Pols 406 contemporary issues in turkish politics

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Ali Çarkoğlu

Koç University
Spring 2011
Tu, Thu 12:30-13:45

Office Hours: Tuesday 14:00-16:00

and by appointment

Objective of the Course: The primary objective of the course is to enable the students to understand and analyze better the diversities and vicissitudes of political life, institutions and processes in Turkey. An equally significant aim of the course is to provide the students with the comparative political theory background and analytical tools to assess Turkish political development within a comparative framework.

Participation (assessed through attendance checks and contributions to class discussions): 10 %,

Presentation: 10%

Mid-term exam 25%

Two short papers (10 double spaced pages): 20%

Final Exam: 35 %

Starting with the third week of our meetings, students are expected to make a critical evaluation of the materials assigned to them. Once the students choose a topic of their interest they are expected to contact me about what they should read and evaluate on this topic beyond the basic readings assigned for our class. Some may be given a book for evaluation, yet some others will be expected to review a series of articles on a given topic.
Recommended Readings:

No single book covers every aspect of relevance and interest in this course; so we assign no textbooks. Yet our discussion will closely follow the articles in the four volumes of our collection below:

Çarkoğlu, A. and W. Hale (2008) Politics of Modern Turkey, Routledge
Part 1. Analytical Perspectives and Explanations
Weeks 1-2 The Ottoman and Kemalist Political Legacies
The Weight of History

The Ottoman Heritage

  • İnalcık, H. 1964. “The Nature of Traditional Society: Turkey” in R. E. Ward and D. A. Rustow (eds.) Political Modernization in Japan and Turkey, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

  • Karpat, K.H. 1972. “The Transformation of the Ottoman State, 1789-1908”, International Journal of Middle East Studies, 3, pp.243-281,

  • Lewis, B (2002), The Emergence of Modern Turkey, Oxford Uniersity Press (Third edition). Chapters 2-7.


  • Kili, Suna, 1980. “Kemalism in Contemporary Turkey”, International Political Science Review, vol.1, No.3, pp.381-404, 23 pages.

  • Kasaba, Reşat, 1997. “Kemalist Certainties and Modern Ambiguities”, in Sibel Bozdoğan and Reşat Kasaba (eds.) Rethinking Modernity and National Identity in Turkey, University of Washington Pres, Seattle and London, pp.15-36.


  • Poulton, Hugh, 1997. “The Top Hat: Secular Kemalist Nationalism” in Hugh Poulton Top Hat, Grey Wolf and Crescent, Turkish Nationalism and the Turkish Republic, NYU Pres, pp.87-129.

  • Landau, Jacob M. 1991. “The Ups and Downs of Irredentism, The Case of Turkey”, in Naomi Chazan (ed.) Irredentism and International Politics, Boulder CO: Lynne Riener Publishers. pp.81-96.

  • Mango, Andrew, 1985. “Remembering the Minorities”, Middle Eastern Studies, vol.21, No.4 pp.118-140.

Center-Periphery Paradigm

  • Şerif Mardin, “Center Periphery Relations: A Key to Turkish Politics”, Deadalus, Winter, pp.169-190.

Week 3 The Modernization Paradigm

  • Lerner D. 1958 The Passing of the Traditional Society, New York, Free Press. Chapter 1.

  • Szyliowicz, Joseph, S. 1994. “Education and Political Development”, in Metin Heper and Ahmet Evin (eds.) Politics in the Third Turkish Republic, Boulder, CO: Westview Press, pp.147 160.

  • Ward, R.E. and D. A. Rustow (eds.) 1964. Political Modernization in Japan and Turkey, Princeton: Princeton University Press. Chapters 4-5.

Week 4 Political Culture, Clientelism and Patronage

The Weight of Culture

  • İlter Turan, "The Evolution of Political Culture in Turkey," in Ahmet Evin, Modern Turkey: Continuity and Change, pp. 84-112.

  • İlter Turan. (1991) “Religion and Political Culture in Turkey”, in R. Tapper (ed.), Islam in Modern Turkey: Religin, Politics and Literature in a Secular State, pp. 31-55. London: I. B. Tauris.

  • Yılmaz Esmer, Devrim, Evrim, Statüko: Türkiye'de Sosyal, Siyasal ve Ekonomik Değerler, (İstanbul: TESEV, 1999).

  • Tessler, Mark and Altinoglu, Ebru, 2004. “Political Culture in Turkey: Connections Among Attitudes Toward Democracy, the Military and Islam”, Democratization, vol. 11, 1, pp. 21-50.

Clientelism and Patronage

  • Kutad, A. 1975 “Patron – Client Relations: The State of the Art and Research in Eastern Turkey,” in Engin D. Akarlı and Gabriel Ben-Dor (eds.) Political Participation in Turkey: Historical Background and Present Problems, Istanbul: Boğaziçi University Press, pp. 61- 87.

  • Sabri Sayarı (1977) “Political Patronage in Turkey”, in E. Gellner and J. Waterbury (eds.) Patrons and Clients in Mediterranean Societies, Duckworth.

  • Sunar, İ. 1990. “Populism and patronage: The Demokrat party and its legacy in Turkey” Il Politico anno V.pp. 745-75.

Part 2. Political Institutions and Processes
Week 5 The Constitutional Framework and Executive-Legislative Relations

The Constitutional Framework

      • Özbudun, E. 1995. Türk Anayasa Hukuku (Turkish Constitutional Law), in Turkish, Yetkin Basım Yayım ve Dağıtım, Ankara.

      • 1982 Anayasası, http://www.tbmm.gov.tr/Anayasa.htm .

      • English Translation www.tbmm.gov.tr/anayasa/constitution.htm (includes recent amendments)

      • Özbudun, Ergun, 2000. “The Politics of Constitution Making”, in Contemporary Turkish Politics, Challenges to Democratic Consolidation by E. Özbudun, Boulder CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers, Pp.49-72.

      • Özbudun, Ergun and Serap Yazıcı, 2004. Democratization Reforms in Turkey (1993-2004), TESEV Publications (www.tesev.org.tr).

Executive, Parliament and Bureaucracy

  • Barchard, David, 2002. “Society and Bureaucracy: The Civil Service”, in B. Beeley (ed.) Turkish Transformation, New Century-New Challenges, The Eothen Press, pp. 198-219.

  • Ergun Özbudun, Contemporary Turkish Politics: Challenges to Democratic Consolidation, (Boulder, London: Lynne Reinner, 2000), pp. 49-71 and pp. 105-123.

  • Kalaycıoğlu, Ersin. 1990. “Cyclical Development, Redesign, and Nascent Institutionalization of a Legislative System" in Ulrike Liebert, and Maurizio Cotta (ed.) Parliament and Democratic Consolidation in Southern Europe, London: F. Pinter, pp.184-222.

  • Metin Heper, “State, Democracy and Bureaucracy in Turkey, in Metin Heper (ed.), The State and Public Bureaucracies: A Comparative Perspective (New York: Greenwood Press, 1987): 131-145.

  • Ward, R.E. and D. A. Rustow (eds.) 1964. Political Modernization in Japan and Turkey, Princeton: Princeton University Press. Chapter 7.

Week 6: Political Parties and the Party System

  • Çarkoğlu, A. “Turkish Party System in Transition: The Connection Between Macro-Level Party Competition and Agenda Change in Election Manifestoes”, Political Studies, XLVI, 544-571, 1998

  • Rustow. D. A. 1966. “ The Development of Political Parties in Turkey”, LaPalombara, J. and Weiner, M. Political Parties and Political Development, Princeton: Princeton University Press.

  • Sayarı, Sabri. 2002. “The Changing Party System”, in Sabri Sayarı and Yılmaz Esmer (eds.) Politics, Parties and Elections in Turkey. Lynn Rienner, pp.9-32.

  • Tachau, Frank, 2000. “Turkish Political Parties and Elections: Half a Century of Multiparty Democracy”, Turkish Studies, vol. 1 No. 1 pp.128-148.

  • Ward, R.E. and D. A. Rustow (eds.) 1964. Political Modernization in Japan and Turkey, Princeton: Princeton University Press. Chapter 9.

Week 7 Social Mobilization, Political Participation and Electoral Trends

  • Başlevent, C., Kirmanoğlu, H. And Şenatalar, B. 2004. Voter Profiles and Fragmentation in the Turkish Party System, Party Politics, 10 (3): 307-324.

  • Çarkoğlu, A. and Avcı, G. 2002. “An Analysis of the Turkish Electorate from a Geographical Perspective”, in Yılmaz Esmer and Sabri Sayarı (Eds.), Politics, Parties and Elections in Turkey (Boulder, CO: Lynn Rienner , 2002), p.115-136.

  • Ergüder, Üstün (1980-81) “Changing Patterns of Electoral Behaviour in Turkey”, Boğaziçi Universitesi Dergisi (Bogazici University Journal), vols.VIII-IX 45-81.

  • Esmer, Yılmaz (2001) “At the ballot box: determinants of voting behaviour in Turkey”, in Y. Esmer and Sabri Sayarı (Eds) The Democratic Challenge: Elections, Parties, and Voters in Turkey. Lynn Rienner.

  • İncioğlu, N. 2002. “Local Elections and Electoral Behavior”, Yılmaz Esmer and Sabri Sayarı (Eds.), Politics, Parties and Elections in Turkey (Boulder, CO: Lynn Rienner , 2002), p.73-90.

  • Kalaycıoğlu, E. 1994. “Unconventional Political Participation in Turkey and Europe: Comparative Perspectives”, Il Politico, anno LIX, no.3, pp.503-523.

  • Secor, A.J. (2001) Ideologies in Crisis: Political Cleavages and Electoral Politics in Turkey in the 1990s. Political Geography 20 (5), 539-560.

Week 8 Interest Groups and the Military

Interest Groups, Civil Society Organisations

  • Adem, Çiğdem, 2005. “Non-State Actors and Environmentalism”, in Adaman, F. and M. Arsel (eds.) Environmentalism in Turkey, Between Democracy and Development?, Ashgate, pp.71-86.

  • Kalaycıoğlu, Ersin “State and Civil Society in Turkey: Democracy, Development and Protest” in Amyn B. Sajoo (ed.), Civil Society in the Muslim World: Contemporary Perspectives, (London, New York: I. B. Tauris, 2002): 247-272.

  • Keyman, E. Fuat and Icduygu, Ahmet, 2003. “Globalization, Civil Society and Citizenship in Turkey: Actors, Boundaries and Discourses”, Citizenship Studies, vol.7, 2, pp. 219-234.

  • Öniş, Ziya and Umut Türem, 2001. “Business, Globalization and DEmocracy: A Comparative Analysis of Turkish Business Associations”, Turkish Studies, vol.2, Autumn, pp.94-120.

  • Özbudun, Ergun Contemporary Turkish Politics: Challenges to Democratic Consolidation, (Boulder, London: Lynne Reinner, 2000), Chap. 6.

The military

  • Cizre, Ü. 2004. “Problems of democratic governance of civil-military relations in Turkey and the European Union enlargement zone”. European Journal of Political Research, January, Vol. 43 Issue 1, p.107-125.

  • Demirel, Tanel, 2003. “The Turkish Military's Decision to Intervene: 12 September 1980”, Armed Forces & Society, vol29, 2, pp. 253-280.

  • Hale, William M. 1994. “Turkish Politics and the Military: A Comparative Analysis”, Chapter 12 in Turkish Politics and the Military, Routledge, pp.301-336.

  • Heper, Metin, 2005. “The Justice and Development Party Government and the Military in Turkey”, Turkish Studies vol. 6, 2, pp. 215-231.

Part 3. Major Issues and Themes in Contemporary Turkish Politics
Week 9. Democratization, Politics of EU membership process

  • Canefe, N. and T. Bora. 2003. “The Intellectual Roots of Anti-European Sentiments in Turkish Politics: The Case of Radical Turkish Nationalism”, Turkish Studies, vol.4, No.1, pp.127-148.

  • Çarkoğlu, A. 2004. “Societal Perceptions of Turkey’s EU Membership: Causes and Consequences of Support for EU Membership?”, in Turkey and European Integration, Accession Prospects and Issues, Routledge, Nergis Canefe and Mehmet Uğur (eds.) pp.19-45.

  • Cizre, Ü. 2004. “Problems of democratic governance of civil-military relations in Turkey and the European Union enlargement zone”. European Journal of Political Research, January, Vol. 43 Issue 1, p.107-125.

  • Eder, M. 2003. “Implementing the Economic Criteria of EU Membership: How Difficult is it for Turkey?”, Turkish Studies, vol.4, No.1, pp.219-244.

  • Heper, M. 2005. “The European Union, the Turkish Military and Democracy”, South European Society & Politics, Volume 10, Number 1 / April, pp.33-44.

  • Onis, Ziya, 1999. “Turkey, Europe, and Paradoxes of Identity: Perspectives on the International Context of Democratization”, Mediterranean Quarterly, vol. 10, 3, pp107-136,.

  • Tocci, N. 2005. “Europeanization in Turkey: Trigger or Anchor for Reform?”, South European Society & Politics, Volume 10, Number 1 / April, pp.73-83.

Week 10. Identity Issues 1: Religiosity and the rising salience of pro-Islamist movements

  • Arat, Yeşim, ‘Group-Differentiated Rights and the Liberal Democratic State: Rethinking the Headscarf Controversy in Turkey’, New Perspectives on Turkey, Fall, vol. 25, (2001), pp.31-46.

  • Ayata, Sencer, ‘Patronage, Party and State-The Politicization of Islam in Turkey’, Middle East Journal, vol. 50, (1996), pp.40-56.

  • Çakır, Ruşen, “Political Alevism versus Political Sunnism: Convergences and Divergences”, in T. Olsson et al (eds.) Alevi Identity, (İstanbul: Swedish Research Institute in Istanbul, 1998), pp.63-68; (1998).

  • Çarkoğlu, Ali, 2004. “Religiosity, Support for Şeriat and Evaluations of Secularist Public Policies in Turkey”, Middle Eastern Studies, 40: 111-136.

  • Dağı, İhsan, 2005. “Transformation of Islamic Political Identity in Turkey: Rethinking the West and Westernization”, Turkish Studies, vol.6, no.1, pp.21-37.

  • Göle, Nilüfer (1997) “Secularism and Islamism in Turkey: The Making of Elites and Counter Elites”, Middle East Journal, 51(1) pp.46-58.

  • Poyraz, Bedriye, 2005. “The Turkish State and Alevis: Changing Parameters of an Uneasy Relationship”, Middle Eastern Studies, vol.41, 4, pp. 503-516.

Week 11. Identity Issues 2: Ethnicity and politics of Kurdish minority

  • Laciner, Sedat and Bal, Ihsan, 2004. “The Ideologıcal and Hıstorıcal Roots of The Kurdıst Movements in Turkey: Ethnıcıty, Demography, and Polıtıcs”, Nationalism & Ethnic Politics, vol.10, 3, pp. 473-504.

  • Yegen, Mesut, 2004. “Citizenship and Ethnicity in Turkey“,Middle Eastern Studies, vol40, 6, pp.51-66.

  • Güney, Aylin, 2002. “The People’s Democracy Party”, Turkish Studies, vol 3, no.1, pp122-137.

Week 12. Policy-making, Political Economic Interactions, Patronage

  • Çarkoğlu, A. 1995. “The Interdependence of Politics and Economics in Turkey: Some Findings at the Aggregate Level of Analysis”, Boğaziçi Journal, Review of Social, Economic and Administrative Sciences, Vol.9, No.2, pp.85-108.

  • Çarkoğlu, A. and M. Eder. 2005. “Development alla Turca: The Southeastern Anatolia Development Project (GAP)”, in F. Adaman and M. Arsel (eds.) Environmentalism in Turkey, Between Democracy and Development?, Ashgate, pp.167-184.

  • Cizre-Sakallıoğlu, U. and E. Yeldan "Politics, Society and Financial Liberalization: Turkey in the 1990s." Development and Change 31.2.(2000): 481-508.

  • Eder, Mine, 2003. “Political Economy of Agricultural reforms in Turkey” in Ahmet Insel eds. La Turquie et le developpement L’Harmattan, pp. 211-245, 35 pages.

  • Ergüder, Ü. 1980. “Politics of Agricultural Price Policy in Turkey,” in Ergun Özbudun and Aydın Ulusan, (Eds.) The Political Economy of Income Distribution in Turkey, (NY: Holmes and Meier Publishers Ltd.), pp.169-196.

  • Gürkan, A. A. and Kasnakoğlu, H. 1991. “The Political Economics of Agricultural Price Support in Turkey: An Empirical Assessment”, Public Choice, Vol.70, No.3, pp. 277-298.

  • Öniş, Ziya. “Domestic Politics versus Global Dynamics: Towards a Political Economy of the 2000 and 2001 Financial Crises in Turkey,” Turkish Studies, vol.4 no.2 (Summer 2003), pp.1-30.

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