Vomiting only removes half the poison, so you may need to administer activated charcoal to counteract the remaining poison. If poisoning is due to gas inhalation…remove victim from area. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning
Odorless and colorless gas
Before entering the area, take a deep breath and don’t breathe the gas while removing the victim from the area.
After the rescue, check for breathing and administer CPR if needed.
Obtain medical help immediately.
Chemicals or Poisons Come in Contact With Skin
Wash with large amounts of water.
Remove clothing and/or jewelry that contain the substance.
If poisonous plant, wash with soap and water – use Calamine or Caladryl (or paste made from baking soda and water).
Obtain medical help.
For Insect Bite, Sting or Snake Bite
If possible, hold part below level of the heart.
Remove the stinger and wash the area with soap and water.
Apply sterile dressing and cold pack.
Monitor the victim and give CPR if needed.
Watch for allergic reaction.
Treat for shock.
Providing First Aid for Burns Caused by fire, heat, chemicals, radiation or electricity First-degree (superficial)
Involves only the epidermis
Heals in 5-6 days
Skin red, mild swelling
Victim feels pain
Usually caused by the sun, hot objects or steam, or exposure to weak acid/alkali
Usually caused by flames, prolonged contact with hot objects, contact with electricity, immersion in hot or boiling liquids
Treatment for burns:
Remove source of heat
Cool affected skin area
Cover the burn
Observe and treat for shock
Medical care should be obtained if more than 15% of adult body burned (10% of a child). DO NOTapply cotton, tissues, ointment, powders, oils, grease, butter, or other substances to the burned area unless you are instructed to do so by a physician. DO NOT break open blisters. (Why?) Call for help immediately if 3rd-degree burns. Dehydration can occur quickly with burns. Be alert to signs of shock. Remain calm and reassure burn victim.
Bone and Joint Injuries
Break in a bone
Closed or simple – does not break the skin
Compound or open – accompanied by open wound on skin
Main Facts Regarding Fractures
Signs and symptoms vary
Common signs and symptoms include deformity, limited (loss of) motion, pain and tenderness at fracture site, swelling and discoloration, protrusion of bone ends
Victim may have heard a snap or feel a grating sensation
Treatment includes immobilizing above and below fracture, treat for shock
When the end of a bone moves out of the joint
Usually accompanied by tearing/stretching of ligaments
Signs and symptoms include deformity, limited or abnormal movement, swelling, discoloration, pain, tenderness, shortening or lengthening of affected arm or leg
Treatment similar to fractures – immobilize affected area, do not attempt to reduce the dislocation
Injury to tissues surrounding a joint when the part is forced beyond its normal ROM
Ligaments, tendons and other tissues stretched or torn