Passage 1 Passage 2 Although great natural barriers hindered east-west development in Canada, this circumstance was mitigated by the mighty river and lake systems that provided avenues for the fur trader, missionary, soldier, and settler. Canada's rivers and lakes allowed and, indeed, invited venturesome pioneers to explore the interior of the continent and in spite of natural barriers, to tap its great wealth. The rivers and lakes were essential to the great fur empire; people in canoes brought furs from the farthest extremity of the Canadian Shield to Montreal for exportation to Europe. The first settlements spread along the rivers, since only the rivers provided transportation and communication. Militarily, rivers and lakes were of prime importance; whoever controlled the St. Lawrence and its entrance also controlled Canada.
1. What is the main subject of the passage?
(A) The barriers to east-west communication in Canada
(B) The role of rivers and lakes in Canadian development'
(C) The adventures of Canadian settlers
(D) The development of the Canadian fur empire
2. Which would be an example of the type of barrier the author refers to in line I ?
(A) A military fort (B) An ancient feud
(C) A political border (D) A mountain range
3. According to the passage, rivers and lakes were important in the fur trade as
Passage 3 Stars have been significant features in the design of many United States coins and their number has varied from one to forty-eight stars. Most of the coins issued from about 1799 to the early years of the twentieth century bore thirteen stars representing the thirteen original colonies.
Curiously enough, the first American silver coins, issued in, 1794, had fifteen stars because by that time Vermont and Kentucky had joined the Union. At that time it was apparently the intention of mint officials to add a star for each new state. Following the admission of Tennessee in 1796, for example, some varieties of half dimes, dimes, and half-dollars were produced with sixteen stars.
As more states were admitted to the Union, however, it quickly became apparent that this scheme would not prove practical and the coins from 1798 on were issued with only thirteen stars-one for each of the original colonies. Due to an error at the mint, one variety of the 1828 half cent was issued with only twelve stars. There is also a variety of the large cent with only 12 stars, but this is the result of a die break and is not a true error.
1. What is the main topic of the passage?
(A) The teaching of astronomy in state universities
(B) Stars on American coins
(C) Colonial stamps and coins
(D) The star as national symbol of the United States
2. The word "their" in line 1 refers to
(A) stars (B) features (C) coins (D) colonies
3. The word "bore" in line 3 is closest in meaning to which of the following?
7. Why was a coin produced in 1828 with only twelve stars?
(A) There were twelve states at the time. (B) There was a change in design policy.
(C) Tennessee had left the Union. (D) The mint made a mistake.
Passage 5 In spite of the wealth of examples of urban architecture in older cities, both in Europe and in the United States solutions to current problems of the physical decay of cities in the United States have come slowly. The first reaction after the war was to bulldoze and build bright new towers and efficient roadways, but these solutions did not respond to people By the close of the 1960's it became more common to deal gently with the' existing' urban fabric and to insert new buildings in such a way as to complement the physical and social environment; in other cases valued buildings have been rehabilitated and returned to economic productivity. A particularly striking example is the rehabilitation of Ghirardelli Square, San Francisco. This, hillside mélange of nineteenth-century commercial buildings clustered around a chocolate plant, was purchased in 1962 by William Roth to forestall wholesale development of the waterfront as a district of high-rent apartment towers. Nearly all of the nineteenth-century buildings were retained and refurbished, and a low arcade was added on the waterside. There are several levels, dotted with kiosks and fountains, which offer varied prospects of San Francisco Bay. Perhaps most telling is the preservation of the huge Ghirardelli sign as an important landmark; it is such improbable, irrational, and cherished idiosyncrasies which give cities identity and character.
1. The author's main purpose in the passage is to describe
(A) the differences between urban architecture in Europe and in the United States
(B) the most striking features of San Francisco's scenic waterfront district
(C) nineteenth-century buildings in twentieth-century cities
(D) characteristics of recent solutions to urban architectural problems in the United States
2. According to the passage, after the war many of the attempts of urban architects failed because