5,5 years old, who visits kindergarten, complains about a decrease of his appetite, languor, rise of temperature to 37,5°С and appearance of spotted-papular rash on the skin of face, trunk and extremities, with development of vesicles from these elements during a few hours; some of have a umbilicate retraction in a center. Two weeks ago a child contacted with the sick child with similar rash. Give answers for questions:


  1. What is the most credible disease?

2. Is the specific prophylaxis of this disease conducted by the calendar of vaccinations?

3. Describe a rash on a trunk of a patient, presented on a picture.


Task 25

A boy, 12 years old, during the epidemic ictus in town became ill very acutely: the body temperature rose to 39,8°С, the considerable signs of intoxication, head-ache, chill, pain in eyes at motion, pains in muscles, joints, bones appered. The face is hyperemic, injection of vessels of scleras and conjunctiva, grittiness and moderate hyperemia of pharynx are present. A rash is not present. Give answers for questions:

1 What is the most credible disease?

2 Is there a specific prophylaxis of this disease?

3 What are the principles of treatment of this disease?


Task 26

A child’s (8 years old) body temperature acutely rose to 39,6°С, intense pain appeared in a throat, single vomiting, bright red punctulate rash on the hyperemic background of skin of face, trunk, extremities were present. The most of rash is in the folds of skin (figure). Nasolabial triangle is pale. At examination there is a bright hyperemia of pharynx, expansion of amygdales and submandibular lymphatic nodes. Give answers for questions:

1 What is the most credible disease?

2 How long does it needed to look after contact persons at this disease?

3 Is there any etiotropic treatment at this disease?
Task 27

A child’s (5 years old) body temperature acutely rose to 39,8°С, intense pain appeared in a throat, bright red punctulate rash on the hyperemic background of skin of face, trunk, extremities appeared. The most of rash is in the folds. Nasolabial triangle is pale (figure). At examination there is a bordered bright hyperemia of mucous membrane of amygdales, tongue, soft palate, expansion of amygdales and submandibular lymphatic nodes, on their surfaces there is a dirty white crump, which is easily taken off. Give answers for questions:

1 What is the most credible disease?

2 When will a sick child be able to visit kindergarten?

3 What infectious agent does cause this disease?


Task 28

A child’s (2,5 years old) body temperature acutely rose to 38,8°С, a moderate languor, bad appetite, seromucous excretions from a nose, injection of vessels of scleras and conjunctiva appeared, later right-side conjunctivitis (figure) appeared. Objectively there is moderate hyperemia of pharynx, back wall of gullet, hyperplasia of amygdales, expansion of submandibular and neck lymphatic nodes. A DNA-virus is selected from the epipharyngeal samples. Give answers for questions:

1 What is the most credible disease?

2 What antiepidemic measures are carried out at this disease?

3 What forms of this disease do you know?


Task 29

At a boy, 10 years old, a moderate pharyngalgia, sense of brokenness, intense head-ache appeared after the visit of grandmother. On the third day his body temperature was 38,2-38,9°С. Skin is pale. Examination of pharynx is shown on figure. Submandibular lymphatic nodes are expanded, the edema of fatty tissue spreads to the middle of neck. In spite of treatment in 2 weeks a carditis developed.

Give answers for questions:

1 What is the most credible disease?

2 Describe changes in a pharynx, represented on a picture.

3 In what age are children vaccinated against this disease?
Task 30

A child, 8 years old, complains about a ill-being, rise of body temperature to 38,5°С, moderate pharyngalgia at swallowing during three last days. Objectively: increase of submandibular lymphatic nodes on either side; examination of pharynx: it is swollen, hyperemia is with a cyanochroic tint, rough fibrinous films are present. After the removal of rough fibrinous film the surface of amygdales slightly bleeds. A backterioscopy of sample from a pharynx: there are gramme-positive microorganisms located in pairs, with clublike bulges on ends.

Give answers for questions:

1. What is the most credible disease?

2. What must be the tactic of doctor?

3. What is the specific treatment at this disease?
Task 31

A boy, 10 years old, is ill 6 days. A disease began with appearance of the slight swelling in area of parotid glands. At examination of privy parts there is a bilateral orchitis (figure). After the 4th day slight swelling in area of parotid glands and orchitis diminished gradually, but the general status of patient became worse: complaints appeared about intense head-ache, rise in temperature to 39,2°С, vomiting, rigidity of cervical muscles, positive symptom of Kernig. Give answers for the followings questions:

1 What is the most credible disease?

2 What must be the tactic of the emergency doctor ?

3 Is there a specific prophylaxis of this disease?
Task 32

The three-year old sister of new-born boy became ill of a whooping-cough. After two weeks a boy in age 5 weeks stopped breathing on a background of cough at night (figure). Objectively: body temperature is 36,7°С, a thorax is exaggerated, at percussion: box-like sound. CBA: leucocytes 18х109/l, lymphocytes 73%.

Give answers for the followings questions:

1 What is the most credible disease?

2 What must be the tactic of doctor?

3 When are the vaccinations conducted against this disease?
Task 33

At a child, 8 months old, 8 hours after the rapid arise of body temperature to 40°С, dense petechies and echimoses of awkward shape appeared on the skin of all surface of body (figure). During a few hours the amount of elements of rash considerably increased, in a center of some of them the necrosis appeared, the body temperature continued to grow, a child lost consciousness, vomiting appeared („coffee grounds”). Heart rate - 212 in 1 minute, a pulse is weak, anury, AP 40/10 mm of hg. CBA: leucocytes 38х109/l, stab neutrophiles - 24%, segmented neutrophiles - 52%, ESR -35 mm/h.

Give answers for the followings questions:

1 What is the most credible disease?

2 Describe changes on the skin of child, presented on a picture.

3 What etiotropic treatment is needed at disease.
Task 34

A child, 7 years old, complains about a bad appetite, expansion of neck lymphatic nodes, rapid fatigueability during lessons at school. The diagnostic test of Mantoux is conducted with 2 TU. Hyperemia - 8 mm, papula - 0. A last year's result of test of Mantoux: hyperemia - 15 mm, a papula 9 mm.

Give answers for the followings questions:

1 Estimate the test of Mantoux.

2 Is the revaccination of BCG needed?

3 What must be the tactic?
Task 35

A girl, 8 years old, became ill 7 days ago, whem she began to complain about a lethargy, weakness, rise in temperature to 37,6-37,80C, increased salivation, bad appetite, nausea, disfunction of bowels, a paroxysmal pain in the different parts of abdomen.

From anamnesis: a child eats unwashed fruit and berries often.

Objectively: A child has low mass of body. Skin is pale. Above lungs there is vesicular breathing. An abdomen is soft, at palpation - painless.

1 What is the provisional diagnosis?

2 What researches must be conducted to confirm a diagnosis?

How is it correct to collect feces for research?

3 Prescribe treatment.



```````````````````````````````````Right answers to the tasks

Right answers to the task 1:

1 Yersiniosis, combined form (pseudoappendicularic and gastroenteric), medium-heavy.

2 Bacteriologic examination of excrements and urine, samples from nasopharynx for yersiniosis and pseudotuberculosis. Indirect hemagglutination test with yersiniosis and pseudotuberculosis diagnosticum (pair serums).

3 Chloramphenicol 0,2 х 4 times per day during 7 days.

Suprastinum 0,01 twice a day during 7 days.

Stimulators of phagocyte activity of neutrophiles (methacil) - 0,2 х 3 times - 10-15 days.

Polyvitamines.
Right answers to the task 2:

1 Icteric and dyspeptic syndromes, hepatomegalia.

2 Viral hepatitis type A, icteric form, medium-heavy.

3 CBA, uranalysis on bilious pigments and urobilin, biochemical analysis of blood (bilirubin and its fractions, activity of ALAT, ASAT), determination of markers of hepatitis.


Right answers to the task 3:

1 Whooping-cough, heavy typiform, period of spasmodic cough, apnoea.

2 Treatment: maximal airing; to stop apnoea it is necessary to clean the cavity of mouth from mucus; artificial respiration; massage of heart; water-wet oxygen or oxygen tent; neuroleptics - aminazine 0,6% - 0,2 ml 2 times before daily and nightly sleep; antibiotics - ampicillin 0,15 х 4 times intramuscular; antihistaminic preparations (Tavegil or Diazolinum); ACC.

3 The brother of patient child must be looked after during 14 days. The child of neighbours must be given a human immunoprotein 1,5 ml and be looked after during 14 days (during a latent period).


Right answers to the task 4:

1 A typical scarlatina, medium-heavy form. Infectious-toxic myocarditis.

2 Myocarditis, glomerulonephritis, synoviitis, arthritis, otitis, sepsis.

3 An urgent report to the health service.

Isolation of patient for 22 days. In the group of kindergarten, where the patient was, a quarantine is implemented for 7 days.

During all term of quarantine daily examination of contact persons with a thermometery.


Right answers to the task 5:

1 Poliomyelitis, enteroviral (Coxsackie, ЕСНО) infection.

2 Information about the vaccinations of child, especially against poliomyelitis.

3 Virologic research of samples from nasopharynx, excrements for polivirus, enteroviruses Coxsackie, ECHO. Determination of titre of specific antibodies in pair serums.




Right answers to the task 6:

1 At the prehospital stage: - relanium 2 ml. intramuscular or lythic mixture (aminazine 1 ml. - 2,5%, Dimedrolum 1 ml. - 1,0%, novocaine 4 ml. - 0,5%) 0,1 ml. of mixture on 1 kg of mass of body (2 ml.).

In the hospital:

- disintoxication therapy (10% glucose, albumen or concentrated plasma - 10 ml/kg);

- relanium 2 ml. or sodium oxybutyratis 50-100 mg/kg (5-10 ml);

- osmotic diuretic: manit 1-2 g/kg; - aminophylline 1 ml. - 2,4% / year of life;

- furosemide 2-3 mg/kg;

- prednisolone 3-5 mg/kg at the signs of cerebral edema.

2 Acute dysentery, heavy toxic form.

3 In CBA: anaemia, stab neutrophile changes. In feces analysis: signs of inflammatory process in a colon.


Right answers to the task 7

1 Parotitis infection, combined (parotitis, meningitis) heavy typiform.

2 Hospitalization of patient to the hospital. Give an urgent report to health service.

3 Isolate a patient, quarantine for the contact children in kindergarten for 21 day with daily examination of contact persons and thermometery.


Right answers to the task 8

1 Chicken pox, typical, medium-heavy form.

2 Complications are conditioned by the virus of chicken pox: pneumonia, croup, encephalitis, myelities, meningitis. Complications which are related to joining of the secondary bacterial flora: pustulosis, abscesses, phlegmons, otitides, pneumonia.

3 Give an urgent report to health service. Isolate a sick child for 5 days after appearance of the last element of rash. Children which were not ill at chicken pox and were in contact with a patient are subject to the quarantine from 11 to 21 days from the moment of isolation of patient (in the first 10 days from the beginning of contact with a patient a disease is impossible, because minimum latent period is 11 days).


Right answers to the task 9

1 AVRI, stenosing laryngotracheitis II (subcompensated).

2 Drainage gets worse in horizontal position, the edema of subligamentary space increases, expectoration of mucus is absents, which results in a reflex laryngospasm. A large role is given to increased influence of vagus in a night-time.

3 Hospitalization to the infectious department. An isolation of patients in boxes or semiboxes, or as a last resort, in little chambers.


Right answers to the task 10

1 German measles.

2 Symptomatic therapy: febrifuge preparations at high temperature, drinking in large quantities et cetera.

3 An urgent report to health service. Isolation of patient for 5 days since appearance of rash. For children which were in contact with a patient, an isolation is not needed, but for the group of kindergarten a quarantine is attached for 21 day.


Right answers to the task 11

1 Measles, medium-heavy typiform.

2 Blood test, urines, direct hemagglutination test with a morbillous antigen, determination of antibodies of class M by the method of immune-enzyme analysis.

3 Symptomatic therapy: 20%-sulfacetamide solution for eyes, mixture against a cough, desensitizing therapy, vitamins.

Children, who didn’t have measles, on condition of one time contact the first 7 days can visit kindergartens, and then are quarantined till 17th day, and those, who got an immunoprotein, - to the 21th day. In the pesthole prophylactic examination and thermometery, regular ventilation of apartment are conducted every day. The contact children who were not vaccinated before, because of contra-indications, are urgently vaccinated against measles.
Right answers to the task 12

1 It is possible to suspect an acute intestinal infection.

2 Sowing of excrements with the purpose of selection of infectious agent.

3 Antibacterial, disintoxication (parenterally and oral disintoxication therapy including enterosorbents), rehydratation and replacement therapy, antibacterial preparations.


Right answers to the task 13

1 Parapertussis.

2 For confirmation of diagnosis the selection of infectious agent mucus of nasopharynx and growth of titre of specific antibodies are needed in the pair serums of blood.

3 No. Final disinfection is not conducted. An infectious agent quickly perishes in an environment.


Right answers to the task 14

1 Infectious mononucleosis, medium-heavy typiform.

2 Paul-Bunel-Davidson, Hoff-Bauer, Tomchik, Lovrik-Volner tests (reactions of heteroagglutination) and specific serum tests for antibodies to the Epstein-Barr virus (more frequently the antibodies of class M or G to the viral capside antigen are detected).

3 Haematological: autoimmune hemolytic anaemia, thrombocytopenic purple, rupture of spleen.

Complications applying to the nervous system: bulbar encephalitises.

Suppurative complications: pneumonia, paratonsilitises, otitides, sinuitises.

Acute hepatic insufficiency.
Right answers to the task 15

1 Poliomyelitis, paralytic form.

2 Examination of the epipharyngeal samples, excrements, blood and neurolymph for the polio- and enteroviruses. A serologic method of research of pair serums.

3 Myelities, poliomyelitis, innate myotonia.


Right answers to the task 16

1 Enterobiasis.

2 For confirmation of diagnosis it is necessary to take a material from a perianal area by wooden spatula before the morning toilet with a subsequent microscopy.

3 Vermoxum - 2,5 - 3 mg/kg one time before or after the food intake; combantrin (piranel) one time in the dose of 10 mg/kg during a meal or in 30 mins after.


Right answers to the task 17:

1 . Whooping-cough.

  1. Hemorrhage in sclera.

Complications: dermatorrhagia, conjunctiva, pneumonia, pneumothorax,
emphysema.

  1. Latent period 7- 14 days.


Right answers to the task 18.

  1. Infectious mononucleosis.

  2. Virus of Epstein-Barr from family of herpesviruses.

  3. Symptomatic.


Right answers to the task 19

  1. Meningococcal infection, meningococcemia.

  2. Hemorragic rash, with awkward shape (stellar) on a trunk and extremities on the pale or cyanochroic background of skin.

  3. 2- 10 days.


Right answers to the task 20

1 . Meningococcal infection, meningococcemia, meningococcal meningitis.

  1. Hemorragic asymmetrical rash, with awkward shape (stellar) on a trunk and extremities on the pale background of skin.

  2. No.


Right answers to the task 21

1. Measles.



2. Measles virus vaccine.

3. Symptomatic therapy.


Right answers to the task 22

1 Measles.

2 Spots of Belskiy-Filatov-Koplik on the hyperemic mucous membrane of the mouth cavity opposite a cheek-tooth, later – morbillous enanthema in a pharynx and whitish scurf on gums.

3 Morbillous enanthema (loosening of mucous membrane of the mouth cavity, point hemorrhage on the palate).


Right answers to the task 23

1 Measles.



2 A quarantine lasts from 9 to 17 day of contact, if the globulin was used – to 21 day.

3. Spotted-papular rash on the unchanged background of skin of face and trunk.
Right answers to the task 24

  1. Chicken pox.

  2. No.

  1. Papulae, vesicles on mildly infiltrated foundation, getting dry bubbles (false polymorphism of rash).


Right answers to the task 25

1 Flu.


2 Yes, in preepidemic period.

3 Antiviral therapy (arbidol or remanthadin, tamiflu), symptomatic therapy.


Right answers to the task 26

1 Scarlatina.

2 7 days.

3 Penicillin.


Right answers to the task 27

1 Scarlatina.

2 During 21 -22 day from the beginning of disease.

3 Beta- hemolytic streptococcus of group A.


Right answers to the task 28

1 Adenoviral infection.

2 Isolation of patient, ventilation of apartment, moist cleaning up, mask regimen, ultraviolet radiation.

3 Catarrh of upper airways, rhinopharyngoconjunctival fever, conjunctivitis, keratoconjunctivitis, filmy conjunctivitis, mesadenitis, pneumonia.


Right answers to the task 29

  1. Toxic diphtheria of fauces.

  2. Hyperemia, edema of tongue and pharynx, grey-white rough fibrinous scum, which is heavily taken off.

  3. In 3 months


Right answers to the task 30

  1. Film form of localized diphtheria of pharynx.

  2. Immediate hospitalization of child to the infectious department. An urgent report to health service.

  3. Introduction of antidiphtheric serum.


Right answers to the task 31

  1. Parotitis infection, combined (parotitis, orchitis, meningitis) heavy typiform.

  2. Hospitalize a child to the infectious department.

  3. Yes, mumps vaccine.


Right answers to the task 32

1 Whooping-cough, heavy typiform, apnoea.

2 Hospitalize a child to the reanimation department.

3 Adsorbed pertussis-diphtheria-tetanus vaccine since 3 months, three times with an interval in 30 days.


Right answers to the task 33

1 Meningococcal infection, meningococcemia, syndrome of Waterhouse-Friderichsen.

2 Petechies and echimoses of awkward «stellar» form, some with necrosis in a center.

3 Benzylpenicillin.


Right answers to the task 34

1 Doubtful.

1 No.

3 Additional examination.


Right answers to the task 35

1 Ascaridosis.



2 Examination of excrements on larvae, eggs or mature helmints; CBA. For examination collect 30 - 50g of feces (right after defecation) from different places to the glass or plastic vessel.

3 Vermoxum (mebendasol) 2,5 - 5 mg/kg in 1 hour after the food intake. Course - 2 days.


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