Psilent Productions Dr. Greg Psaltis



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Psilent Productions

Dr. Greg Psaltis

8733 Fernwood N.E.

Olympia, WA 98516

Phone and FAX: (360) 413-5760

e-mail: drpsaltis@orcalink.com

Website: www.psaltis.info
Restore Your Confidence in Pediatric Restorative Care


I. Introduction to Pediatric Restorative Dentistry

A. Why do the primary teeth?

1. Will be present until age 10-12

2. They will be chewing food during greatest period of growth

3. Interproximal caries can lead to space loss

B. Why do the primary anteriors?

1. They help to develope proper speech patterns

2. Young children's self-esteem is often overlooked

C. It's a great time to introduce dentistry to children before they freak out!

D. Practice Builder

1. Treat children well and their parents will stay with your practice

2. Parents do for their children what they won't do for themselves

E. Financially worthwhile

1. With efficient operative, productivity can be high

2. Get children caries-free and recalls are non-stressful production

3. No lab bills


II. Philosophy of Modern Pediatric Restorative Dentistry

A. Prevention

1. Regular checkups

2. Annual bitewings

3. Fluoride treatments

a. Systemic supplements

b. Topical applications

4. Sealants

B. Conservative cutting of teeth

1. Preservation to slow long-term progressive decline

2. Air abrasion techniques

3. Preventive resin restorations

C. Attitude adjustment

1. Positivism

2. Sense of accomplishment

3. High expectations

D. Developmental Chart
Pediatric Restorative Dentistry

III. Diagnosis

A. Dental Development

1. Age of patient and likelihood of retention

2. Clinical mobility

3. Condition of roots

B. Radiographic

1. 70% of lesions in primary teeth are interproximal

2. Look at occlusals on permanent molars-- sometimes show in films

C. Clinical appearance

1. Is a "stick" a "treat" or a "no treat?"

2. Which grooves are involved?

3. What is patient's history (hygiene and caries activity)

D. When do Class II's become stainless steel crowns?

1. Main criterion is likelihood of Class II restoration failure

2. If half of the clinical crown (or more) is broken down, it's a crown

3. If more than 2 surfaces are carious, it's likely a crown

E. Pulp therapy for primary teeth

1. Pulpotomy

a. Consider age of the child and size of lesion

b. If clinical crown is "dished out," plan a pulpotomy

c. If caries are radiographically more than halfway to pulp, do pulpotomy

2. Pulpectomy

a. Consider age of child and clinical condition of tooth

b. Maxillary anteriors and second primary molars are candidates

c. First primary molars are not good candidates

d. If the furcation area is involved, this is a poor candidate

3. Anterior trauma

a. Usually requires no treatment

b. Darkening is actually normal, but not an indication

Pediatric Restorative Dentistry

IV. Treatment Planning

A. Must consider age of patient for length of visit

1. Young children need shorter, earlier appointments

2. Older children (6+) can handle longer, later appointments

B. Number of visits

1. Always try for 1 or 2 visits, with a maximum of 4

2. Consolidate treatments during each visit

a. If space maintainers are needed, restore abutment at banding visit b. If SSC and Class II restorations abut

i. For resins or ionomers, complete restoration, then crown

ii. For amalgams, complete crown first, then restoration

C. Prioritizing

1. Posteriors should always be treated first

a. Longevity of teeth

b. Chew food during child's growth

c. Less traumatic for treatment

d. Often NOT the parents' preference

2. Anteriors should be saved for last

a. Function for speech and smiling are secondary to mastication

b. More difficult to treat comfortably

c. Incentive for parents to continue with treatment of posteriors

3. Referral of abscessed teeth

a. Let oral surgeon complete care with general anesthetic

b. Have exodontia done out of your practice

D. Sequencing of treatment

1. Generally start with mandibular arch first, if possible

2. Try to relieve pain at first visit

3. Save short, simple quadrant for last, as that memory will be held


Pediatric Restorative Dentistry

V. Paraphernalia

A. Mouth prop

1. Extends treatment time by reducing fatigue

2. Enables better access

3. Avoids biting of provider and handpieces

B. Rubber dam

1. Use slit, not individual holes

2. Great for younger children

3. Essential for bonding and sealants

C. Clamps

1. Maxillary teeth

a. Permanent molars= 3, 14, 14A, W5

b. Primary second molars= 3, 8A, W5, W8

c. Primary first molars and biscuspids= 2

2. Mandibular teeth

a. Permanent molars= 3, 14, 14A

b. Primary second molars= 8A

c. Primary first molars and bicuspids= 2

D. Extra short, 30 gauge needles

1. Enhances patient comfort-- barely feel penetration

2. Reduces chances of hematomas


Pediatric Restorative Dentistry
VI. Treatment of Posteriors

A. Primary- Class I and II Restorations

1. Materials

a. Dyract

b. Amalgam

2. Preparations

a. Conservative

b. Use 330 burs/rounded line angles

3. Use wedges

a. Reduces hemorrhaging

b. See prep at contact point more clearly

B. Permanent- Class I and II Restorations

1. Materials

a. Heliomolar

b. Amalgam

2. Preps

a. Preventive resins

b. Traditional alloy preps

C. Stainless steel crown

1. Prep occlusal surface first with diamond wheel

a. Reduces hemorrhage

b. Gives better idea of crown size

2. Prep axial walls with 1170 thin tapered fissure bur

a. Minimal reduction, but break proximal contacts

b. Can reshape prep to the shape of the crown

3. Select crown size

a. Should fit snugly, but must go all the way down

b. Check for crown length- if tissue blanches, trim crown

4. Shape crown

a. Contouring pliers to basic curvature

b. Crimping pliers to engage undercuts of prep

c. With precrimped crowns, these steps are not necessary

5. Cement crown

a. RelyX luting cement

b. ZnPO4 is OK

D. Sealants

1. Dyclone tooth/teeth to be done

2. Use rubber dam with W5 or W8 clamps

3. Clean fissures with 1/2 round bur or air abrasion
VII. Pulpotomy on Primary Teeth

A. Open with any bur into chamber

B. Debride coronal pulp with sharp #8 round bur

C. Hemostasis with dry cotton pellets

D. Fix pulp stumps with Ferric Sulfate or Formocresol

E. Place ZOE packing
Pediatric Restorative Dentistry
"Must-have List"

Mouth props/HuFriedy 1% Dyclone/Astra**
Ferric Sulfate/Ultradent/Direct only Clamps/Ivory

Astringident 15.5% Fe(SO4) W5 and W8 for Dyclone

8A, 3 and 14A for anesthetic
Rubber dam/Hygienic Gray Alastics/Unitek/3M

Suggested List
Ultra-Seal XT/Ultradent/Direct only RelyX luting cement/3M

with 35% Ultra-etch and Primadry cementing crowns

Filtek Supreme Plus A1D (3M) Wedges/Premier
Heliomolar/Vivadent Dyract/Caulk

Anterior strip crowns/3M Unitek SSC's/Unitek/3M

APF Topical Fluoride Foaming Solution/Oral-B Vitapex filling material

KCP1000/American Dental Technologies Matrix bands/Denovo/direct
Flavored N2O nosepieces/Accutron 30G X-short/Astra

VIII. Air Abrasion

A. New Technology

1. Ideal for Sealants

2. Very useful for preventive composites

3. Often eliminates need for local anesthetic

B. Diagnostic Enhancer

1. Instantly separates out stains from caries

2. Eliminates "watch" areas on permanent teeth

C. Marketing Tool

1. Parents are amazed and attracted to the technology

2. Facilitates four quadrant dentistry

D. Consistent with pediatric philosophies

1. Minimal tooth reduction

2. Enhanced comfort for patient

E. Practice Enhancer

1. Fast-- increases productivity

2. Allows sealant repairs at recall visits

3. Exposes some "sealants" as carious lesions
Pediatric Restorative Dentistry
IX. Other Pediatric Restorative Procedures

A. Primary anteriors

1. Cl. III and Cl. V

a. Preps (330 bur)

b. Dyract

2. Crowns

a. Isolate with rubber dam with individually punched holes (small)

b. Alasticks

i. Retract tissue and rubber dam

ii. Hemorrhage control

iii. Leave facial floss to facilitate removal of alastick

c. Caries removal

i. Slow speed round bur

ii. Vitrabond in deep areas (+increases retention)

d. Prep incisal and axial walls

i. Minimal reduction

ii. 1170 bur

e. Fit strip crown forms

i. Must trim away entire "cuff"

ii. Crown should fit snugly

iii. Vent holes in MI and DI angles

iv. Fill 1/2-2/3 full with Filtek Supreme Plus A1D and condense

v. Place over tooth

vi. Remove excess material and light

f. Removing strip crown form

i. Course disk to remove incisal edge

ii. Hollenbeck to "unzip" lingual

iii. Hemostat to remove strip crown

iv. Finish edges with Soflex disks

g. Remove alasticks

3. Pulpotomy and Pulpectomy same as for posteriors

B. Pulpectomy

1. Open with any bur into chamber

2. Debride chamber

a. Similar to permanent tooth-- use files

b. Use sweeping motion for posteriors

c. Not nearly so meticulous as permanent preparations

3. Rinse with hydrogen peroxide

4. Fill chambers

a. Vitapex (CaOH and iodoform paste)

b. Add powder to ZOE and hydraulically condense

5. Post-op film to confirm fill


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