Principles of orthopedics



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PRINCIPLES OF ORTHOPEDICS *Terminology

Two Lectures - Varus/valgus

- FD/FFD/Recurvatum

- Scoliosis/kyphosis/lordosis

- Malrotation/Ante-version

- Pes planus, pes cavus, equinous

- Geno (valgus, varus)

- Halux (valgus, varus)

- Cubitus (valgus, varus)

- Coxa (Magna, vara, valga)

- CTEV


- Malunion, non-union and

delayed unions

- Bone Resorption

- Bone Destruction

- Osteopenia

- Osteoporosis

- Lytic lesion

- Sclerotic lesion

- Monoplegia

- Triplegia

- Diplegia

- Tetraplegia

- Hemiplegia

- Paraplegia





PRINCIPLES OF FRACTURES (A) 45 min * Definition

Four Lectures * Types (simple & comminuted)

(closed & open)

* Mechanism of Injury

* Presentations


(B) 45 min * Diagnosis

* Complications

* Healing of fracture

* Types of union

* Mal and non-union
(C) 45 min Pathological fractures

- Definition

- Presentation

- Investigation

- Treatment
(D) 45 min Fractures in children



GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF * Open vs closed treatment

FRACTURE TREATMENT * Conservative treatment (Tutorial)

Two Lectures - Traction

- Manipulation

- Casting (complete, slab)

- Splinting

* Operative treatment (Tutorial)

- AO principles

- Closed reduction + casting

- Closed reduction + pinning

- Plating

- I.M. nailing

- Ext. fixators



SOFT TISSUE CARE *Ligament Injuries

Two Lectures - ACL, collateral ligaments

- Acute or delayed treatment

- Rehabilitation

*Muscle & Tendon Injuries

- Open & closed injuries

- Acute or later reconstruction

*Acute Compartment Syndrome

- Presentation

- Diagnosis

- Treatment

- Complication



MECHANICAL KNEE DISORDERS *Etiology of different knee injuries

One Lecture *General features (symptoms and signs)

(Tutorial) *General examination

*Useful investigations

*Imaging techniques

*Meniscal injuries

- Presentation

- Examination

- Special tests (McMurray)

- Types of meniscal injury

- Complications

*ACL


- Presentation

- Examination

- Special tests

(Ant. Drawer – Lachman)

- Complications

*Arthroscopic diagnosis & treatment



PERIPHERAL NERVE INJURIES *Types of nerve injuries

One Lecture - Neuropraxia

- Axonotemesis

- Neurotemesis

*Etiology

Special consideration to nerve

entrapment syndrome and common

fractures causing nerve injury

*Presentation and Diagnosis

- Assessment

- Investigations

- EMG

- NC studies


*Fate and Rehabilitation

*Examples (motor and sensory loss)

- Brachial plexus (Erb’s palsy)

- Carpal tunnel syndrome

(median nerve)

- Radial nerve injury at the arm

- Ulnar nerve injury

- Sciatic nerve injury

- Lateral popliteal nerve injury



UPPER LIMB FRACTURES *Fracture clavicle

AND DISLOCATIONS *Shoulder dislocation

Two Lectures *Humerus shaft fractures

(Tutorial) *Supracondylar fractures in children

*Montaggia fracture

*Galeazzi fracture

*Distal radial fractures

*Fracture scaphoid



LOWER LIMB FRACTURES *Pelvic fractures

AND DISLOCATIONS *Acetabular fractures

Two Lectures *Hip dislocations

(Tutorial) *Proximal femoral fractures

*Femoral shaft fractures

*Fracture tibial plateau

*Tibial shaft fractures

*Ankle fractures



PRINCIPLES OF ORTHOPEDICS (1) *Aetiology and D/D

One Lecture - Congenital

- Traumatic

- Neurological e.g. C.P., polio

- Metabolic

- Infection

- Tumours (soft tissues, bone)

- Tumour like lesions

(Bone cysts)





PRINCIPLES OF ORTHOPEDICS (2) *Presentation

Two Lectures - Pain

- Swelling

- Limp

- Deformity



- Loss of function ( ROM)

- Instability

- Locking

- Clicking





PRINCIPLES OF ORTHOPEDICS (3) *Investigations

Two Lectures - Lab

a. Blood

b. Urine

c. Joint aspiration

- RADIOLOGICAL

1. X-ray (Tutorial)

2. Arthrograms. Sinogram

3. CT


4. MRI

5. Bone scan

6. U/S

- EMG and NC



Importance?

How?


When?

- Biopsies

Types

Indications



- Arthroscopy as diagnostic tool

- Others – tuberculin test




PRINCIPLES OF ORTHOPEDICS (4) *Treatment

Two Lectures +Conservative treatment

- Pain control (Medication)

- Orthotics (Tutorial)

- Physiotherapy(Tutorial)

- Cast

- Traction



+Operative treatment

- Pain control

ORIF

Drainage


Arthrodesis

Decompression etc

- Bone and joint saving

( drainage, tumor excision )

- Early restoration of normal

function


- Reconstruction

( ACL, joint replacement )

- Restoration of shape and

mechanical axis (osteotomies)





MECHANICAL DISORDES *Anatomical and physiological

OF THE SPINE overview

Two Lectures *Differential diagnosis of LBP

(Tutorial) (Spondylolysis-Spondylolithesis)

*PID


- Etiology

- Pathological anatomy

- Clinical picture

- Investigations

(imaging techniques)

- Treatment

=Prevention

=Non operative

=Surgical – Indications



SPINAL INJURIES *Definitions

Two Lectures - Stable – unstable

- Neurological status

- Mechanism of injuries
*Pathological anatomy

*Causes of spinal injuries

*Management

- First aid

- Transfer of the patient

- Clinical examination

- Neurological assessment

- Radiological assessment

- Initial treatment

- Definitive treatment

- Post treatment care

- Complications

- Outcome



PYOGENIC BONE AND *Classification

JOINT INFECTION - Duration
Two Lectures Acute, subacute, chronic
(Tutorial) - Route of infection
Hematogenous or exogenous
- Host respsonse
Pyogenic or granulomatous

*Acute osteomyelitis


- Incidence & organism
- Source of Infection
- Pathogenesis

- Clinical picture

- Investigation

- Differential diagnosis

- Treatment
- Prognosis & complications

*Subacute osteomyelitis

- Definition and characteristics
- Radiological types
- Treatment

*Chronic Osteomyelitis

- Causes of chronicity
- Types

- Clinical picture


- Investigation
- Treatment & complications

*Acute septic arthritis


- Organism& route of infection
- Pathology & clinical picture
- Differential diagnosis

- Treatment




CHRONIC SPECIFIC BONE *TB & Brucellosis

AND JOINT INFECTIONS - Etiology

Two Lectures - Pathogenesis

Tutorial - Clinical pictures

- Investigations

- Treatment

- Complications





CDH *Definition

Two Lectures *Spectrum of the disorder

*Etiology & risk factors

*Natural history

*Diagnosis

*Treatment

- Non-surgical & surgical

- According to age

*Prognosis & complications





CTEV *Definition

Two Lectures *Types of clubfoot (TEV)

- Congenital

- Postural

- Secondary



Congenital Clubfoot

*Predisposing factors

*Clinical pictures

- Description of deformity

- Muscle wasting

- Correction

- Secondary changes

- Back examination

- Associated anomalies

*Treatment

- Non-surgical & surgical

- According to age

*Residual deformity

*Recurrence





OSTEOARTHROSIS (O.A.) *Types

Two Lectures - Primary & secondary

- Monarticular & polyarticular

*Etiology & predisposing factors

*Pathogenesis

*Clinical features

*Investigations

*Differential Diagnosis

*Treatment

- Conservative

- Surgical





METABOLIC BONE DISORDERS *Introduction

Two Lectures - Ca & phosphorus metabolism

Tutorial - Nomenclatures

*Rickets & osteomalacia

- Definition

- Clinical picture

- Laboratory Findings

- X-ray pictures

- Treatment

*Hyperparathyroidism

- Definition

- Clinical picture

- Laboratory Findings

- X-ray pictures

- Treatment

*Osteoporosis

- Definition

- Types


(Idiopathic & secondary)

- Clinical picture

- Laboratory Findings

- X-ray pictures

- Prevention

- Treatment





BONE TUMOR *General radiological features

Two Lectures *Classification

Tutorial *Benign tumors and tumor

like conditions

- Simple bone cyst

- ABC


- Osteoid osteoma

- Osteochondroma

- Enchondroma

- Fibrous cortical defect

*Malignant Tumors

- Giant cell tumor

- Osteosarcoma

- Ewings sarcoma

- Bone metastasis

- Multiple myeloma





NEUROMUSCULAR CONDITIONS *Cerebral Palsy (60 min)

Two Lectures - Definition

- Incidence

- Causes

- Risk babies

- Topographic Classification

- Physiological Classification

- Deformities in CP

- Management (aim-methods)

- Surgical treatment

(Goal-Criteria-Options)

*Spina bifida (30 min)

- Definition

- Incidence

- Classification

- Deformities

- Treatment

General principles

Goal and options

*Poliomyelitis (20 min)

- Definition

- Brief general idea about

=Pathophysiology

=Power grading

=Deformities



=Management




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