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PRACTICE TEST 51 May 1992



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PRACTICE TEST 51

May 1992


Passage 1
In 1781 twelve families trooped north from Mexico to California. On a stream along the desert's edge they built a settlement called Los Angeles. For many years it was a market town where nearby farmers and ranchers met to trade.
Then in 1876 a railroad linked Los Angeles to San Francisco and, through San Francisco to the rest of the country. The next year farmers sent their first trainload of oranges east. By a new railroad provided a direct route between Los Angeles and Chicago.
Then in the 1890 's oil was discovered in the city. As derricks went up, workers built many highways and pipe lines. Digging began on a harbor that would make Los Angeles not only an ocean port but also a fishing center. The harbor was completed in 1914. That year the Panama Canal opened. Suddenly Los Angeles was the busiest port on the Pacific Coast.
Today the city is the main industrial center in the West. It produces goods not only for other West Coast communities but also for those in other parts of the country. It leads the nation in making air planes and equipment for exploring outer space. Many motion pictures and television programs are filmed in Los Angeles. The city is also the business center for states in the West Improvements in transportation are the main reason for Los Angeles' growth

1. According to the passage what was the main commercial activity of Los Angeles during the years directly following its settlement?

(A) Fruit growing (B) Oil drilling

(C) Fishing (D) Trading
2. According to the passage in which year were oranges first shipped from Los Angeles to the East Coast by train?

(A) 1781 (B) 1876 (C) 1877 (D) 1890


3. San Francisco is mentioned in the passage for which of the following reasons?

(A) The settlers who founded Los Angles came from San Francisco.

(B) San Francisco linked Los Angeles with the rest of the country

(C) San Francisco was a market town where farmers came to trade.

(D) Oil was discovered in San Francisco in the 1890's.
4. Where in the passage does the author state the principal cause of the expansion of Los Angeles?

(A) Line 5 (B) Line 7 (C) Line 11 (D) Lines 15-16



Passage 3
The term 'virus is derived from the Latin word for poison. or slime. It was originally applied to the noxious stench emanating from swamps that was thought to cause a variety of diseases in the centuries before microbes were discovered and specifically linked to illness. But it was not until almost the end of the nineteenth century that a true virus was proven to be the cause of a disease.
The nature of viruses made them impossible to detect for many years even after bacteria had been discovered and studied. Not only are viruses too small to be seen with a light microscope, they also cannot be detected through their biological activity, except as it occurs in conjunction with other organisms. In fact, viruses show no traces of biological activity by themselves. Unlike bacteria, they are not living agents in the strictest sense Viruses are very simple pieces of organic material composed only of nucleic acid, either DNA or RNA, enclosed in a coat of protein made up of simple structural units.(Some viruses also contain carbohydrates and lipids.) They are parasites, requiring human, animal, or plant cells to live. The virus replicates by attaching to a cell and injecting its nucleic acid.' once inside the cell, the DNA or RNA that contains the virus' genetic information takes over the cell's biological machinery, and the cell begins to manufacture viral proteins rather than its own.

1. Which of the following is the best title for the passage.

(A) New Developments in Viral Research (B) Exploring the Causes of Disease

(C) DNA: Nature’s Building Block (D) Understanding Viruses
2. Before microbes were discovered It was believed that some diseases were caused by

(A) germ-carrying insects (B) certain strains of bacteria

(C) foul odors released from swamps (D) slimy creatures living near swamps
3. The word "proven" in line 4 is closest meaning to which of the following.

(A) Shown (B) Feared (C) Imagined (D) Considered


4. The word nature" in line 6 is closest in meaning to which of the following?

(A) Self-sufficiency (B) Shapes (C) Characteristics (D) Speed


5. The author implies that bacteria were investigated earlier than viruses because

(A) bacteria are easier to detect (B) bacteria are harder to eradicate

(C) viruses are extremely poisonous (D) viruses are found only in hot climates
6. All of the following may be components of a virus EXCEPT

(A) RNA (B) plant cells (C) carbohydrates (D) a coat of protein




Passage 4
Dancer Martha Graham trained her body to move in different ways and in different contexts from any before attempted, "life today is nervous, sharp, and zigzag," she said. "It often stops in midair. That is what I aim for in my dances." She insists she never started out to be a rebel. It was only that the emotions she had to express could not be projected through any of the traditional forms.
This was in 1925. All forms of art were undergoing a revolution. The theories of psychology were being used to extend the boundaries of poetry, music, and painting.
Martha Graham's debut dance concert in her new idiom occurred on April 18, 1926. Connoisseurs of dance, gathered at the Forty-eighth Street Theater in New York, witnessed Martha Graham's first foray into this new realm of dance. They saw, through such dance sequences as "Three Gobi Maidens." and "A Study in Lacquer, desires and conflicts expressed through bodily movements. These critics agreed that something entirely new. a departure from all previous forms, had been witnessed.
In the early thirties, she founded the. Martha Graham School of Contemporary Dance. Her classes were used as a laboratory for her stage works, and her stage works in turn were a means for attaching new pupils to her school-a sort of self-winding process, with herself as the key to the development.
Martha Graham and the school she has founded are virtually synonymous with the modern dance. She had not only produced a technique of the dance. choreographed and taught it, but her disciples have gone out to fill the modern dance world.

1. What does the passage mainly discuss.

(A) Martha Graham' S development of modern dance

(B) The revolution of art forms in the i920' s

(C) A dancer's view of life

(D) The Martha Graham School of Contemporary Dance
2. It can be inferred from the passage that in the beginning of her career, Martha Graham’s mode of dance was

(A) readily accepted (B) considered rebellious

(C) virtually ignored (D) accepted only in New York
3. It can be inferred from the passage that Martha Graham's style of dance differed from traditional dance in the

(A) type of movements (B) speed of the performance

(C) variety of themes (D) ages of the performers
4. In lines 16, the author uses the phrase "a sort of self-winding process" to illustrate

(A) the new steps Graham developed for dance

(B) the relationship between Graham's performances and her school

(C) the discipline demanded in Graham's school

(D) the physical endurance of Graham' 3 dancers
5. According to the passage, what is the present status of Martha Graham's work?

(A) It is historically interesting, but is no longer popular.

(B) It has evolved into something completely different.

(C) It is carried on by her students.

(D) It causes heated debates


Passage 5
If the salinity of ocean waters is analyzed. it is found to vary only slightly from place to place. Nevertheless. some of these small changes are important. There are three basic processes that cause a change in oceanic salinity. One of these is the subtraction of water from the ocean by means of evaporation-conversion of liquid water to water vapor. In this manner. the salinity is increased. since the salts stay behind. If this is carried to the extreme. of course. white crystals of salt would be left behind: this. by the way. is how much of the table salt we use is actually obtained.
The opposite of evaporation is precipitation. such as rain. by which water is added to the ocean. Here the ocean is being diluted so that the salinity is decreased. This may occur in areas of high rainfall or in coastal regions where rivers flow into the ocean. Thus salinity may be increased by the subtraction of water by evaporation. or decreased by the addition of fresh water by precipitation or runoff.
Normally in tropical regions where the Sun is very strong, the ocean salinity is somewhat higher than it is in other parts of the world where there is not as much evaporation. Similarly, in coastal regions where rivers dilute the sea salinity is somewhat lower than in other oceanic areas.
A third process by which salinity may be altered is associated with the formation and melting of sea ice. When seawater is frozen, the dissolved materials are left behind. In this manner. seawater directly beneath freshly formed sea ice has a higher salinity than it did before the ice appeared. Of course. when this ice melts, it will tend to decrease the salinity of the surrounding water.
In the Weddell Sea, off Antarctica, the densest water in the oceans is formed as a result of this freezing process, which increases the salinity of cold water. This heavy water sinks and is found in the deeper portions of the oceans of the world.

1. What does the passage mainly discuss?

(A) The bodies of water of the world (B) The elements of salt

(C) The many forms of ocean life (D) The salinity of ocean water
2. According to the passage, the ocean generally has more salt in

(A) coastal areas (B) tropical areas (C) rainy areas (D) turbulent areas


3. All of the following are processes that decrease salinity EXCEPT

(A) evaporation (B) precipitation (C) runoff (D) melting


4. Which of the following statements about the salinity of a body of water can best be inferred from the passage?

(A) The temperature of the water is the most important factor.

(B) How quickly the water moves is directly related to the amount of alt.

(C) Ocean salinity has little effect on sea life.

(D) Various factors combine to cause variations in the salt content of water.
5. The word "it" in line 19 refers to which of the following?

(A) Sea ice (B) Salinity (C) Seawater (D) Manner


6. Why does the author mention the Weddell Sea?

(A) To show that this body of water has salinity variations

(B) To compare Antarctic waters with Arctic waters

(C) To give an example of cold-water salinity

(D) To point out the location of deep waters

7. Which of the following is NOT a result of the formation of ocean ice?

(A) The salt remains in the water (B) The surrounding water sinks

(C) Water salinity decreases (D) The water becomes denser
8. What can be inferred about the water near the bottom of oceans?

(A) It is relatively warm. (B) Its salinity is relatively high.

(C) It does not move. (D) It is formed by melting sea ice.



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