Primary Species – Dog (2011)
Wrubel et al. 2011. Interdog household aggression: 38 cases (2006–2007). JAVMA 238(6):731-740
Domain 1, TT1.12.a
SUMMARY: This study analyzes factors associated with interdog household aggression and outcomes of different treatment strategies.
A household environment induces physical restrictions and limitations on dogs that can contribute to the development of interdog household aggression. Limited resources in a household can cause them to have a higher value, which may result in tension between cohabiting dogs. Fight eliciting triggers are not restricted to physical resources, but include owner proximity or attention, excitement, which may occur during greetings, play sessions, walks or automobile rides. In addition to actual fights, typical behaviors observed in dogs with interdog household aggression include mounting, blocking, standing over the other dog, postering and staring. It has been postulated that interdog household aggression occur when dogs attempt to establish or reestablish hierarchy or when dominant-subordinate relationship is contested, or circumstances are changing.
38 pairs physically healthy client-owned dogs of different breed, sex and age with detailed history of interdog household aggression were assessed by a veterinary behaviorist and by a certified applied animal behaviorist. Then suitable treatment plans were developed for each pair of dogs and owner were offered 6 months follow-up appointments with unlimited consultation by phone and e-mails over a course of two years.
Treatments for interdog household aggression included avoidance of fight-eliciting triggers, the use of a head collar or trailing leash for physical control, and the use of an aversive citronella spray or physical barrier such as a board to separate fighting dogs.
Other behavioral approaches to resolve interdog household aggression included selection of 1 dog priority access to resources, a senior support program, a nothing-in-life-is-free program, systemic desensitization and counter-conditioning methods, and independence training to reduce alliance aggression.
Medications that increased circulating concentrations of serotonin in the brain like Fluoxetine were administered in case of impulsive aggressions.
The results of the study indicated that interdog household aggression was more common between dogs of the same sex and breed, as well as in dogs that had lived in multiple households, were adopted after the sensitive period for socialization, acquired from a shelter, or were orphaned and raised without littermates. Inconsistent interactions or a lack of leadership in the household worsened the aggressive behavior.
The most commonly recommended treatment in the study, giving 1 dog priority access to resources, nothing-in-life-is-free program, and psychotropic medications, were rated the most efficient by the dog owners. Meanwhile behavior treatments provided consistency and predictability, so that the dog learned successfully how to behave in the environment in order to receive resources, the study revealed that psychotropic medications were effective as an adjunctive treatment by reducing anxiety-eliciting triggers.
The findings of this study indicated that interdog household aggression can be treated and that consistency and predictability of social interactions were essential in resolving this issue.
1. Which of the following behavior treatment strategies were used in the study?
a. Selection of 1 dog priority access to resources
b. Senior support program
c. Nothing-in-life-is-free program
d. Systemic desensitization and counter-conditioning methods
e. Independence training
f. All of the above
2. True or False. Psychotropic medications like Fluoxetine are very effective as sole treatment for interdog household aggression.
3. What is essential to obtain successful results when recommending behavior treatments like 1 dog priority access to resources or others?
a. Psychotropic treatments should always be performed jointly with behavior treatments
b. Consistency and predictability
c. Frequent follow-up calls by the owner
1. Correct f.
Breshears and Brunker. 2011. Pathology in Practice. JAVMA 238(6):707-711
Domain 1: Management of Spontaneous and Experimentally Induced Diseases and Condition; Task T3: Diagnose disease or condition as appropriate
SUMMARY: A 2 year old intact female Weimaraner presented for vomiting, anorexia, cachexia, and lethargy. A CBC revealed normocytic, normochromic anemia, and serum chemistry revealed hypoalbuminemia, azotemia, hyperphosphatemia, high amylase, and low triglycerides. Urinalysis showed low specific gravity, low pH, 2+ protein, 100 WBCs/hpf, and 4+ bacterial rods and cocci. Abdominal radiographs and ultrasound revealed markedly small kidneys (normal kidneys are 2.5-3.5 times the length of L2) that were hyperechoic and had distended pelves.
Necropsy: Both kidneys were small, irregularly nodular and pale tan with fibrous bands running through the cortices. Parathyroid glands were bilaterally enlarged. The gastric mucosa contained a few erosions.
Histopathology: In kidney sections there was abundant collagen within the cortical and medullary interstitium that formed dense bands between nodules of renal parenchyma. Cortical tubules were dilated and lined by flattened epithelium with mineralization of basement membranes. Glomeruli varied from shrunken capillary tufts surrounded by dilated Bowman’s spaces to thickened and hypercellular tufts attached to Bowman’s membranes by synechiae. Leptospira-specific immunohistochemical staining was negative.
Diagnosis: Severe, diffuse, interstitial renal fibrosis with tubular degeneration, glomerulosclerosis, and multifocal lymphoplasmacytic interstitial nephritis; mild and diffuse lymphoplasmacytic cystitis; erosive gastritis with necrosis and mucosal mineralization; parathyroid gland chief cell hyperplasia.
Comments: The clinical signs and findings are supportive of a diagnosis of chronic renal failure. The anemia was most likely caused by decreased erythropoietin production secondary to the renal impairment. Other findings related to the renal failure include uremic gastritis, renal secondary hyperparathyroidism with parathyroid gland chief cell hyperplasia, and soft tissue mineralization. Renal lesions in young dogs with an obscure pathogenesis are categorized as juvenile nephropathy. Renal dysplasia, a type of juvenile nephropathy, refers to anomalous differentiation and disorganized development of renal parenchyma and has microscopic features such as undifferentiated mesenchyme, immature glomeruli, and primitive ducts. Juvenile nephropathies have been reported in families of Golden Retrievers, Pembroke Welsh Corgi, Cocker Spaniel, and Dutch Kooikers.
Normocytic, normochromic anemia in an animal with renal disease is most likely attributable to _____
Blood loss from gastric erosions
Decreased erythropoietin production
Normal kidney size in dogs is ____
2.5-3.5 times the length of L1
1.5-1.8 times the length of L2
2.5-3.5 times the length of L2
2.5-3.5 times the width of L1
In young animals, chronic renal lesions that have an obscure pathogenesis are classified as ____
Acute kidney failure
List four breeds of dogs with a familial predisposition to juvenile nephropathies
Golden Retriever, Pembroke Welsh Corgi, Cocker Spaniel, Dutch Kooiker
Aulakh et al. 2011. What Is Your Diagnosis? JAVMA 238(6):699-702
SUMMARY: A 6-year-old castrated male Golden Retriever presented with a 5-day history of regurgitating all solid food after eating; dog was able to retain water and liquid food. The dog had an 11-month history of coughing and gagging that resulted in occasional vomiting or regurgitating. PE revealed only mild to moderate dental tartar. Body condition score was 4 out of 9. CBC, serum biochemical analysis, and urinalysis: normal.
Radiographs of the thorax were obtained (need to look at article for figures). Figure 1 (radiograph) - A large soft tissue mass measuring approximately 15 X 12 X 13 cm is present in the caudodorsal aspect of the thorax causing displacement of the bronchi and deformation of the adjacent diaphragm. Figure 2 (radiograph) - The caudodorsal aspect of the cardiac silhouette appears compressed by the mass. Positive-contrast esophagraphy revealed that the esophagus was displaced dorsally along the periphery of the mass. CT scan - suggestive of a cystic or fluid filled structure that was causing bronchial and esophageal compression, leading to coughing and regurgitation.
Treatment: Surgical exploration revealed that there was a fluid filled mass that was removed. Contained a sterile exudates and evidence of chronic irritation and inflammation. Diagnosis: Mediastinal fluid filled mass. Dog died post-surgically despite aggressive supportive care.
Discussion: The fluid filled mass in this dog was not a true cyst because it did not contain the epithelial lining that would normally be seen with a cyst. Cause was not grossly or histologically apparent. Possible diagnosis – esophageal perforation leading to chronic inflammation. Esophagraphy failed to reveal evidence of such a perforation or communication of the mass with the esophagus.
What diagnostic evaluation is helpful in distinguishing an intra-esophageal from an extra-esophageal lesion?
What type of cell lining would most commonly be seen in a mediastinal cyst?
What are possible causes of mediastinal cyst?
Positive Contrast Esophagraphy.
Esophageal perforation by a foreign body.
Rawlinson et al. 2011. Association of periodontal disease with systemic health indices in dogs and the systemic response to treatment of periodontal disease. JAVMA 238(5):601-609
Task 1: Prevent, Diagnose, and Control Disease
SUMMARY: This prospective study was conducted to determine whether the severity of peridontal disease was associated with systemic health indices in dogs. Authors also wanted to determine whether treatment of peridontal disease altered systemic health indices. Authors chose 38 healthy dogs of various sizes, breeds, and either sex with signs of peridontal disease for the study. Diagnostic work up prior to disease treatment included: completing physical exams, blood chemistries, CBCs, urinalysis, and measurement of serum C-reactive protein. Tooth roots were scored for gingivitis and attachment loss, just prior to peridontal disease treatment.
Authors findings from this study indicated increasing severity of attachment loss was associated with changes in systemic inflammatory variables and renal indices. Treatment of peridontal disease significantly affected only the BUN, with higher concentrations after treatment. Authors noted a decrease in C-reactive protein concentration with more severe peridontal disease.
Limitations to the study are the small sample size, broad scope, and limited follow up period. The study helps lay a foundation for more extensive research to pursue the systemic impact of peridontal disease.
1. What is the most common physical examination finding in all age categories of dogs?
b. Renal Disease
c. Oral Disease
d. Skin Disease
2. Which are signs of gingivitis?
a. Hypermia of gingiva
c. Edema of gingival
d. All of the above
3. Name the term used to describe infection of the nongingival components of periodontium.
4. ______________ score represents the patient's active inflammation burden at the time of examination; whereas ______________loss measures the amount of destruction resulting from peridontal disease in the past as well as the present.
4. Gingivitis score; Attachment
Schwartz and Beale. 2011. What Is Your Diagnosis? JAVMA 238(5):565-568
Domain 1: Management of Spontaneous and Experimentally Induced Diseases and Conditions
SUMMARY: This article reviews the case of a 4-month-old male intact Pug who was presented for a protrusion from the caudal aspect of the sternum. The dog was otherwise acting normally and healthy. Upon physical exam, no other abnormalities were found and the dog was completely eupnoeic.
Radiographs were taken to evaluate the thorax and cranial abdomen. In the lateral view it was evident the sternum contained 7 rather than 8 sternebrae. There was also moderate ventral deviation of the sternum at the xiphoid. A ventral protrusion of soft tissue could be visualized along the caudal edge of the last sternal segment. On the ventrodorsal view, there was widening of the mediastinum; however, this is considered normal for a Pug.
The dog was diagnosed with pectus carinatum. This developmental deformity is characterized by a protrusion abnormality of the sternum with idiopathic overgrowth of the costal cartilages and can include the absence of a sternal segment. In humans afflicted by this anomaly, the patient can develop a rigid chest wall whereby the chest diameter is retained in an inspiratory state and may lead to respiratory inefficiencies. Congenital cardiac anomalies and/or scoliosis can occur simultaneously with pectus carinatum in the cat or the dog. Thus, upon diagnosis, the clinician should evaluate the animal for cardiovascular disease through diagnostics such as physical exam, electrocardiography, echocardiography, and blood gas analysis. Although the ventral protrusion will not appear on radiographs due to its cartilaginous nature, thoracic radiographs are useful in to evaluate the patient for lung compression, mediastinal displacement, cardiac silhouette, or scoliosis.
According to the owner, the condition described in this particular dog was no longer clinically evident 4 months after the initial evaluation.
1. How many sternebrae are typically found in the dog:
2. In addition to a potential for scoliosis, which body system is most likely to have congenital cardiac anomalies simultaneous with pectus carinatum in the cat or dog?
1. c. 8. (this Pug had 7 in the case of pectus carinatum)
Fiani et al. 2011. Clinicopathologic characterization of odontogenic tumors and focal fibrous hyperplasia in dogs: 152 cases (1995-2005). JAVMA 238(4):495-500
Task 1: Prevent, Diagnose, and Control Disease
SUMMARY: This retrospective study was conducted to characterize clinicopathologic features of the most common odontogenic tumors and Focal Fibrous Hyperplasia (FFH) in dogs. Authors obtained signalment; history; and clinical sign information from 152 dogs at a veterinary teaching hospital. A board certified pathologist and 3 investigators reviewed fixed H/E slides from each dog. Canine Acanthomatous Ameloblastoma (CAA); Peripheral Odontogenic Fibroma (POF) and FFH were the 3 most common lesions. Histologic criteria was used to classify these lesions. Most dogs had CAA present in the rostral aspect of the mandible. POF and FFH were commonly located in the rostral aspect of the maxilla. Authors found castrated male dogs more represented to have POF.
1. Which of the following tissue types are odontogenic tumors derived from?
d. All of the above
2. Which is characterized by dense fibrous connective tissue that lacks odontogenic epithelium?
a. Canine Acanthomatous Ameloblastoma
b. Peripheral Odontogenic Fibroma
c. Focal Fibrous Hperplasia
d. None of the above
3. T/F: Odontogenic tumors are generally considered to be rare and their histologic identification challenging.
Grimes et al. 2011. Identification of risk factors for septic peritonitis and failure to survive following gastrointestinal surgery in dogs. JAVMA 238(4):486-494
Domain 1- Management of Spontaneous and Experimentally Induced Diseases and Conditions
SUMMARY: A retrospective cohort study on 225 gastrointestinal surgeries (197 dogs) was performed to identify risk factors associated with septic peritonitis and death. The authors evaluated the records at the University of Georgia Veterinary Teaching Hospital of dogs who underwent gastrointestinal surgery from 1998-2007. Each surgery was evaluated as a specific event even if dogs had multiple surgeries. Information regarding history, clinicopathologic findings, surgery characteristics, and outcome were collected.
In 16% of cases (35 surgeries), dogs did not survive to be discharged from the hospital. Dogs developed postsurgical peritonitis in 12% of the cases (28 surgeries). In the case of 45 surgeries (20% of cases), dogs had preoperative septic peritonitis which persisted postoperatively in 17 of the 45 dogs and contributed to death in 15 of the 45 dogs. Of the 180 dogs that did not have preoperative septic peritonitis, 11 dogs developed septic peritonitis postoperatively.
Presurgical diagnosis of septic peritonitis is an established risk factor for failure to survive. Each surgery was counted as a separate case, but dogs that had multiple surgeries also had an increased risk of failure to survive. It was not determined how many dogs that did not survive had multiple procedures. The association of low plasma protein concentration presurgically and postoperative complications or failure to survive is controversial in the current literature. In this study, the authors found low preoperative serum albumin and plasma protein concentration were significantly associated with septic peritonitis and death after surgery. Other risk factors of postoperative septic peritonitis were previous abdominal surgery, preoperative septic peritonitis, and intraoperative hypotension. Interestingly, it was found that the presence of a foreign body was a protective factor against postoperative death and development of septic peritonitis. Although not all risk factors can be resolved prior to surgery, it is recommended that aggressive perioperative attempts to increase protein concentrations and intraoperative surgical strategies will decrease the chance of a poor outcome.
1. T/F: Postoperative administration of corticosteroids increases the chance of death in dogs with preoperative septic peritonitis
2. Enteric healing is impaired when septic peritonitis is present due to a lack of _______ that is important in wound healing
3. Intraoperative (hypertension/hypotension) may represent an important therapeutic target to maximize clinical success.
Fenty et al. 2011. Identification of hypercoagulability in dogs with primary immune-mediated hemolytic anemia by means of thromboelastography. JAVMA 238(4):463-467
Domain 1 – Management of spontaneous and experimentally induced diseases and conditions. Task 3 – Diagnose disease or condition as appropriate.
SUMMARY: Thromboembolism is the most common complication in dogs with primary immune-mediated hemolytic anemia. Thromboembolism has been associated with numerous factors including treatment with immunosuppressive drugs. Previous studies have not specifically evaluated pro-coagulative states prior to administration of treatment in dogs with primary IMHA. PT and PTT reliably identify hypocoagulable states. High plasma fibrinogen, high d-dimer count, fibrin degradation products, low platelet count, and low plasma antithrombin activity are unreliable indicators of hypercoagulable states. Thromboelastography evaluates both plasma and cellular components of hemostasis by measuring the viscoelastic changes that occur during the interaction between fibrinogen, platelets, and the protein coagulation cascade.
The study compared standard coagulation tests as well as thromboelastography of 11 dogs with primary IMHA ( prior to treatment with immunosuppressive drugs, blood transfusion, or anticoagulants) to that of 20 healthy dogs.
Thromboelastography parameters (and factors that affect them): R – the interval from initiation of analysis until the detection of clot formation (clotting factors and inhibitor activity), K – interval to clot formation (clotting factors, fibrinogen, platelets), Alpha – the rate of clot formation and the rapidity of fibrin buildup and cross-linking (concentration of platelets, fibrinogen, clotting factors), MA – widest point of tracing (fibrin and platelet bonding), used to derive clot shear elastic modulus (global G)
Values consistent with hypercoagulability include a reduced R, reduced K, increased alpha, increased MA, and increased G. The thromboelastography tracings of all 11 dogs with IMHA were hypercoagulable when compared with control dogs. The R values were not significantly different between groups. The hypercoagulable state may be a precursor to clinically evident thrombosis and results suggest that institution of anticoagulation treatment may be warranted early in the course of the disease. Potential mechanisms/factors affecting hypercoagulability include release of procoagulant thromboplastin from the membranes of lysed RBCs, alterations in coagulation factors, platelet activation, hypoxia, release of inflammatory mediators, endothelial injury, and altered blood viscosity.
Platelet count can effect clot formation. All dogs in the study had platelet counts greater than 63,000. Results of thromboelastography may vary considerably in dogs with concurrent moderate or severe thrombocytopenia.
An acute phase inflammatory protein produced by the liver. It is cleaved into fibrin monomers by thrombin, at which point coagulation is activated.
Formed when plasmin degrades cross-linked fibrin.
The prothrombin time evaluates
The intrinsic coagulation cascade pathway
The extrinsic coagulation cascade pathway
A. (B describes D-dimers)
B. (The extrinsic pathway is also known as the tissue factor pathway. The intrinsic pathway, aka contact activation pathway, is evaluated by the aPTT.)
Brenseke et al. 2011. Pathology in Practice. JAVMA 238(4):445-448
Domain 1: Management of Spontaneous and Experimentally Induced Diseases and Conditions
SUMMARY: A 12-year-old neutered male Cocker Spaniel was presented for inappetence and lethargy for 6 months’ duration, generalized pyoderma with crusting of 3 weeks’ duration, and loose feces and vomiting of 2 days’ duration. He had been treated with antimicrobials and anti-inflammatories in the past. Upon physical exam, he was depressed, weak, and recumbent. TPR findings were high-normal. Signs of dermatitis were noted and included coalescing erosions and ulcers with exudation and thick adherent crusts on the paw pads and claw beds of all feet, ventral aspect of the thorax and abdomen, and mucocutaneous junction of the eyes, mouth, and anus. Serum biochemistry noted: low albumin and calcium, and high ALP and ALT. The dog was euthanized. Necropsy revealed a diffusely nodular liver (nodules 0.5-2cm in diameter).
Histopathologic examination of skin sections revealed a distinctive red (parakeratotic hyperkeratosis and crusting), white (pale swollen keratinocytes), and blue (hyperplastic basal cells) layering of the epidermis. Sections of the liver showed extensive parenchymal collapse with nodular regeneration. Inflammatory cells consisted of macrophages, lymphocytes, and plasma cells. The morphologic diagnosis: superficial necrolytic dermatitis and nodular hepatopathy consistent with hepatocutaneous syndrome. This is a necrotizing skin disorder of aged results that results from metabolic hepatic disease. The dermatologic lesions predominate over the ventral aspect of the abdomen, mucocutaneous junctions, pressure points, and distal portions of the extremities. Secondary skin infections along with pruritis and pain are common. The combination of the skin lesions and the distinctive vacuolar hepatopathy characterized by lipid-laden hepatocytes, parenchymal collapse, and nodular regeneration led to the post-mortem diagnosis in this case. Circulating liver enzyme values are typically elevated and plasma amino acid concentrations are low. The idiopathic liver lesions are suggestive of underlying metabolic, hormonal, or toxic cause. Ultrasonographic evaluation of the liver reveals an almost pathognomonic Swiss cheese-like appearance. The syndrome can also (although less commonly) develop in animals with other derangements in nutrient metabolism without liver involvement such as glucagonomas.
The primary signalment is: older small-breed dogs. Superficial necrolytic dermatitis has also been reported in cats and captive black rhinoceroses. The prognosis is poor and treatment consists of parental and oral administration of supplemental amino acids, zinc, and essential fatty acids; or if the underlying cause is identified as a glucagon-secreting pancreatic neoplasm, surgical excision is indicated.
T/F: Superficial necrolytic dermatitis is pathognomonic of hepatocutaneous syndrome.
T/F: the most common signalment for hepatocutaneous syndrome is aged, small breed dogs.
T/F: The prognosis for hepatocutaneous syndrome is very good.
T/F: The clinical chemistry of a dog affected with hepatocutaneous syndrome is decreased liver enzyme values denoting a chronic duration and increased plasma protein values due to inflammation.
False. Superficial necrolytic dermatitis can also be a superficial manifestation of metabolic derangement caused by a glucagon-secreting pancreatic neoplasm.
False. Hepatocutaneous syndrome carries a very poor prognosis with typical survival times of less than one year.
False. The liver enzyme values are elevated whereas serum protein values are decreased.
Woldemeskel and Grice. 2011. Pathology in Practice. JAVMA 238(3):297-300
Domain 1, T3 & T4
SUMMARY: This was a case study on a 12 year old spayed female Jack Russell Terrier with a mass in her axillary area. The mass was found to be firm and non-painful. Radiographs found the mass was external to the thoracic wall with no evidence of metastasis. The mass was removed and histology found a well-circumscribed, encapsulated, cellular neoplasm with bundles of spindles to polygonal cells. Stands of eosinophilic acellular material with chondroid and osseous trabeculae with neoplastic cells were noted. It was diagnosed as an extraskeletal chondroblastic osteosarcoma. About 1% of osteosarcomas are extraskeletal osteosarcomas in dogs and develop in the absence of primary bone lesions. They can develop in the eyes, GI tract, urinary tract, liver, spleen, mammary and thyroid glands, subcutis, skin, muscles, testes, vagina, or adrenal glands. In humans, this is a rare malignant mesenchymal neoplasm. They tend to develop in deep soft tissues in the lower part of the limb. Metastases sites in humans are lungs, regional lymph nodes, and bones. In dogs, metastasis is common but metastasis to the lungs is less common than in dogs with osteosarcoma. The dog in this case, had a recurrence of the neoplasm in the previous site within 2 weeks of removal and euthanasia was elected.
1. Name 3 common sites of extraskeletal osteosarcomas in dogs.
2. Where in the human body do extraskeletal osteosarcomas tend to develop?
3. Name 3 common sites of metastases in humans.
1. Eyes, GI tract, urinary tract, liver, spleen, mammary and thyroid glands, subcutis, skin, muscles, testes, vagina, and adrenal glands
2. Deep soft tissues of the lower parts of the limbs
3. Lungs, regional lymph nodes, and bones
O’Marra et al. 2011. Treatment and predictors of outcome in dogs with immune-mediated thrombocytopenia. JAVMA 238(3):346-352
SUMMARY: The purpose of this study was to characterize the clinical course of disease and identify prognostic indicators for immune-mediated thrombocytopenia in dogs.
Medical records from 73 dogs with a clinical diagnosis of IMT and a platelet concentration < 50,000 cells/µL were reviewed. Data included signalment, relevant clinical history, clinical signs, duration and cost of hospital stay, complications, use of blood transfusions, survival of dog to discharge, and results of diagnostic imaging and histologic analysis.
2 important factors were identified as prognostic indicators for IMT:
1) Presence of melena on initial PE was associated with a lower probability of survival, which most likely represented GI mucosal bleeding secondary to thrombocytopenia.
2) The presence of high BUN concentration at hospital admission was associated with a decreased probability of survival, which is most likely due to gastrointestinal hemorrhage, dehydration due to blood loss and/or renal disease.
A diagnosis of both immune-mediated thrombocytopenia and immune-mediated hemolytic anemia is termed?
Why is vincristine prescribed for dogs with immune-mediated thrombocytopenia?
Facilitate release of platelets from the bone marrow
Chemotherapy for underlying neoplasm
Treat underlying rickettsial disease
Which is not a common secondary cause of immune-mediated thrombocytopenia?
Ko et al. 2011. Efficacy of oral transmucosal and intravenous administration of buprenorphine before surgery for postoperative analgesia in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy. JAVMA 238(3):318-328
SUMMARY: The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of pre-operative administration of buprenorphine, an opioid partial µ-receptor agonist, (via oral transmucosal (OTM) and IV routes) for postoperative analgesia in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy (OHE). Dogs were allocated to 3 groups (6 dogs/group) and assigned to receive buprenorphine (20 ug/kg, intravenously (IV), a low dose 20 ug/kg via OTM administration, and a high dose OTM 120 ug/kg immediately before anesthetic induction with propofol and maintenance with isoflurane for an OHE. The authors’ hypothesized that the higher dose of buprenorphine administered via the OTM route would be more effective in providing postoperative analgesia in dogs that would the lower dose administered via the OTM or IV routes.
To assess the efficacy and duration of the drug, a single dose of buprenorphine was administered as the sole premedication. The principal investigator was the only aware of the treatments given to each dog.
The dogs were administered buprenorphine on the basis of their respective treatment groups (listed above). For the OTM administration, a syringe was placed in the cheek pouch and the drug was slowly administered over a period of 1 to 3 minutes to ensure the drug didn’t drip out. For the IV treatment group, buprenorphine was administered as a single bolus over a period of 1 minute. After administration of buprenorphine, the dogs were induced with propofol, intubated, maintained on isoflurane, and then surgically prepped for a routine OHE. Surgeries were performed by the same surgeon throughout the study.
Post-surgical monitoring was performed by 2 trained observers who were unaware of the treatment assignments for the dogs. The observers scored the dogs throughout the day and after midnight. Heart rate, respiratory rate, and noninvasive blood pressure were measured and recorded immediately before buprenorphine administration (baseline values) and 3 minutes after anesthetic induction. To assess pain elicited on palpation of the surgical site, the authors sought to standardize their scoring by using The Dynamic Interactive Visual Analogue Scale or DIVAS (previously used in another study) and a palpometer. The DIVAS consist of 3 phases of assessment: phase 1-dog assessed while undisturbed, phase 2-dogs were approached, spoken to, and gently encouraged to walk or move, and phase 3-dogs abdomen was palpated firmly by the evaluator. For phase 3, a palpometer was used to control the pressure applied to the surgical site. When postoperative pain was assessed, if it was determine d that postoperative pain exceeded a predetermined threshold, rescue analgesia was provided. Blood samples were collected and liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry were used to determine plasma concentrations.
The results of the study demonstrated that there was no significant difference among treatment groups in body weight, surgical duration, propofol dose, isoflurane concentration, and cardiorespiratory variables. In addition, of the 18 dogs in the study, 9 required rescue analgesia. Of the 9 dogs, 5 had plasma buprenorphine concentrations [file:///C:/Users/Owner/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image002.gif] 0.16 ng/mL at the time of rescue analgesia.
In conclusion, the authors determined that 120 µg of buprenorphine/kg administered via the OTM route before OHE was an effective analgesic with minimal intraoperative and postoperative adverse effects.
1. Buprenorphine is an GABA receptor partial agonist? T/F
2. Which of the following routes of administration for buprenorphine, pre-operatively, was determined to be efficacious for canines undergoing OHE?
A. 100µg/kg IV
B. 120µg/kg OTM
C. 1200µg/kg OTM
D. 5 ug/kg SC
1. F. Partial µ-receptor agonist
2. B. 120 µg of buprenorphine/kg administered via the OTM
Clemens et al. 2011. Retroperitoneal pyogranulomatous and fibrosing inflammation secondary to fungal infections in two dogs. JAVMA 238(2):213-219
Domain 1 - Management of Spontaneous And Experimentally Induced Diseases and Conditions, T3 - Diagnose disease or condition as appropriate, T4 - Treat disease or condition as appropriate
SUMMARY: This article is a case report of two dogs with retroperitoneal fungal infections causing pyogranulomatous inflammation and fibrosis.
Dog 1 presented with an inguinal mass and severe acute hind limb edema and erythema after previously unsuccessful antibiotic therapy. Radiographs, ultrasound imaging, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a dense mass in the retroperitoneal region encircling the caudal aorta and iliac arteries and obstructing venous return. The mass was debulked at surgery, and cytology and histopathology were negative for fungal organisms. Urine antigen testing was weakly positive for Histoplasma capsulatum antigen. The dog presented shortly after release for recrudescence of clinical signs, at which time treatment with itraconazole was started. The dog developed a cutaneous drug reaction and was switched to fluconazole, and after 23 weeks of treatment, all lesions and clinical signs had resolved.
Dog 2 presented after the referring veterinarian found a retroperitoneal mass and abdominal visceral abnormalities on exploratory laparotomy. On referral surgery, the left kidney was hydronephrotic and was removed. The left ureter was dilated proximally and surrounded distally by a fibrotic retroperitoneal mass. The mass was debulked, and cytology and histology were both negative for fungal organisms. The dog returned several months later for recurrent fever, cough, and dermatitis. Radiography revealed regrowth of the original mass, and the dog was taken to surgery for additional debulking. This time, histology revealed yeast cells compatible with Blastomyces dermatitidis. Urine antigen testing was negative for Blastomyces. The dog was treated with fluconazole for 36 weeks and made a full recovery.
Similar cases of retroperitoneal fibrosis have been reported in humans secondary to a number of etiologies, but retroperitoneal mycoses are extremely uncommon in dogs. Imaging studies are useful in characterizing lesions and affected structures in retroperitoneal diseases. The false negative diagnostics in these dogs are attributed to low fungal burden in the lesions. Corticosteroids are sometimes indicated in mycotic infections where local vital structures are compromised due to inflammation and fungal infiltration; however, anti-inflammatory corticosteroids require increased duration of antifungal therapy and should only be given after initiation of antifungal treatment.
1. Which of the following are typical sites for blastomycosis?
e. All of the above
2. Which of the following are typical sites for histoplasmosis?
b. Bone marrow
c. Intestinal tract
e. All of the above
3. Corticosteroids are contraindicated in mycotic infections.
4. Common hematological findings in patients with mycosis include all of the following EXCEPT:
Olby et al. 2011. Clinical progression of X-linked muscular dystrophy in two German Shorthaired Pointers. JAVMA 238(2):207-212
Domain 1/Task 4
SUMMARY: This article describes the clinical progression of X-linked muscular dystrophy in two German Shorthaired Pointers (GSHP) referred to the North Carolina State University Teaching hospital for evaluation in a novel long-term follow-up monitoring .
Dogs with dystrophin deficiency are important to study for possible treatments in X-linked human disorders, Duchenne's muscular dystrophy (MD) and Becker's MD. Dystrophin gene mutations have been characterized only in Golden Retriever, Rottweiler, Pembroke Welsh Corgis, and Cavalier King Charles Spaniels, although dystrophin deficiency is the most likely cause for muscular dystrophy.
Two five-month-old full sibling male GSHP were referred for evaluation of poor growth, skeletal muscle atrophy, trismus, wide-based pelvic limb stance, and episodic collapse and coughing. Initial physical examination included neurologic evaluation, serum biochemical analysis, and CBC. The results were a mildly shortened stride, elevated CK and ALT activities and mild lymphocytosis. Abdominal ultrasonography and pre and postprandial bile acids concentration excluded liver disease. Biopsy samples were obtained from the biceps femoris, cranial tibial, and triceps brachii muscles. Microscopic analysis of these samples revealed an increased number of myofibers with central nuclei, clusters of necrotic myofibers, hyaline fibers and perimysial fibrosis. Based on the histologic analysis muscle sections were evaluated immunohistochemically for presence of dystrophin, but no dystrophin immunoreactivity was detected suggesting a complete deletion of the dystrophin gene as seen in inherited myopathies.
Four month after the initial examination, both dogs were reevaluated for coughing, besides severe, generalized muscle atrophy. The results of thoracic radiography were in one dog consistent with aspiration pneumonia and antimicrobial treatment was initiated.
Both dogs were continued to be evaluated at 21 and 43 months of age. It was noticed during the physical examinations that the degree of muscle atrophy hadn't changed since the second evaluation at 9 months of age, though Duchenne's cardiomyopathy was detected in the myocardium, particularly in the left ventricular free wall through echocardiography.
At 43 months of age both dogs revealed marked hypertrophy of the cervical musculature and detectable hypertrophy of the lateral head of the triceps brachii muscle. Except for the intermittent episodes of mild aspiration pneumonia, clinical signs didn't worsen in either dog during the next 4 years. Both dogs were euthanized at 84 and 93 months because of severe complications of aspiration pneumonia. Although these dogs had many of the clinical signs commonly associated with MD in dogs, these 2 GSHP had mild phenotypes, given the extensive size of the deletion within the X-chromosome resulting in dystrophin deficiency.
As a results of this study the author suggests that a complete lack of dystrophin protein may be less detrimental to muscle membrane integrity than is a truncated, partially functional dystrophin protein, and that genetic mutations are not perfectly predictive of clinical phenotype in affected dogs. Therefore, in a clinical setting, clinicians must rely on results of clinical examination and monitor the development of clinical consequences to provide owners with a prognosis.
1. Based on the results of this study, the author suggests that complete lack of dystrophin protein may be less detrimental to muscle membrane integrity than is a truncated, partially functional dystrophin protein resulting in milder phenotypic expression.
2. Which of the following clinical signs have been described for the MD in GSHP?
a. Poor growth
b. Skeletal muscle atrophy
d. Wide-based pelvic stance
e. Shortened stride
f. Episodic collapse and coughing
g. All of the above
3. Both GSHP studied had a complete deletion of the dystrophin gene?
4. The phenotypic expression of inherited muscular dystrophy is strictly correlated to the mutation or lack of the dystrophin protein and therefore predictable.
1. a. True
2. g. All of the above
3. a. True
4. b. False
Peters et al. 2011. Comparison of surgical variables and short-term postoperative complications in healthy dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy or ovariectomy. JAVMA 238(2):189-194
SUMMARY: This clinical trial was conducted to determine whether differences in surgical variables and short-term post-operative complications are detectable between dogs that had an ovariohysterectomy (OHE) vs. dogs that had an ovariectomy (OVE). Various ages and breeds of healthy female dogs were used in the study. No significant differences were noted with weight, body condition, and health of these dogs. Half of the dogs received OHE vs. half received OVE. All dogs received the same anesthesia and perioperative pain management plan. All surgeries were conducted by a single board certified experienced surgeon. Trained senior veterinary students systematically scored post operative pain and surgical wound characteristics.
Authors did not detect significant differences between dogs that underwent OVH and those that underwent OVE with respect to surgical time, postoperative short term complications, pain scores, or surgical wound scores. This suggests that either surgery method for altering healthy female dogs have equivalent outcomes.
1. What is a common cause of death after OVH in dogs?
2. Name some short term postoperative complications associated with OVH in dogs.
3. What is typically the most difficult part of performing OVH for students?
1. Intra-abdominal hemorrhage
2. Blood loss; wound erythema; wound swelling; incision site discharge; wound dehiscence; post operative pain
3. Exteriorization of the ovaries and ligation of the ovarian pedicles
Breshears et al. 2011. Pathology in Practice. JAVMA 238(2):167-170
Domain 1: Management of Spontaneous and Experimentally Induced Diseases and Condition
Task T3: Diagnose disease or condition as appropriate
SUMMARY: A 2-year-old male mixed-breed dog had depressed mentation, vomiting, diarrhea of 1 month’s duration accompanied by recent onset of anorexia, tachypnea, and tachycardia. The dogs feces was mixed with mucus and frank blood. The dog had high BUN and serum creatinine concentrations and isosthenuria. Abdominal radiography and ultrasonography revealed bilateral renal enlargement and enlargement of mesenteric and iliac lymph nodes. Cytologically, extramedullary hematopoiesis was evident in samples from the spleen. Fine needle aspirates obtained from the liver were sanguineous and contained a moderate number of nucleated cells, which included large lymphocytes with round nuclei that were 2 to 2.5 times as large as the diameter of an erythrocyte with dispersed chromatin and indistinct nucleoli. Cytoplasm was scant and deeply basophilic. Because of the worsening clinical condition and poor prognosis the dog was euthanatized and a necropsy was performed.
Necropsy: Grossly, both kidneys were distorted by well-demarcated, multifocal to coalescing, and variably sized pale tan nodules. The liver had an enhanced lobular pattern and was mildly friable. Microscopic examination of tissues revealed diffuse sheets of neoplastic lymphocytes that infiltrated the cortical interstitium of the kidneys as well as the connective tissue of portal and centrilobular regions of the liver. Similar neoplastic cells were present in bone marrow specimens. The mitotic rate was relatively high.
Histopathology: Sections from kidney showed neoplastic lymphocytes which were positive for CD3 (T-lymphocyte marker) and negative for CD79a (B-lymphocyte marker). Other lesions included mineralization of the alveolar septa, pulmonary vessel walls, bronchiolar basement membranes, and epithelium within the lung; mineralization, inflammation, and erosion within the gastric mucosa; mineralization and necrosis within the muscular layer of the stomach wall; and mineralization of tubular epithelium and basement membranes within the kidneys.
Diagnosis: A diagnosis of Lymphoma was made. Lymphoma is one of the most common neoplasms of domestic animals. There are different types of lymphoma. The multicentric form of lymphoma, with symmetric involvement of peripheral lymph nodes and other organs or tissues (including liver, spleen, tonsils, cranial mediastinum, and other organs) is the most common distribution pattern in dogs; alimentary, thymic, and cutaneous types follow in decreasing order of frequency. Solitary lymphoma, in which the neoplasm is confined to 1 site, develops rarely in dogs. Most (approx 70%) lymphomas in dogs are of B-lymphocyte origin. Other types include T-cell lymphomas and null-cell type (which lack both B-cell and T-cell markers). Dogs with T-cell lymphomas may be at greater risk of relapse following treatment and remission and have a poorer long-term prognosis than dogs with B-cell lymphomas. It has been reported that dogs with T-cell lymphoma can have hypercalcemia. Potential causes of hypercalcemia in dogs include primary hyperparathyroidism, hypercalcemia of malignancy (pseudohyperparathyroidism), hypervitaminosis D, adrenal gland insufficiency, lytic bone disease, and granulomatous inflammatory disease. In the dog of this report, pseudohyperparathyroidism associated with lymphoma was suspected; resulting from the production of parathyroid hormone–related protein by neoplastic cells and can cause Soft tissue mineralization involving multiple organs.
What is a null lymphoma?
List 4 potential causes of hypercalcemia in dogs.
Most (approx 70%) lymphomas in dogs are of -------------origin
b. T- lymphocyte
c. Both B and T-lymphocytes
d. Null cell type
From the following select a T- lymphocyte marker.
c. Both a and b
1. Lymphoma that lacks both B-cell and T-cell markers
2. Primary hyperparathyroidism, hypercalcemia of malignancy (pseudohyperparathyroidism), hypervitaminosis D, adrenal gland insufficiency, lytic bone disease, and granulomatous inflammatory disease.
Miyakawa et al. 2011. Pathology in Practice. JAVMA 238(1):51-54
Domain 1; Task 3: Diagnose disease or condition as appropriate
SUMMARY: A 7.5 year old spayed female Collie was referred for continuous left forelimb lameness during the preceding 5 months. Radiography of the left forelimb revealed osteolytic and periosteal proliferative lesions associated with the articular surface of the proximal portion of the left humerus. Thoracic radiography and abdominal ultrasonography revealed sterna, thoracic, iliac, and abdominal lymphadenomegaly. A bone marrow aspirate sample was moderately cellular and hemodiluted with low numbers of megakaryocytes as well as myeloid and erythroid progenitor cells. Moderate numbers of ruptured cells and rare intact cells with pale blue cytoplasm that had an amorphous to linear blue pattern were present.
Fine needle biopsy samples were obtained from the medial iliac and abdominal lymph nodes. On examination, clumps of deteriorated cells with extracellular, nonpigmented, septate fungal hyphae were present. Cultures grew colonies characterized microscopically by biverticilate conidiophores, typical of the genus Penicillium. Morphologic diagnosis was systemic penicilliosis with neutrophilic and macrophagic lymphadenitis and granulomatous osteomyelitis.
Differential diagnoses for branching, nonpigmented, septate hyphae included: Aspergillus spp, Penicillium spp, Fusarium spp, and Paecilomyces spp. Speciation of fungal isolates is usually achieved via examination of fruiting structures formed in culture, with confirmation by PCR. In cooler climates worldwide, 200 or more known species of Penicillium are found in soil, decaying vegetation, seeds, and grain. Most species are considered nonpathogenic for humans and other animals. Opportunistic infections with this organism have increased in recent years due to the increased prevalence of immunosuppression and opportunity for foreign travel. Disseminated fungal infections appear to be related to local climate and to predisposing immune defects in the affected individual.
Most colonies of the species Penicillium are:
T/F: Differential diagnoses for branching, nonpigmented, septate hyphae include Paecilomyces spp and Histoplasma spp.
T/F: Most species of Penicillium are considered nonpathogenic for humans and other animals.