Practice test 47 3 practice test 48 8

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May 1993

Passage 1
With its radiant color and plantlike shape, the sea anemone looks more like a flower than an animal. More specifically, the sea anemone is formed quite like the flower for which it is named, with a body like a stem and tentacles like petals in brilliant shades of blue, green, pink, and red Its diameter varies from about six millimeters in some species to more than ninety centimeters in the giant varieties of Australia. Like corals, hydras, and jellyfish, sea anemones are coelenterates. They can move slowly, but more often they attach the lower part of their cylindrical bodies to rocks, shells, or wharf pilings. The upper end of the sea anemone has a mouth surrounded by tentacles that the animal uses to capture its food. Stinging cells in the tentacles throw out tiny poison threads that paralyze other small sea animals. The tentacles then drag this prey into the sea anemone's mouth. The food is digested in the large inner body cavity. When disturbed a sea anemone retracts its tentacles and shortens its body so that it resembles a lump on a rock. Anemones may reproduce by forming eggs, dividing in half or developing buds that grow and break off as independent animals.

1. The word "shape" in line 1 is closest in meaning to which of the following?

(A) Length (B) Grace (C) Form (D) Nature

2. According to the passage, which of the following statements is NOT true of sea anemones?

(A) They are usually tiny. (B) They have flexible bodies.

(C) They are related to jellyfish. (D) They are usually brightly colored.
3. It can be inferred from the passage that sea anemones are usually found

(A) attached to stationary surfaces (B) hidden inside cylindrical objects

(C) floating among underwater flowers (D) chasing prey around wharf pilings
4. The word "capture" in line 8 is closest in meaning to which of the following ?

(A) Catch (B) Control (C) Cover (D) Clean

5. The word "disturbed" in line 11 is closest in meaning to which of the following?

(A) Bothered (B) Hungry (C) Tired (D) Sick

6. The sea anemone reproduces by

(A) budding only (B) forming eggs only

(C) budding or dividing only (D) budding, forming eggs, or dividing
7. Where does the author mention the sea anemone's food - gathering technique

(A) Lines 1-2 (B) Lines 4-6

(C) Lines 7-10 (D) Lines 11-13

Passage 2
Steamships were first introduced into the United States in 1807, and John Molson built the first steamship in Canada(then called British North America) in 1809. By the 1830's dozens of steam vessels were in use in Canada. They offered the traveler reliable transportation in comfortable facilities-a welcome alternative to stagecoach travel, which at the best of times
could only be described as wretched. This commitment to dependable river transport became entrenched with the investment of millions of dollars for the improvement of waterways. which included the construction of canals and lock systems. The Lachine and Welland canals. two of the most important systems. were opened in 1825 and 1829, respectively. By the time that Upper and Lower Canada were united into the Province of Canada in 1841. the public debt for canals was more than one hundred dollars per capita. an enormous sum for the time. But it may not seem such a great amount if we consider that improvements allowed steamboats to remain practical for most commercial transport in Canada until the mid-- nineteenth century.

1. What is the main purpose of the passage?

(A) To contrast travel by steamship and stagecoach

(B) To criticize the level of public debt in nineteenth - century Canada -

(C) To describe the introduction of steamships in Canada

(D) To show how Canada surpassed the United States in transportation improvements
2. The word "reliable" in line 3 is closest in meaning to which of the following

(A) Quick (B) Safe (C) Dependable (D) Luxurious

3. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage about stagecoach travel in Canada in the 1831's?

(A) It was reasonably comfortable. (B) It was extremely efficient.

(C) It was not popular. (D) It was very practical.
4. According to the passage, when was the Welland Canal opened?

(A) 1807 (B) 1809 (C) 1825 (D) 1829

5. The word "sum" in line 10 is closest in meaning to which of the following?

(A) Size (B) Cost (C) Payment (D) Amount

6. According to the passage, steamships became practical means of transportation in Canada because of

(A) improvements in the waterways (B) large subsidies from John Molson

(C) a relatively small population (D) the lack of alternate means

Passage 3
Archaeology is a source of history, not just a humble auxiliary discipline. Archaeological data are historical documents in their own right, not mere illustrations to written texts. Just as much as any other historian. an archaeologist studies and tries to reconstitute the process that has created the human world in which we live-and us ourselves in so far as we are each creatures of our age and social environment. Archaeological data are all changes in the material world resulting from human action or. more succinctly. the fossilized results of human behavior. The sum total of these constitute what may be called the archaeological record. This record exhibits certain peculiarities and deficiencies the consequences of which produce a rather superficial contrast between archaeological history and the more familiar kind based upon written records.
Not all human behavior fossilizes. The words I utter and you hear as vibrations in the air are certainly human changes in the material world and may be of great historical significance. Yet they leave no sort of trace in the archaeological records unless they are captured by a dictaphone or written down by a clerk. The movement of troops on the battlefield may "change the course of history", but this is equally ephemeral from the archaeologist's standpoint. What is perhaps worse, most organic materials are perishable. Everything made of wood. hide wool. linen. grass hair. and similar materials will decay and vanish in dust in a few years or centuries, save under very exceptional conditions. In a relatively brief period the archaeological record is reduced to mere scraps of stone. bone, glass. metal, and earthenware. Still modern archaeology, by applying appropriate techniques and comparative methods. aided by a few lucky finds from peat bogs. deserts. and frozen soils. is able to fill up a good deal of the gap.

1. What is the author's main purpose in the passage?

(A) To point out the importance of recent advances in archaeology

(B) To describe an archaeologist’s education

(C) To explain how archaeology is a source of history

(D) To encourage more people to become archaeologists
2. According to the passage. the archaeological record consists of

(A) spoken words of great historical significance

(B) the fossilize results of human activity

(C) organic materials

(D) ephemeral ideas
3. The word "they" in line 13 refers to

(A) scraps (B) words (C) troops (D) humans

4. Which of the following is NOT mentioned as an example of an organic material?

(A) Stone (B) Wool (C) Grass (D) Hair

5. The author mentions all of the following archaeological discovery sites EXCEPT

(A) urban areas (B) peat bogs

(C) very hot and dry lands (D) earth that has been frozen
6. The paragraph following the passage most probably discusses

(A) techniques for recording oral histories

(B) certain battlefield excavation methods

(C) some specific archaeological discoveries

(D) building materials of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries

Passage 4
Many artists late in the last century were in search of a means to express their individuality. Modern dance was one of the ways some of these people sought to free their creative spirit. At the beginning there was no exacting technique, no foundation from which to build. In later years trial, error, and genius founded the techniques and the principles of the movement. Eventually, innovators even drew from what they considered the dread ballet, but first they had to discard all that was academic so that the new could be discovered. The beginnings of modern dance were happening before Isadora Duncan, but she was the first person to bring the new dance to general audiences and see it accepted and acclaimed.

Her search for a natural movement form sent her to nature. She believed movement should be as natural as the swaying of the trees and the rolling waves of the sea, and should be in harmony with the movements of the Earth. Her great contributions are in three areas.

First, she began the expansion of the kinds of movements that could be used in dance. Before Duncan danced, ballet was the only type of dance performed in concert. In the ballet the feet and legs were emphasized, with virtuosity shown by complicated, codified positions and movements. Duncan performed dance by using all her body in the freest possible way. Her dance stemmed from her soul and spirit. She was one of the pioneers who broke tradition so others might be able to develop the art.
Her second contribution lies in dance costume. She discarded corset, ballet shoes. and stiff costumes. These were replaced with flowing Grecian tunics, bare feet, and unbound hair. She believed in the natural body being allowed to move freely, and her dress displayed this ideal.
Her third contribution was in the use of music. In her performances she used the symphonies of great masters, including Beethoven and Wagner, which was not the usual custom. She was as exciting and eccentric in her personal life as in her dance.

1. Which of the following would be the best title for the passage?

(A) The Evolution of Dance in the Twentieth Century

(B) Artists of the Last Century

(C) Natural Movement in Dance

(D) A Pioneer in Modern Dance
2. According to the passage, what did nature represent to Isadora Duncan?

(A) Something to conquer (B) A model for movement

(C) A place to find peace (D) A symbol of disorder
3. Which of the following is NOT mentioned in the passage as an area of dance that Isadora Duncan worked to change?

(A) The music (B) The stage sets

(C) Costumes (D) Movements
4. Compared to those of the ballet, Isadora Duncan's costumes were less

(A) costly (B) colorful (C) graceful (D) restrictive

5. What does the paragraph following the passage most probably discuss?

(A) Isadora Duncan’s further contribution to modem dance

(B) The music customarily used in ballet

(C) Other aspects of Isadora Duncan's life

(D) Audience acceptance of the new form of dance

Passage 5
The theory of plate tectonics describes the motions of the lithosphere, the comparatively rigid outer layer of the Earth that includes all the crust and part of the underlying mantle. The lithosphere is divided into a few dozen plates of various sizes and shapes, in general the plates are in motion with respect to one another. A mid - ocean ridge is a boundary between plates where new lithospheric material is injected from below. As the plates diverge from a mid - ocean ridge they slide on a more yielding layer at the base of the lithosphere.
Since the size of the Earth is essentially constant, new lithosphere can be created at the mid - ocean ridges only if an equal amount of lithospheric material is consumed elsewhere. The site of this destruction is another kind of plate boundary: a subduction zone. There one plate dives under the edge of another and is reincorporated into the mantle. Both kinds of plate boundary are associated with fault systems, earthquakes and volcanism, but the kinds of geologic activity observed at the two boundaries are quite different.
The idea of sea-floor spreading actually preceded the theory of plate tectonics. In its original version, in the early 1960,s, it described the creation and destruction of the ocean floor, but it did not specify rigid lithospheric plates. The hypothesis was substantiated soon afterward by the discovery that periodic reversals of the Earth' $ magnetic field are recorded in the oceanic crust. As magma rises under the mid - ocean ridge. ferromagnetic minerals in the magma become magnetized in the direction of the geomagnetic field. When the magma cooks and solidifies, the direction and the polarity of the field are preserved in the magnetized volcanic rock. Reversals of the field give rise to a series of magnetic stripes running parallel to the axis of the rift. The oceanic crust thus serves as a magnetic tape recording of the history of the geomagnetic field that can be dated independently the width of the stripes indicates the rate of the sea - floor spreading.

1. What is the main topic of the passage?

(A) Magnetic field reversal (B) The formation of magma

(C) The location of mid - ocean ridges (D) Plate tectonic theory
2. According to the passage, there are approximately how many lithospheric plates?

(A) Six (B) Twelve

(C) Twenty - four or more (D) One thousand nine hundred
3. Which of the following is true about tectonic plates?

(A) They are moving in relationship to one other

(B) They have unchanging borders

(C) They are located far beneath the lithosphere

(D) They have the same shape
4. According to the passage, which of the following statements about the lithosphere is LEAST likely to be true?

(A) It is a relatively inflexible layer of the Earth

(B) It is made up entirely of volcanic ash

(C) It includes the crust and some of the mantle of the Earth

(D) It is divided into plates of various shapes and sizes
5. What does the author imply about the periodic reversal of the Earth's magnetic field?

(A) It is inexplicable

(B) It supports the hypothesis of sea-floor spreading

(C) It was discovery before the 1960's

(D) It indicates the amount of magma present
6. The author states that the width of the stripes preserved in magnetized volcanic rock give information about the

(A) date of a volcanic eruption (B) speed of sea - floor spreading

(C) width of oceanic crust (D) future behavior of the geomagnetic field

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