How do you report subjective information on a legal document?
How do you report objective information on a legal document?
Are the following findings/statements objective or subjective? Write S in the blank in front of the statements for subjective and O for objective. ___1. The patient states, “I have a headache.”
___2. The patient has a temperature of 100.4º rectally.
___3. You have taken the patient’s blood pressure and it is 150/100.
___4. The patient states he/she feels nauseated after eating.
___5. The patient states he/she is having burning on urination and frequency of urination.
___6. A teen tells you he/she feels that he/she is overweight.
___7. A teenager is 30% over his/her normal body weight for his/her height and frame and weighs 160 pounds.
___8. A patient’s urine culture is positive for bacteria.
___9. When you took the patient’s respirations, they were 35.
___10. A patient reports to you that he/she has been having difficulty with rapid breathing and chest pain.
Fundamentals of Nutrition
Nutrition: those processes that allow the body to use food for energy, maintenance of health, and growth.
Nutritional status: the state of one’s nutrition
Wellness: state of good health with optimal body function (requires good nutrition)
Malnutrition: lack of necessary or proper food substances in the body or improper absorption and distribution of them.
Source of energy—twice as many calories as the same amount of carbohydrates or protein
1 gram of lipid = 9 calories
Saturated fats are usually solid at room temperature. This form of fat tends to raise blood cholesterol levels.
Shortening, animal fat, coconut oil, and palm oil are all examples of saturated fats.
Polyunsaturated fats are usually liquid at room temperatures. Most vegetable oils are good examples. Fatty fish (herring, mackerel, salmon, lake trout, and whitefish) are good examples of Omega-3 and is the polyunsaturated fat that is linked to lowering cholesterol and blood pressure.
Monounsaturated fats are thought to lower total cholesterol and LDL. Evidence shows that monounsaturated fats are safe and effective in lowering heart disease risk. Examples include: avocadoes, flounder, olive oil, almonds, peanut oil, cottonseed oil, haddock, etc. This is your BEST choice of fats.
Cholesterol is a fatty substance only found in animal products like meat, cheese, and eggs.
*Assists in the formation of healthy skin, mucous membranes, proper bone growth and reproduction
*Aids in the ability of the eye to see in dim light
*Low intake of Vitamin A can result in night blindness *SOURCES: yellow/orange veggies, dark green veggies and fruits
Vitamin D *Essential for the absorption and use of calcium and phosphorous = strong bones and teeth *Skin produces vitamin D when exposed to sunlight.
*Vitamin D deficiency can result in rickets.
*SOURCES : fortified milk, tuna, salmon, cod liver oil
Vitamin D deficiency can result in rickets/osteomalacia
Vitamin E *Protects essential fatty acids from oxidation = ANTIOXIDANT
*Helps to prevent cancer and other diseases. Prevents cell membrane damage.
*Vegetable oils, nuts, wheat germ, whole grains, green leafy veggies and margarines.
*Essential for the normal clotting of blood
*Deficiency results in bleeding problems
*SOURCES: green peas, broccoli, spinach, and greens
Vitamin C *Collagen formation
*Aids in the absorption of iron
*Antioxidant for other vitamins
*Low intake can result in scurvy
*SOURCES: citrus fruits, berries, melons, dark green veggies, tomatoes, green peppers, cabbage, and potatoes
Vitamin B-Complex Thiamin
Folic acid (essential during pregnancy)
*Essential for formation of DNA, maintains myelin sheath, promotes healthy mucous membranes, erythropoesis, aids in use of other nutrients
*Promotes normal function of nervous system
*Promotes metabolism, and aids in the formation of hormones
SOURCES: liver, dark green leafy veggies, milk, cheese, eggs, enriched breads and cereals, organ meats, peanuts, poultry and fish
Low intake of specific B –complex vitamins can result in:
*Thiamin = Beriberi; fatal if not treated
*Riboflavin = Skin inflammations, growth failure, eye problems
*Pyridoxine = anemia, muscular weakness, nervousness, insomnia, and facial skin disorders
*B/12 = Pernicious anemia
*Biotin = Alopecia and skin problems
More than one-third of the dietary nutrients needed each day are minerals.
Of the 92 chemical elements found on the earth, 50 are found in the body.
Oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen make-up 96% of our elemental composition; the remaining 4% represents minerals.
Only a fraction of our body weight is made-up of minerals; however, they are integral to human health.
Most important are sodium, potassium, calcium, iron, phosphorus, and zinc.
Calcium Used for the formation of strong bones and teeth, muscle contractions, blood clotting, and maintaining cell membranes
Deficiency accelerates age-related loss of bone. Decrease in estrogen (menopause) causes decreased calcium absorption in small intestines.
SOURCES: dairy products, dark green leafy veggies, canned fish, nuts, dried fruits
Phosphorous Enzyme formation, component of all cell membranes, forms genetic material, releases energy, assists in the formation of bones and teeth
SOURCES: sunflower seeds, beans, milk products, poultry, fish, and lean meat.
Magnesium Normal bone structure, enzyme formation, normal functioning of the central nervous system and reproductive system functions
SOURCES: sunflower and pumpkin seeds, dried fruit, lean meats
Sodium Regulates body-fluid volume and osmotic pressure
Assists in regulations of blood acidity
Affects transmission of nerve impulses
SOURCES: table salt, condiments, processed meats, etc.
Chloride Component of gastric juice; specifically hydrochloric acid
Aids in acid-base balance
SOURCES: seafood, salt, milk, eggs, meat
Potassium Assists in muscle contraction, pH balance, fluid balance, and transmission of nerve impulses
SOURCES: fruits, veggies, beans, nuts, and seeds
Only four are needed in such significant doses that they have RDA requirements
Needed for hemoglobin formation, part of several enzymes
Wound healing, preventing infections, formation of protein
SOURCES: whole grains, seeds, nuts, poultry, fish, and lean meats
Needed for the formation of thyroxin
Sources: table salt, shellfish, fish and fortified dairy products
Essential antioxidant; may be a deterrent to cancer.
SOURCES: nuts, whole grains, lean pork, cottage cheese, milk, molasses, squash.
Found in all body tissues
Essential for digestion
Makes up most of blood plasma
Helps body tissue absorb nutrients
Helps remove waste material from body
Average person should drink 6-8 glasses of water a day
55-65% of body weight
Only nutrient we sense a need for---thirst
Benefits of Proper Nutrition
Good Nutrition = Good Immune System The ability of your immune system to fight off invading pathogens varies depending on a number of preventative factors. Perhaps the most important is good nutrition. When you fail to take in adequate nutrients, you can jeopardize your immune system.
This is one reason poorly planned weight-loss programs can make a person ill.
Benefits of Proper Nutrition
Freedom from Anxiety
Proper Sleep Patterns
Increased Mental Ability
Benefits of Proper Nutrition
Proper Growth and Development
Improved Strength and Endurance
Proper Bowel Habits
High Energy Level
Prevent or Delay Diseases/Conditions The Food Guide Pyramid