Ms Seim Name ___________________________________
Document Based Essay—Human Rights Violations
Based on the document above, was Stalin’s collectivization policy successful? Why or why not?
2. Identify two characteristics of collective farms according to Sergo.
Now we have the opportunity to carry out a resolute offensive against the kulaks (rich peasants), break down their resistance, eliminate them as a class and replace their production with the production of kolkhozes (collective farms) and sovkhozes (state farms)…Now dekulakisation is being undertaken by the masses of the poor and middling peasant masses themselves, who are realizing total collectivization. Now dekulakisation in the areas of total collectivization is not just a simple administrative measure. Now dekulakisation is an integral part of the creation and development of collective farms. When the head is cut off, no one wastes tears on the hair.
Joseph Stalin, Dec. 1929 in a speech announcing that kulaks should be banned from being collective farm workers.
Source: Robert Service, Stalin, Harvard University Press 2004
3. According to Stalin, what future do kulaks have in collectivization?
…I am off in villages with a group of other brigadiers organizing kolhozy (collective farms). It is a tremendous job, but we are making amazing progress. It would do you worlds of good to be with us and watch us draw the stubborn peasant into collectivization. Contrary to all your affirmations and prophecies, our muzhik (Russian peasant) is yielding to persuasion. He is joining the kolhozy, and I am confident that in time not a peasant will remain on his own land. We shall yet smash the last vestiges of capitalism and forever rid ourselves of exploitation. Come, join us; see with your own eyes what is happening, how we are rebuilding the Russian villages. The very air here is afire with a new spirit and a new energy. -Nadya
Source: Maurice Hindus, Red Bread, University of Indian Press 1931
4. According to Nadya, how successful is the campaign for collectivization of peasants?
…Stalin came to power after Lenin’s death in 1924, inheriting a government that was still struggling to control an unwieldy empire. The new premier [leader] soon turned his attention toward Ukraine, the largest and most troublesome of the non-Russian Soviet republics. The Ukrainians were a fiercely independent people, given to ignoring directives from Moscow and stubbornly maintaining their individualistic, agrarian way of life. That independent spirit made them a problem. At a time when Stalin wanted to build a strong industrial base, they clung to their rural peasant traditions. At a time when he wanted to abolish private ownership of land, they refused to surrender their farms. In short, the Ukrainians had become a threat to the revolution….
Source: Linda Jacobs Altman, Genocide: The Systematic Killing of a People, Enslow Publishers
5. According to document 5, list one reason the Ukrainians were a threat to the revolution.
Those in the first row were beheaded, those in the second row were forced to dump the severed bodies into the river before they themselves were beheaded. The killing went on non-stop, from morning until night, but they were only able to kill 2,000 persons in this way. The next day, tired of killing in this fashion, they set up machine guns. Two of them rake a cross-fire at the lined-up prisoners. Rat-tat-tat-tat. Triggers were pulled. The prisoners fled into the water, but no one was able to make it to the other shore.
Source: Japanese military correspondent Omata Yukio who witnessed Chinese prisoners brought to Hsiakwan and lined up along the river
6. According to document 6, list two ways prisoners were killed in Nanking.
One day Second Lieutenant Ono said to us, “You have never killed anyone yet, so today we shall have some killing practice. You must not consider the Chinese as a human being, but only as something of rather less value than a dog or cat. Be brave! Now, those who wish to volunteer for killing practice, step forward.”
No one moved. The lieutenant lost his temper.
“You cowards!” he shouted. “Not one of you is fit to call himself a Japanese soldier. So no one will volunteer? Well then, I’ll order you.” And he began to call out names, “Otani—Furukawa—Ueno—Tajima!” (My God—me too!)
I raised my bayoneted gun with trembling hands, and—directed by the lieutenant’s almost hysterical cursing—I walked slowly towards the terror-stricken Chinese standing beside the pit—the grave he had helped to dig. In my heart, I begged his pardon, and—with my eyes shut and the lieutenant’s curses in my ears—I plunged the bayonet into the petrified Chinese. When I opened my eyes again, he had slumped down into the pit. “Murderer! Criminal!” I called myself.
Source: Testimony of Japanese private named Tajima
7. According to document 7, how were the Japanese soldiers told to regard the Chinese?
The Tokyo War Crimes Trials (1946-1948)
Occupation official turned historian Richard B. Finn notes, "World War II was the first major conflict in history in which the victors carried out trials and punishment of thousands of persons in the defeated nations for 'crimes against peace' and 'crimes against humanity,' two new and broadly defined categories of international crime." For most people, this calls to mind the trials of Nazi war criminals at Nuremberg. But an equally difficult, fascinating, and controversial set of trials occurred in Tokyo, under the watchful eye of Supreme Commander Douglas MacArthur.
The Tokyo trials were not the only forum for the punishment of Japanese war criminals, merely the most visible. In fact, the Asian countries victimized by the Japanese war machine tried far more Japanese -- an estimated five thousand, executing as many as 900 and sentencing more than half to life in prison. But with Japan under the control of the Americans, the most prominent Japanese war leaders came under MacArthur's jurisdiction…
On January 19, 1946, MacArthur announced the establishment of the International Military Tribunal for the Far East (IMFTE), and a few weeks later selected its eleven judges from names submitted to him by the governments sitting on the Allied Far Eastern Commission. He also named Keenan the chief prosecutor and Australian Sir William Webb the tribunal's president. Twenty-eight high-ranking political and military leaders were indicted on 55 counts of "crimes against peace, conventional war crimes, and crimes against humanity."
8. According to document 8, list one new crime for which people were tried after WWII.
They would continue by raping the women and girls and killing anything and anyone that offered any resistance, attempted to run away from them or simply happened to be in the wrong place at the wrong time. There were girls under the age of 8 and women over the age of 70 who were raped and then, in the most brutal way possible, knocked down and beat up. We found corpses of women on beer glasses and others who had been lanced by bamboo shoots. I saw the victims with my own eyes—I talked to some of them right before their deaths and had their bodies brought to the morgue at the Kulo hospital so that I could be personally convinced that all of these reports had touched on the truth.
Source: Testimony of John Rabe, Nazi businessman living in the international “safe zone” of Nanking. He is known to have sheltered thousands of Chinese. He was reported appalled by the rape in the city (NB: and estimated 80,000 women were raped and then killed) In this report he writes to Hitler.
9. According to document 9, how did John Rabe confirm the reports in Nanking were true?
The United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights was adopted on December 10, 1948, by the United Nations General Assembly.
Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Article 1: All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood. . . .
Article 3: Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person. . . .
Article 7: All are equal before the law and are entitled without any discrimination to equal protection of the law. All are entitled to equal protection against any discrimination in violation of this Declaration and against any incitement to such discrimination. . . .
Source: United Nations
10. List one right all people possess according to document 10.