43. GB2389787 - 24.12.2003
PROBIOTIC MICROORGANISM FOR USE AGAINST CAMPYLOBACTER INFECTION
URL EPO = http://v3.espacenet.com/textdoc?F=3&CY=ep&LG=en&IDX=GB2389787
Inventor(s): BAILLON MARIE-LOUISE AMANDA (GB); BUTTERWICK RICHARD FULTON (GB)
Applicant(s): MARS INC (US)
IP Class 4 Digits: A61K; A61P
IP Class: A61K35/74; A61P1/00
E Class: A61K35/74; A23K1/00C2B; A23L1/30M; A23K1/18N2; A23K1/18N
Application Number: GB20030013086 (20030606)
Priority Number: GB20020012975 (20020606)
Equivalent: AU2003277050; CA2487111; WO03105596
USE OF A PROBIOTIC MICROORGANISM, PREFERABLY LACTOBACILLUS, IN THE MANUFACTURE OF A COMPOSITION FOR THE PREVENTION OR REDUCTION OF GASTROINTESTINAL CAMPYLOBACTER INFECTION IN A MAMMALIAN ANIMAL.Description:
(' 1 Mammalian Animal Composition The present invention relates to the use
of a probiotic microorganism in the manufacture of a composition for the prevention or reduction of gastrointestinal 5 Campylobacter infection in a mammalian animal. It also relates to a method for the prevention or reduction of gastrointestinal Campylobacter infection in a mammalian anunal, the method comprising administering to said animal, a probiotic microorganism. The invention also relates to a probiotic microorganism, for use in preventing or reducing gastrointestinal Campylobacter infection in a mammalian 10 animal. Companion animals, particularly dogs and cats, are significant vectors of non-food home gastrointestinal Infection. Decreasing the risk of infection of these animals, and the ability to reduce infection when it does occur plays an important role in reducing 15 zoonotic risk. Zoonotic risk is the risk of transfer of infection from one species to another. Clearly, this includes the risk of transfer of infection Tom companion animals to humans.
In dogs and cats, Campylobacter and E. cold are the predominant gastrointestinal 20 pathogens, causing both clinical and non-clinical infections.
In dogs and cats, faecal shedding of Campylobacter occurs in animals which are infected, whether clinical symptoms are shown or not.
25 Campylobacter is a most common zoonoses, as well as being a common cause of gastroenteritis in humans. It is estimated that 5% of all human C. jejuni-induced enteritis result from exposure to infected dogs or cats.
In view of the zoonotic risk of Campylobacter infection from companion animals to 30 humans, it is recommended that control measures that should be considered, which
( 2 include restricting contact of children with puppies which may be infected, pets which may be infected be kept away from food preparation areas, affected animals should be kept apart from healthy ones and thorough disinfecting of bedding, food bowls etc should be carried out.
As mentioned above, Campylobacter infection in cats and dogs may or may not result in clinical symptoms. Thus it is difficult to know whether any anneal, at any time, is infected or not. A 3 to 7 day incubation period is found in dogs and cats, which may be followed by a diarrhoca that ranges from mild to transient to mucus laden bloody 10 diarrhoca. However, since diarrhoea is symptomatic of an enormous number of problems, including a range of infections, dietary problems (rapid change, over eating, scavenging, food tolerance, food hypersensitivity), neoplasia, inflammatory bowel disease, pancreatitis, metabolic disease, systemic disease, and drug reactions, the noting of diarrhoca in itself cannot be used to diagnose Campylobacter infection.
Accordingly, it would be of benefit to provide means to reduce or prevent Campylobacter infection in the gastrointestinal tract, particularly of companion animals. A benefit is to reduce or prevent Campylobacter infection, without the need for a formal diagnosis of Campylobacter infection. A benefit of reducing or 20 preventing Camypylobacter infection in mammalian animals results in a reduction or prevention of shedding of Campylobacter in farces and thus reduces or prevents the zoonotic risk, particularly to humans.
Accordingly, the present invention provides the use of a probiotic microorganism in 25 the manufacture of a composition for the prevention or reduction of gastrointestinal Campylobacter infection in a mammalian animal.
A probiotic microorganism is one which can help to promote a healthy intestinal tract.
Probiotic microorganisms beneficially affect a host by improving the microbial 30 balance.
/ ( 3 The prevention or reduction of gastrointestinal Campylobacter infection results not only in a reduced presence of Campylobacter in the GI tract, but also, and importantly, reduces or prevents shedding of Campylobacter in faeces. Reduction of the shedding 5 of Campylobacter in faeces is a significant factor in reducing or preventing the transfer of Campylobacter infection from animal to animal, including from companion animal to humans The probiotic microorganism may be any which is known, including one or more Mom 10 the follownB:-
Lactobacillus (such as murin us, rum in us, rh amn as is, acidoph ilus, reuteri or mucosae), Bifidobacterium, Bacterioides, Aostridium, Fusobacterium, Melissococcus, Propionibacterium, Streptococcus, Enterococcus, Lactococcus, 15 Staphylococcus, Peptostrepococcus, Bacillus, Pediococcus, Micrococcus, Leuconostoc, Weisella, Aerococcus, Oenococcus and Eubacterium.
Typically, the Campylobacter infection will be Campylobacter jejuni. This is the most significant strain in humans which causes gastroenteritis. The Campylobacter 20 infection may be any other, including Campylobacter coli, C. upsaliensis, C lard, C. fetus, C. rectus and/or C. hyointestinalis.
The mammalian animal according to the present invention may be any. Preferably, the mammalian animal is a companion animal, such as the domestic dog or the 25 domestic cat. In the present invention, the terms domestic dog and domestic cat mean I dogs and cats, in particular Felis domesticus and Cants domesticus. The present invention also applies to humans.
The composition for the prevention or reduction of gastrointestinal Campylobacter 30 infection may be any composition which a mammalian animal may take. Preferably it
( 4 is a composition which any mammalian animal may consume in its diet. Thus, the invention covers standard food products as well as food snacks. The composition may comprise a cereal product or confectionery, such as snack bars, biscuits and sweet products, including candy and chocolate.
s When the mammalian animal is a companion anumal (a pet animal) the composition may encompass any product which a pet may consume, in particular in its diet. The composition is preferably a dry pet food. Such dry pet foods include dry kibbles comprising a cooked starch source.
The foodstuff may be a cooked product. It may incorporate meat or animal derived materials (such as beef, chicken, turkey, lamb, blood plasma, marrowbone etc or two or more thereof). The composition may alternatively be meat-free (preferably including a meat substitute such as soya, maize gluten or a soya product). The 15 composition may contain additional protein sources such as soya protein concentrate, milk proteins, gluten etc. The composition may contain a starch source such as one or more grains (e.g. wheat, com, rice, oats, barley etc) or may be starch-free. A typical dry commercial dog and cat food contains about 30% crude protein, about 10-20% fat and the remainder being carbohydrate, including dietary fibre and ash. A typical wet 20 or moist product contains (on a dry matter basis) about 40% fat, 50% protein and the remainder being fibre and ash. The present invention is particularly relevant for a composition as hereindescribed which is sold as a diet, foodstuff or supplement for a cat or dog.
25 Further, the composition may be a foodstuff in the form of one or more of a cereal I product, energy bar, breakfast cereal, confectionery, medicament, food supplement or a drink. The supplement may be in the form of a dried powder, tablet, capsules liquid or gel.
30 The probiotic microorganism may be in any form, for example in a powdered dry form f
s or in spore form (for the microorganisms which form spores). The probiotic may be encapsulated in order to protect it from moisture. In addition, the probiotic microorganism may have undergone processing in order for it to increase its survival in any processing. Accordingly, the microorganism may be coated or encapsulated in 5 a polysaccharide, fat, starch, protein or in a sugar matrix. The probiotic microorganism may be in a coating (outer or a layer), or a filling, or it may be admixed throughout the composition.
It may be preferable to avoid the probiotic being in contact with flour as flour contains 10 enzymes which may adversely affect the viability of the probiotic. Standard encapsulation techniques known in the art can be used, and for example, as discussed in US 6,190,591 (which is incorporated by reference herein).
The composition according to the first aspect of the invention may comprise the 15 probiotic microorganism in any concentration, preferably at a concentration of from 103 to 10'5 viable cells per gram of the total composition. This concentration of cells provides a suitable concentration for successful colonization of the gastrointestinal tract and providing the optimum health benefits to the animal. An additional probiotic strain may be present at a concentration of from 103 to 10'5 viable cells per gram of 20 the total composition.
According to a second aspect, the present invention provides a method for the prevention or reduction of gastrointestinal Campylobacter infection in a mammalian animal, the method comprising the administration of a probiotic microorganism to said 25 animal. I Preferably, the probiotic microorganism is comprised in a composition, for example as described above in relation to the first aspect of the invention.
30 All preferred features of the first aspect of the invention, also apply to the second.
( 6 In He method of the second aspect of the invention, the animal is preferably in need of I the prevention or reduction of gastrointestinal Campylobacter infection.
5 The administration of the probiotic microorganism may be by any means or preferably the administration is oral administration (i.e. ingestion).
A third aspect of the present invention provides a probiotic microorganism for use in preventing or reducing gastrointestinal Campylobacter infection in a mammalian 10 animal. All preferred features of the first and second aspect of the invention, also apply to the third. 15 The present invention is described with reference to Me figures. Wherein, Figure 1: Faecal bacteria counts by Fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH): Campylobacter as a % of total population. Showing post-antibiotic (baseline) levels compared to effect of probiotic +/- supplementation for 10 days or 23 days.
20 The present invention will now be described with reference to the following non-limiting examples: Example 1
25 Animal details and husbandry conditions Cats (n=48) housed in catcare 6 were selected for the study (table 1). Catcare 6 had recently been diagnosed with a clinical naturally acquired Campylobacter infection.
The cats were group housed at all times and had constant access to fresh water.
( 7 Four rooms were selected to undergo probiotic +/- treatment.
In the 10 days prior to the begging of the probiotic trial, all cats were treated with antibiotics to control the clinical Campylobacter infection. All cats received Ceporex I 5 (l tablet twice daily for to days). Ceporex contains 50mg cephalexin, a 3rd generation cephalosporin antibiotic. I Feeding regimen lO All cats were group fed according to a standard protocol. Large trays of food containing 400g/cat, being offered once daily at 2pm and left down overnight. The diet was standard canned Whiskas Beef (chunk in loaf).
Probiotic dosing regimen Cats in the probiotic + treatment groups (rooms l and 2) were orally dosed with I Omg (lxlO9 cells) of a freeze-dried preparation of Lactobacillus acidophillus. Deposited under Accession No. NCIMB 41117 once daily after feeding, administered in a gelatin capsule. The probiotic - groups (rooms I I and 12) received no capsule.
Dosing commenced immediately after the cessation of antibiotic therapy and continued for 27 days.
StudY design The study was designed to incorporate measures at key points during the process of antibiotic treatment and recovery. The measures taken were: i Group daily food intakes.
f 8 Weekly bodyweight.
Group farces quality.
Bacterial counts by agar culture and FISH.
Bacterial profiling by API biochemical fingerprinting and ribotyping.
Meodolomr Food intakes 10 Daily food consumption was monitored for each room, being the amount offered minus that refused. Individual food intakes are not available for this study.
Faeces Ouality 15 Group farces quality was assessed daily using the Walthiam Faeces Scoring Guidelines_. Each defecation was graded on a subjective, 17 point scale. Individual; farces scores are not available for this study.
Faecal Bacteria profile Faeces voided overnight were discarded. Every defecation voided between 8am and 4pm was collected into a clean faeces collection pot and used for bacteriological examination. Faeces were processed inunediately in the laboratory under appropriate incubation conditions.
The following bacterial groups were quantified using selective agars: Anaerobic culture of Lactobacilli on MRSa agar (Oxcid) Micro-aerobic culture of Campylobacter on selective agar (LabM)
( 9 In addition, the following bacterial groups were quantified by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH): 5 Clostridfa Lactobacill Campylobacter Methodolov for Campvlobacter enumeration using selective agar A swab of farces was spread onto a plate and incubated microaerobically (5% O2), selecting for single colonies. This method is qualitative and does not provide quantitative information.
15 Statistical Analysis Data were analysed using multifactor ANOVA, with antioxidant supplementation +/-
as the second factor and students t test, as appropriate. Pco.oS was considered significant. Results I Faecal bacteria Plate Counts Lactobacilli were enumerated on three occasions during the study: towards the end of antibiotic therapy following 10 days +/- probiotic treatment following 23 days +/- probiotic treatment I
Total Lactobacilli in faeces were enumerated using de Man, Rogosa, Sharpe (MRS) agar acidified to a pH of 5.0. There was no significant effect of probiotic treatment on absolute numbers of Lactobacilli at any time point.
Campylobacter were enumerated on four occasions during the study: before the start of antibiotic therapy towards the end of antibiotic therapy following 10 days +/- probiotic treatment 10 following 23 days +/probiotic treatment Table 1: % of faeces samples that tested positive for Campylobacter using selective agar. Campylobacter (logo) Probiotic + Probiotic % positive % positive n Pre- antibiotic 100 12 100 12 Post antibiotic 50 12 67 12 10 days +/^ probiotic 67 12 100 I I 23 days +/probiotic 88 17 100 15 This method is qualitative and merely indicates the presence or absence of Campylobacter in faeces samples. Prior to antibiotic therapy, all faeces samples cultured tested positive for Campylobacter, although this was decreased to 59% (overall) by antibiotic therapy. Following 10 days probiotic +/- supplementation, 20 100% of faeces from the probiotic - group tested positive for Campylobacter, but this was decreased to 67% in the probiotic + group. Following 23 days probiotic +/ supplementation, 100% of faeces from the probiotic - group tested positive for Campylobacter, but this was decreased to 88% in the probiotic + group (Table 1).
Probiotic supplementation therefore decreased the prevalence of Campylobacter positive faeces. Re-infection rates were also reduced in the probiotic + group with 67% of faecal samples testing positive for Campylobacter ten days post treatment, compared to 100% of faeces from the probiotic - group. These findings indicate 5 strength resistance of healthy cats to infection with Campylobacter species following supplementation with Lactobacilli acidophilus (Accession No. NCIMB 41117).
Fluorescence in situ hybridization 10 Enumeration of Clostridia, Lactobacilli and Campylobacter by FISH was conducted on four occasions during the study: before the start of antibiotic therapy towards the end of antibiotic therapy following 10 days +/- probiotic treatment 15 following 23 days +/- probiotic treatment Bacterial counts (% total population) are given in Table 2 for Campylobacter and shown graphically in figure 1.
20 There was no significant effect of probiotic supplementation on Lactobacilli as a % of the total population or absolute numbers (logo) at any time during the study.
There was a significant difference between probiotic +/- groups in Clostridia (as a % of the total population as well as a small (less than one logo) but significant (p=0.007) 25 difference in absolute numbers) prior to the beginning of antibiotic therapy. This difference between groups was, however, eliminated by the antibiotic therapy such that at baseline both groups were similar. Administration of probiotics significantly decreased Clostridia (as % of total population) at both 10 and 23 days. This decrease was not reflected in absolute numbers of Clostridia, although at 23 days there was a
small (less than one logo) although significant (p=0.006) difference between the Probiotic +/- groups.
There was no difference in Campylobacter between the groups at baseline. At 10 days 5 +/- Probiotic supplementation, Campylobacter (as % total population) had increased in all 4 groups (figure 1). However, Campylobacter (as % of total population) was significantly reduced in probiotic treated animals compared to negative controls at 10 days (table 2, figure 1). Following 23 days Probiotic supplementation Campylobacter (as % total population) was decreased compared to baseline, but was increased 10 compared to baseline in those animals that did not receive probiotics. At 23 days Campylobacter (as % of total population) was significantly lower in Probiotic treated animals compared to negative controls (table 2, figure 1). This was reflected in absolute numbers at 23 days, with a small (less than one logo) but significant difference between groups.
Table 2: Faecal bacteria counts by FISH: Campylobacter as a /0 of total population.
Campylobacter Probiotic Probiotic - Significance of mean S D n m can S D n di fference Pre-antibiotics 14.27 4.92 1 1 14.48 4.15 10 0.727 Postantibiotics 6.14 3.83 10 5.25 2.3 12 0.494 10 days treatment 12.2 4. 2 12 19.7 9.2 I I 0.02 23 days treatment 3.94 2.58 it 14.06 10.0 I 1 0. 001 O Probiotic supplementation resulted in little difference in Lactobacilli compared to 20 control animals, as measured by both plate and FISH methodology. This finding is unusual in relation to previous findings, when probiotics have been shown to increase the number of beneficial Lactobacilli, and may be due to the compromised health status of the cats in the current study. These cats all had a
( clinical infection of Campylobacter prior to the beginning of the trial and this would be expected to adversely affect the normal microflora of all cats.
O As can be seen, antibiotics decreased the Campylobacter (as a percentage of the total population of faecal bacteria) from 14.38 to 5. 69% (P=C0.05, paired T test).
5 At two weeks, Campylobacter levels had risen in both groups, however, the rise in the probiotic + group was significantly less than in the probiotic - group (12.2 and 19.7% of total population, respectively, P=C0. 05). Although the organism count i decreased in both groups at four weeks, elimination from the probiotic group cats was markedly accelerated (14. 06% of total population in probiotic - and 10 3.94% of total population in probiotic + cats, P0.05). I O Pnobiotic supplementation significantly decreased the levels of potentially pathogenic Campylobacter compared to cats that had received no probiotics.
O The study described herein demonstrates that Lactobacillus acidophilus can improve recovery of the feline gastrointestinal tract from the effects of antibiotic 15 therapy, by decreasing the number of Campylobacter as a % of the total population. This would be expected to decrease recovery time of the cat and therefore decrease the zoonotic risk from faecal shedding of Campylobacter.
Determination of the Anti-Campylobacter Activity of Probiotic Microorganism OBJECTIVE
25 In this study, the ability of potential probiotic strains of bacteria to have an antibacterial effect on Campylobacter jejuni is addressed.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Bacterial strains and culture conditions 5 Campylobacter jejurn cultures were maintained on Mueller Hinton agar (Oxoid) and used as an inoculum for liquid cultures (Mueller Hinton broth, Oxoid) that were grown in 20m1 volumes in 50ml conical flasks shaken on an orbital shaker.
Potential probiotic strains were maintained on MRS agar and cultured in 20rnl 10 volumes in MRS broth under anaerobic conditions.
Experunental set-up (i) Liquid cultures of probiotic strains were set up and incubated Penlight under 15 appropriate conditions. A 11 1oopfi1 of the overnight culture was then used to inoculate the very centre of a 1 50nun MRS agar plate. These large plates were incubated anaerobically overnight to allow the growth from the spot inoculum.
(ii) Pathogenic liquid cultures were set up on the same day as the probiotic spot 20 cultures and incubated overnight. Ovemight pathogen cultures were adjusted to A600 0.4 before inclusion in the assay.
(iii) To 1 5ml of molten MH agar, 200111 of the adjusted pathogen culture was added and swirled gently to mix. This agar/pathogen mix was then poured into a 25 90mm petri dish and allowed to set.
(iv) When pathogen inoculated agar set it was aseptically removed from the petri dish. Two sterile disposable loops were used to remove the agar by gently lining it away from the dish and slowly lowering the agar disc onto the spot of 30 probiotic growth on the 150mm agar plates.
! 15 (v) The agar "sandwich" was incubated overnight at 37 C under aerobic conditions. 5 (vi) After overnight incubation, the zone of no bacterial growth over the probiotic spot was measured and the diameter of the probiotic spot subtracted from this figure. The resulting value is taken as the zone of inhibition.
(vii) All experiments were earned out a minimum of three times for each to strain-pathogen combination.
Anti-Campylobacter Potential of Probiotic Strains Following incubation of the potential probiotic strains with campylobacter jejuni the zones of inhibition were determined for each strain (see Table 3 below).
I Probiotic Strain Average Inhibition Zone (mm) L. acidophilus 19.3 L. ruminus 16.3 L. reuteri 5.3 L. murinus 9.3 L. mucosne 2.7 L. cased 21.3
7, BIIDAPES! TREATY ON THE INTERNATIONAL
RECOGNITION OF THE DU.OSIT OF MICROORGANISMS
FOR THIC Purposes OF rate rRocEDuRc Maolacd NAONAL FORM 6885 EM S - e! Rear IN me cAsx OF AN ORIGmAL DepoBrr V.uia 22101 beead t.t to 1 7.' tar tile USA INT - NATIONAL DEPOSITARY AUTHORITY
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1. ID1CATION OF THE MICROORGANISM
Idcnik Ace given by the A_ numb. Oven tic DEP - rlOR: lNlERNAllONAL DEPOSITORY AUIIrrY: Let-Doris-ocirthr WAL ML 1 NCIMB 41117 M. SAC DAMON WAR PROPOSED MONO - C D"ICNAON
- Tbc anian idified uder I above was acoompiod by: nsc- k'^ecs eawlimbk) IN RECEIIPr AND ACCEI'TANCE This Mimi Dcgoy Aulhorhy accept the oumoor ide - fled up I above, which was Mod by it on 10 Ocaier 2001 (date of the original deposit)' IV. ItECEIPT OF REQUEST. FOR CONVERSION _.. The mi idemiflod under I above was mccived bar this I_ Depositary Audacity on (dam of he orb Hal deposit) Ad a rcqut to convert the ongiosl deposit to deposit under the _t Tresqr was received by it - (A of receipt of request far conversion) V. Al ERNATIONAL DEPOSITARY AUTHORITY _ _ Name: NCIMB Lbi, - Sibs) of person(s) having tlc power to eprcsent the International sitaq Autbori or of authorized Address 13 St Maclur Drive, offcial(s): ibadoa Date: 13 November 2001 AB24 3RY,
Where Rule 6t4(d) aWlies, such date is the date on which the status of Intemational Depositaq Autlwri was acquired.
Form BP. (sole panic)Claims:
( 18 Claims
1. Use of a probiotic microorganism in the manufacture of a composition for the prevention or reduction of gastrointestinal Campylobacter infection, in a 5 mammalian animal.
2. Use, as claimed in claim 1, wherein the probiotic microorganism is Lactobacillus. 10 3. Use, as claimed in claim 2, wherein the probiotic microorganism is Lactobacillus acidophilus.
4. Use, as claimed in any one of claims I to 3, wherein the Campylobacter is Campylobacter jejuni.
5. Use, as claimed in any one of claims 1 to 4, wherein the mammalian animal is a dog, cat or a human.
6. Use, as claimed in any one of claims 1 to 5, wherein the composition is 20 a foodstuff.
7. Use, as claimed in claim 6, wherein the foodstuff is a dry pet food.
8. A method for the prevention or reduction of gastrointestinal 25 Campylobacter infection in a mammalian animal, the method comprising the administration of a probiotic microorganism to said animal.
9. A method, as claimed in claim 8, wherein the probiotic microorganism is comprised in a composition.
( 19 10. A method as claimed in claim 9, wherein the composition is a foodstuff.
A method, as claimed in claim 10, wherein the foodstuff is a dry pet 5 food. 12. A method, as claimed in any one of claims 8 to 10, wherein the administration is by oral ingestion.
10 13. A method, as claimed in any one of claims 8 to 12, wherein the probiotic microorganism is Lactobacillus.
14. A method, as claimed in claim 13, wherein the probiotic microorganism is Lactobacillus acidophilus.
15. A method, as claimed in any one of claims 8 to 14, wherein the Campylobacter infection is Campylobacter jejuni.
16. A method, as claimed in any one of claims 8 to 15, wherein the animal 20 is a cat, dog or a human.
17. A probiotic microorganism, for use in preventing or reducing gastrointestinal Campylobacter infection in a mammalian animal.
25 18. A probiotic microorganism, as claimed in claim 17, which is comprised in a composition.
19. Use of a probiotic microorganism, substantially as hereinbefore described with reference to one or more of the examples.
20. A method for the preventing or reduction of gastrointestinal Campylobacter infection in a mammalian animal, substantially as hereinbefore described with reference to one or more of the examples.