Passage 1 In the past oysters were raised in much the same way as dirt farmers raised tomatoes – by transplanting them. First, farmers selected the oyster bed, cleared the bottom of old shells and other debris, then scattered clean shells about. Next, they" planted" fertilized oyster eggs, which within two or three weeks hatched into larvae. The larvae drifted until they attached themselves to the clean shells on the bottom. There they remained and in time grew into baby oysters called seed or spat. The spat grew larger by drawing in seawater from which they derived microscopic particles of food. Before long farmers gathered the baby oysters transplanted them in other waters to speed up their growth, then transplanted them once more into another body of water to fatten them up.
Until recently; the supply of wild oysters and those crudely farmed were more than enough to satisfy people's needs. But today the delectable seafood is no longer available in abundance. The problem has become so serious that some oyster beds have vanished entirely.
Fortunately, as far back as the early 1900's marine biologists realized that if new measures were not taken, oysters would become extinct or at best a luxury food. So they set up well equipped hatcheries and went to work. But they did not have the proper equipment or the skill to handle the eggs. They did not know when, what, and how to feed the larvae. And they knew little about the predators that attack and eat baby oysters by the millions. They failed, but they doggedly kept at it. Finally. in the 1940's a significant breakthrough was made.
The marine biologists discovered that by raising the temperature of the water, they could induce oysters to spawn not only in the summer but also in the fall, winter, and spring. Later they developed a technique for feeding the larvae and rearing them to spat. Going still further, they succeeded in breeding new strains that were resistant to diseases, grew faster and larger, and flourished in water of different salinities and temperatures. In addition, the cultivated oysters tasted better.
1. Which of the following would be the best title for the passage?
(B) Discussion of chronological events concerning oyster production
(C) Random presentation of facts about oysters
(D) Description of oyster production at different geographic locations
Passage 2 Political controversy about the public-land policy of the United States began with the American Revolution. In fact, even before independence from Britain was won, it became clear that resolving the dilemmas surrounding the public domain prove necessary to preserve the Union itself.
At the peace negotiations with Britain. Americans demanded, and got, a western boundary at the Mississippi River. Thus the new nation secured for its birthright a vas internal empire rich in agricultural and mineral resources. But under their colonial charters, seven states-Massachusetts. Connecticut. New York. Virginia. North Carolina. South Carolina, and Georgia-claimed portions of the western wilderness. Virginia's claim was the largest, stretching north and west to encompass the later states of Kentucky. Ohio. Indiana. Illinois. Michigan, and Wisconsin. The language of the charters was vague and their validity questionable, but during the war Virginia reinforced its title by sponsoring colonel George Rogers Clark's 1778 expedition to Vincennes and Kaskaskia, which strengthened America's trans-Appalachian pretensions at the peace table.
The six states holding no claim to the transmontane region doubted whether a confederacy in which territory was so unevenly apportioned would truly prove what it claimed to be a union of equals. Already New Jersey, Delaware. Rhode Island, and Maryland were among the smallest and least populous of the states. While they levied heavy taxes to repay state war debts, their larger neighbors might retire debts out of land sale proceeds. Drawn by fresh lands and low taxes, people would desert the small states for the large, leaving the former to fall into bankruptcy and eventually into political subjugation. All the states shared in the war effort, said the New Jersey legislature, how then could half of them 'be left to sink under an enormous debt, whilst others are enabled, in a short period, to replace all their expenditures from the hard earnings of the whole confederacy?' As the Revolution was a common endeavor, so ought its fruits, including the western lands, to be a common property.
1. With which of the following topics is the passage primarily concerned?
(A) A controversial public-land policy (B) How independence from Britain was won
(C) The land holdings of Massachusetts (D) How New Jersey developed its western land
2. According to the passage, the British granted the new American nation a western boundary at
(A) Ohio (B) Illinois
(C) the Mississippi River (D) the Appalachian Mountains
3. Which state laid claim to the largest land -holdings?
(A) North Carolina (B) South Carolina (C) Virginia (D) Georgia
4. In line 8, the word "stretching" could best be replaced by which of the following?
Passage 3 Without regular supplies of some hormones our capacity to behave would be seriously impaired; without others we would soon die. Tiny amounts of some hormones can modify our moods and our actions, our inclination to eat or drink, our aggressiveness or submissiveness and our reproduction and parental behavior. And hormones do more than influence adult behavior; early in life they help to determine the development of bodily form and may even determine an individual's behavior capacities. Later in life the changing outputs of some endocrine glands and the body's changing sensitivity to some hormones are essential aspects of the phenomena of aging.
Communication within the body and the consequent integration of behavior were considered the exclusive province of the nervous system up to the beginning of the present century. The emergence of endocrinology as a separate discipline can probably be traced to the experiments of Bayliss and Starling on the hormone secreting. This substance is secreted from cells in the intestinal walls when food enters the stomach: it travels through the bloodstream and stimulates the pancreas to liberate pancreatic juice, which aids in digestion. By showing that special cells secrete chemical agents that are conveyed by the bloodstream and regulate distant target organs or tissues, Bayliss and Starling demonstrated that chemical integration can occur without participation of the nervous system.
The term "hormone" was first used with reference to secreting. Starling derived the term from the Greek “hormon”, meaning "to excite or set in motion." The term "endocrine" was introduced shortly thereafter. "Endocrine" is used to refer to glands that secrete products into the bloodstream. The term "endocrine" contrasts with "exocrine," which is applied to glands that secrete their products through ducts to the site of action. Examples of exocrine glands are the tear glands, the sweat glands, and the pancreas, which secretes pancreatic juice through a duct into the intestine. Exocrine glands are also called duct glands, while endocrine glands are called ductless.
1. What is the author' s main purpose in the passage?
(A) To explain the specific functions of various hormones
(B) To provide general information about hormones
(C) To explain how the term "hormone" evolved
(D) To report on experiments in endocrinology
2. Which of the following is NOT mentioned as an effect of hormones?
(A) Modification of behavior (B) Sensitivity to hunger and thirst
(C) Aggressive feelings (D) Maintenance of blood pressure
3. The passage supports which of the following conclusions?
(A) The human body requires large amounts of most hormones.
(B) Synthetic hormones can replace a person's natural supply of hormones if necessary.
(C) The quantity of hormones produced and their effects on the body are related to a person's age.
(D) The short child of tall parents very likely had a hormone deficiency early in life.
4. It can be inferred from the passage that, before the Bayliss and Starling experiments, most people believed that chemical integration occurred only
(C) under control of the nervous system (D) during strenuous exercise
5. In line 14, the word "liberate" could best be replaced by which of the following?
(A) Emancipate (B) Discharge (C) Surrender (D) Save
6. According to the passage, another term for exocrine glands is
(A) duct glands (B) endocrine glands
(C) ductless glands (D) intestinal glands
Passage 4 During her New York days, Mabel Dodge had preached the gospel of Gertrude Stein and spread the fame of her new style. Like Miss Stein, Mabel Dodge had long planned to "upset” America with fatal disaster to the old older of things,
Gertrude Stein had no interest in anything that was not aggressively modern. She had conceived it as a part of her mission to "kill" the nineteenth century "dead," and she was convinced that her work was "really the beginning of modern writing." Her story "Melanctha" in Three Lives, privately printed in 1907, was the "first definite step," as she wrote later, into the twentieth century". There was at least a grain of truth in this.
Just then the movement of modem art, so called for many years, was also beginning in Paris with Matisse and Picasso, and Gertrude Stein and her brother Leo were friends of these protagonists. The Stems had the means to buy their pictures. Gertrude shared, moreover, the point of view of these avant-garde artists, and she endeavored to parallel in words their effects in paint.
Gertrude Stein wrote her "Melanotha" while posing for Picasso' s portrait of herself. Picasso had just discovered African sculpture, previously interesting only to curio hunters, and this may have set her mind running on the Black girl Melanctha, whose story was the longest and most moving of her Three Lives. It was not difficult to find in these a trace of the influence of African art, with the influence alike of Matisse and Picasso.
1. With what topic is the passage primarily concerned?
(A) Gertrude Stein’s most important works
(B) The avant-garde community in New York
(C) Gertrude Stein' S contribution to the development of modern literature
(D) The reactions of various critics to modern art and literature
2. In the first paragraph, the author uses the phrase "preached the gospel" in order to emphasize Mabel Dodge's
Passage 5 Nast played an important role in President Lincoln's reelection In 1864 the war was not going well for the North. Many people blamed Lincoln. They were tired of the war. The Democratic candidate. General George B. McClellan, promised peace at any price. Lincoln didn't think he had a chance to be reelected. In August he wrote: "It seems exceedingly probable that this administration will not be reelected. But he had not counted on the support of Thomas Nast. Nast drew cartoons showing McCellan as a man who would compromise with the South. The cartoons were effective, and helped President Lincoln win reelection.
1. What is the author' s main point?
(A) Lincoln asked Thomas Nast for help. but Nast refused.
(B) Voters wanted a compromise with the South.
(C) Lincoln thought the voters would blame him for not ending the war.
(D) Thomas Nast's cartoons helped to reelect Lincoln.
2. According to the passage. how did Lincoln feel about his chances for reelection?
(A) Doubtful (B) Enthusiastic
(C) Indifferent (D) President Lincoln's successor
3. It can be assumed that the paragraph preceding the passage most probably discussed
(A) the United States economy (B) Thomas Nast
(C) General George B McClellan (D) President Lincoln's successor