S. mutans was known as the prime causal agent of dental caries, which appear to have protein fractionation on its bacterial wall surfaces. This protein can be use as a vaccine material against tooth infection cussed by S. mutans. To make a choice of vaccine material originating from the bacterial component, it is necessary to recognize components found on the bacterial cell wall surface (i.e. fimbriae, slime layer and bacterial cell wall) its function, especially the function that involved on the pathogenesis of a tooth infection. By understanding the component function, therefore a choice can be made which proteins that form the component candidate can be extracted. Various protein fractions namely: 185 kDa protein, which has an adherence function to the host; 29 k Da protein which support S. mutans aggregation function; 59 kDa protein that can bound to other S. mutans to be form colonization. To establish a vaccine candidate, it is necessary to recognize a specific receptor of the protein on the cell wall surface of the vaccine candidate to be chosen. The specific receptor in this case which related to pathogenesis of dental caries was known as a pellicle or tooth plaque, or salivary component. On the cell wall surfaces of S. mutans, a lot of protein fraction was found which each has a different function. To make a choice of that protein fraction as a vaccine candidate, special attention must be made on the protein function which involved in the pathogenesis of dental caries.