Pharmacology reference by Michael L. Iczkovitz, D. D. S



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Cholesterol Lowering Agents

  • Miscellaneous


Fenofibrate (Lipidil, Tricor)

Action: Enhances lipase synthesis and increases LDL catabolism. Decreases LDL and

total plasma triglycerides, may increase HDL.



Use: Treat elevated cholesterol; reduce LDL, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and

apolipoprotein.



Dental Considerations: Local anesthesia with vasoconstrictor ok. Pain, headache,

myalgia, photosensitivity, and joint pain.



Dental Drug Interactions: None

Beta 2 Adrenergic Agonist

Action: Beta 2 stimulation relaxes bronchial smooth muscle causing bronchodilation with little effect on heart rate.

Use: Treat reversible airway obstruction due to asthma or COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; bronchitis, emphysema). Prevention of exercise induced asthma and bronchospasm.

Dental Considerations: Local anesthesia with vasoconstrictor ok. Facial flushing, headache, dry mouth, unusual taste, discoloration of teeth, muscle cramps.

Dental Drug Interactions: Increased toxicity (arrhythmias) with inhalation anesthetics.

Albuterol (Proventil, Ventalin, Volmax)

Salmeterol Xinafoate (Serevent)

Pirbuterol (Maxair)

Albuterol (liquid form)


Metaproferenol (Alupent)

Formoterol (Foradil)

Theophylline Derivative

Action: Blocks phosphodisterase increases cAMP. Results in adrenal medulla releasing epinephrine and causing bronchodilation. Also causes diuresis, CNS and cardiac stimulation.

Use: Treat reversible airway obstruction due to asthma, chronic bronchitis, and emphysema. Also neonatal apnea/bradycardia.

Dental Considerations: Local anesthesia with vasoconstrictor ok. Bitter taste, dry mouth and headache.

Dental Drug Interactions: Medication levels increased by corticosteroids, erythromycin and ephedrine. Decreased by barbiturates and ketoconazole. Decreases sedative effects of benzodiazipines. Increased risk of cardiac arrhythmias with inhalation anesthetics.

Don’t give Erythromycin with this medication.

Get nausea, vomiting and CNS restlessness.

Theophylline/Aminophylline (Theo-Dur)




Corticosteroids

  • Oral

Action: Anti-inflammatory by suppressing migration of PMN leukocytes and decreasing capillary permeability. Immunosuppressant by reducing activity and volume of immune system.

Use: Treat adrenocortical insufficiency, hypercalcemia, rheumatoid and collagen disorders, dermatologic, ocular, respiratory, GI and neoplastic diseases, organ transplantation.

Use: Treat variety of diseases of allergic, inflammatory or autoimmune origin.

Dental Considerations: Local anesthesia with vasoconstrictor ok. Use with caution if hypertension, CHF, thromboemboli, GI disease, hypothyroid, cirrhosis. May retard bone growth. If systemic use watch for adrenal insufficiency and crisis. Don’t use if serious infection or GI bleeding.

Dental Considerations: Dry mouth, candidiasis, poor wound healing, headache and blood dyscrasias. Don’t give if pregnant. Lactation ok.

Medical Considerations: >10%; insomnia, nervousness, increased appetite, indigestion.

Medical Considerations: Other adverse reactions; depression, flushing, sweating, headache, mood changes, hypertension, circulatory collapse, thrombophlebitis, embolism and tachycardia, diarrhea, nausea, abdominal distention, GI hemorrhage,

pancreatitis, increased intraocular pressure, blurred vision, acne, ecchymosis, petechiae, fractures, osteoporosis, weakness.

Drug Interactions: Decreased effect with barbiturates, rifampin, rifabutin and phenytoins. Increased side effects with alcohol, salicylates, NSAIDs. Don’t use aspirin products with this medication.

Drug Interactions: Decreases effect of salicylates, vaccines and toxoids. Increases action of ketoconazole and macrolide antibiotics.

Prednisone (Deltasone)




Corticosteroids

  • Inhalant

Action: Anti-inflammatory

Use: Treat asthma. Spray form used to treat seasonal and perennial allergic rhinitis. Topical forms for eczema and inflammatory skin disorders.

Dental Considerations: Local anesthesia with vasoconstrictor ok. Dry mouth, perioral dermatitis, arthalgia, headache and candidiasis.

Dental Drug Interactions: None

Fluticasone (Flonase, Flovent)

Triamcinolone (Azmacort)

Flunisolides (AeroBid, Nasalide)

Beclomethasone (Vanceril, Vancenase, Beconase)

Budesonide (Rhinocort, Pulmacort)



Corticosteroids +

Fluticasone* and Salmeterol** (Advair)

Action, Use, Dental Considerations and Dental Drug Interactions: Same as individual components, an anti-inflammatory* and beta 2 adrenergic agonist. **

  • Topical

Action: Anti-inflammatory

Use: Relief of inflammatory and pruritic manifestations of dermatoses.

Dental Consideration and Drug Interactions: None

Mometasone (Elocon, Nasonex)

Hydrocortisone Cream (Westcort)

Mast Cell Stabilizer

  • Inhalant

Action: Prevents histamine release.

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