Part One: Disciplinary Organizations within the Medical Association or Medical Chamber1



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Part One: Disciplinary Organizations WITHIN the Medical Association or Medical Chamber1:

Order of Physicians of Albania

  • Not a trade union

  • Registers and licenses all doctors and dentists

  • Responsible for National Registry of doctors

  • Monitor professional standards and the doctor's ability to practice

Austrian Medical Chamber

  • Is a trade union

  • National authority for doctors

  • Responsible for admission to National Registry of doctors and recognition of foreign medical diplomas

  • Responsible for quality assurance of medical practice and CME

  • Executes disciplinary legislation and arbitration

Bulgarian Medical Association

  • Not a trade union

  • Maintains national registry of physicians

  • Ethics Committee can impose fines and reprobation

Croatian Medical Chamber (NOT ASSOCIATION)

  • Trade union is an independent association

  • Issues Code of Medical Ethics and is responsible for inspecting physicians and deciding on disciplinary measures

  • Maintains National Registry of physicians

  • Issues, renews and revokes medical licenses

  • Determines physician fees for private practice

Czech Medical Chamber (NOT ASSOCIATION)

Cyprus Medical Association

  • Is a trade union, but has mandatory membership

  • Is responsible for disciplinary professional issues

Estonian Medical Association

  • Is a trade union

  • Licenses physicians

  • Deals with problems of medical ethics

Councseil National de Ordre (France) (NOT ASSOCIATION)

  • Not a trade union

  • Maintains national registry

  • Discipline imposed by expelling members

German Medical Association

  • Not a trade union

  • Umbrella organization of regional medical chambers with mandatory membership

  • Regional chambers responsible for monitoring professional conduct, investigating malpractice claims and disciplinary measures

Panhellenic Medical Association (Greece)

  • Is a trade union, membership is mandatory

  • Responsible for maintaining ethical standards

Hungarian Medical Chamber (NOT ASSOCIATION)

  • Not a trade union, voluntary membership

  • Maintains national registry

  • Supervises adherence to the Ethical Code  Separate College on Ethics is responsible for Ethical Code

Icelandic Medical Association

Federazione Nazionale Degli Ordini dei Medici Chirurghi e Degli Odontoiatri (Italy)

  • Not a trade union, obligatory membership

  • Maintains national registry

  • Disciplinary powers

Lithuanian Medical Association

  • Is a trade union, voluntary membership

  • Has formal powers to impose sanctions other than expulsion from membership when problems of professional ethics

Norwegian Medical Association

  • Is a trade union, voluntary membership

  • Committee on Ethics deals with breaches of code of conduct (Not specified which disciplinary measures are used)

Polish Medical Chamber (NOT ASSOCIATION)

  • Not a trade union (but is involved in negotiations), mandatory membership

  • Licenses physicians

  • Maintains national registry

  • Disciplinary action for physicians

Romanian College of Physicians (NOT ASSOCIATION)

  • Not a trade union, mandatory membership

  • Issues guidelines and protocols for practicing medicine

  • Enforces medical code

  • Judges physicians in cases of an infringement of professional ethics

Slovak Medical Chamber (NOT ASSOCIATION)

  • Not a trade union, voluntary membership but mandatory registration

  • Umbrella organization of 8 regional branches

  • Responsible for registering and licensing physicians

  • Responsible for professional discipline

Slovenian Medical Chamber (NOT ASSOCIATION)

  • Not a trade union, mandatory membership

  • Maintains national registry of physicians

  • Issues, renews and revokes medical licenses

  • Adopted medical code: responsible for monitoring physicians and taking disciplinary measures where necessary

General Council of Medical Colleges of Spain

  • Not a trade union, obligatory membership

  • Supervise medical practice

  • Implements disciplinary actions

Turkish Medical Association

  • Acts only in some ways as a trade union, membership mandatory ONLY for private physicians

  • Disciplinary Committee can impose sanctions on physicians

Part Two: Disciplinary Organizations External to Medical Association or Government:

Ireland2: Medical Council

  • Established by the Medical Practitioners Act of 1978 and was operational in 1979

  • Responsibilities include: quality of undergraduate and postgraduate education, registration of physicians, disciplinary procedures, guidance on professional standards and ethical conduct, and professional competence

  • 25 members: 13 non-medical, 12 medical

  • Funded by annual payments of registered doctors

Malta3: General Medical Council

  • President is appointed by the Prime Minister of Malta

  • Members appointed by PM, University of Malta, Medical Practitioners, and Dental Surgeons

  • Various laws enforce powers of the GMC in Malta

  • Maintains National Registry

  • Maintains professional and ethical standards

United Kingdom: General Medical Council

  • Registers physicians

  • Medical Act of 1858 established the GMC

  • Sets educational standards for medical schools

  • Determine principles of good medical practice and take action when standards not met

  • Legal powers

  • Council includes 12 members: 12 doctors and 12 lay members  appointed by the Appointments Commission4

1 EFMA Handbook, The Norwegian Medical Association

2 http://www.medicalcouncil.ie/default.asp

3 http://www.sahha.gov.mt/pages.aspx?page=87

4 http://www.gmc-uk.org/index.asp



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