Pharmacology



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Chabot College Fall 2001
Course Outline for Dental Hygiene 54

PHARMACOLOGY
Catalog Description:
54 - Pharmacology 2 units
Sources, dosages, therapeutic action, and side effects of drugs used in dentistry and dental hygiene. Includes legal and ethical aspects of drug usage. Corequisite: Dental Hygiene 57. 2 hours
Prerequisite Skills:
None
Corequisite Skills:
Upon completion of the course, the student should be able to:

  1. assess a patient's medical and dental history and devise a sequential treatment plan so the patient is treated completely and efficiently;

  2. assess patients' medical history to determine their suitability to receive local anesthesia and determine what precautions if any should be taken prior to administering local anesthetic;

  3. discuss methods of anxiety control and articulate methods of introduction of local anesthetic and nitrous oxide/oxygen analgesia;

  4. identify the advantages and disadvantages of administering local anesthesia and nitrous oxide/oxygen analgesia in the practice of dental hygiene;

  5. identify the indications and contraindications to administering local anesthesia and nitrous oxide/oxygen analgesia;

  6. identify the complications which may result from the administration of anesthetic agents and the proper management or emergency procedures to use in response to these complications;

  7. calculate the maximum safe dosage of local anesthetic for any given patient;

  8. identify the armamentarium required for administration of local anesthetic;

  9. identify which nerve, teeth, and soft tissue structures are anesthetized for each of the intraoral injections;

  10. successfully administer local anesthesia following procedural guidelines;

  11. identify the advantages and disadvantages of using nitrous oxide/oxygen analgesia in the practice of dental hygiene;

  12. describe the signs and symptoms of nitrous oxide/oxygen analgesia;

  13. identify the components, safety features and recommended maintenance of the nitrous oxide/oxygen analgesia;

  14. describe and demonstrate the procedures for administering nitrous oxide/oxygen analgesia;

  15. successfully administer nitrous oxide/oxygen following procedural guidelines;

  16. identify the goals and rationale for soft tissue curettage procedures;

  17. assess patients' medical history to determine their suitability to have soft tissue curettage procedures and determine what precautions if any should be taken prior to performing soft tissue curettage;

  18. identify the armamentarium required for soft tissue curettage procedures;

  19. describe the stages of the healing process and explain any possible interferences;

  20. document dental hygiene expanded functions according to course guidelines;

  21. identify safety measures to prevent occupational exposure during the administration of nitrous oxide/oxygen analgesia and local anesthesia.


Expected Outcomes for Students:
Upon completion of the course, the student should be able to:

1. list and compare four drug information reference sources;



  1. differentiate between chemical names, generic names, and trade names of drugs;

  2. define the terms pharmacotherapeutics, pharmacodynamics, and toxicology;

  3. differentiate between the terms potency vs. efficacy; ED vs. LD; onset of action vs. duration of action;

  4. list and describe (including advantages and disadvantages) the eight major routes of administration of drugs;

  5. describe the major distribution areas and routes of drugs in the body, including the factors affecting this distribution;

7. define the terms; summation, additive effects, synergism, and potentiation;

8. list and describe the three types of drug antagonism;

9. list and describe the six types of untoward effects of drugs;

10. identify and describe the five parts of prescription writing;

11. translate 20 commonly-used Latin abbreviations used in prescription writing;


  1. identify drugs (and drug products) actively prescribed and/or employed in dental and dental hygiene practice. The student will be able to:

  1. describe their pharmacologic and therapeutic effects including mechanism of action and adverse effects;

  2. describe their administration and distribution in the body;

  3. list and describe their main clinical uses and side-effects, including dosage ranges and precautions for use;

  4. classify and list commonly-used preparations (of the drugs) including generic names and trade names;

  5. compare and contrast the use and efficacy of similar drugs within a pharmacologic class including their advantages and disadvantages, in clinical use;

  1. Concerning drugs (and drug products) not normally utilized in dental and dental hygiene practice but capable of presenting a potential dental practice problem when prescribed medically, the student will be able to describe how these drugs modify a patient's functions and how these modifications require proper handling of the patient in clinical practice. Specifically, the student will be able to:

  1. describe the pharmacological action and generic therapeutic use of these drugs with special emphasis on those self-effects and adverse reactions that affect clinical practice;

  2. describe the major interactions of these drugs and procedures employed and prescribed in clinical practice;

  3. list and describe clinical precautions to be employed when these drugs are being used medically by the patient.

Note: The drugs referred to in #12 and #13, above, belong to the classes described below in course content.


Course Content:
1. General principles of pharmacology; untoward reactions

2. Drugs affecting the autonomic nervous system-4 major types

3. Psychotherapeutic agents, anti-psychotic and anti-depressants

4. Sedative-hypnotic agents

5. Anticonvulsant and CNS stimulants

6. Analgesics-narcotic and non-narcotic

7. General anesthetics

8. Parenteral sedation and nitrous oxide analgesia

9. Local anesthetics

10. Antihistamines

11. Adrenocorticosteroids


  1. Drugs affecting the cardiovascular system, including coagulants and anticoagulants

13. Antibacterial agents (sulfonamides and antibiotics)

14. Fluorides

15. Prescription-writing
Methods of Presentation:
1. Lecture

2. Discussion

3. Audiovisual aids

a. charts

b. chalkboard

c. handouts


Assignments & Methods of Evaluating Student Progress:


  1. Typical Assignments

  1. Utilize current drug guide to define the mode of action, dosage, indications/contraindications and dental considerations for a commonly-prescribed drug

  2. Self-directed research on an assigned topic

  1. Methods of Evaluating Student Progress

  1. Quizzes

  2. Midterm examination

  3. Final examination


Textbook(s)(Typical):
Applied Pharmacology for the Dental Hygienist, Requa-Clark, B., C.V. Mosby, 2000
Special Student Materials:
None
tms, Disk 20, A:\DH Outlines 2000\DH 54

Revised; 12-1-00





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